Yin Syndromes of Han Zhihe.

The Founder of Yin syndrome doctrine:Herbalist Wáng Hǎogǔ. ✵The Yin Syndromes is a collective term for interior, cold and deficiency syndromes with inhibitory, hypofunctional, quiescent or dimmed manifestations, or inward and downward symptoms, as well as diseases caused by pathogenic factors of Yin nature. On the other aspect, the Yang Syndromes is a collective term for the exterior, heat and excess syndromes with excitatory, hyper-functional, restless or bright manifestations, or outward and upward symptoms, as well as diseases caused by pathogenic factors of Yang nature. The earliest records and discussion of Yang syndrome and Yin syndrome could be traced back to ancient works Nei Jing(the Huangdi's Internal Canon).

 In the classification of the syndromes sequence from herbalist Zhāng Zhòngjǐng, the cold-induced disease are big diseases with very urgent symptoms, the Yin syndromes among them are especially severe and unfavorable priced, especially difficult to differentiate and treat, as an independent doctrine the Yin Syndrome theory was established since ancient herbalist Wáng Hǎogǔ who ever lived from the beginning year of the 13th century to the early of the 14th century, as the founder of the Yin syndrome doctrine, he inherited the discussions and explorations about Yin syndromes from previous ancient herbalists, and established it as an independent doctrine, opened the wisdom of herbalists from later generations.

Introduction.
 
 ✵韩祗和(Hán Zhīhé): physician of the northern song dynasty. He studied the theory of exogenous febrile disease(cold-induced disease) intensively. He studied Zhongjing's works Shang Han Lun(the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases) for more than 30 years, and wrote his works Shang Han Wei Zhi Lun(Essential points of the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases), two volumes with over 20,000 characters, promote the thought of Zhang Zhongjing and also has his innovations. The original book has been lost, now there is a compilation of it from the ancient works Yong Le Da Dian(The Yongle Canon). And he was respected by most later generations of herbalists.

 The main content introduced related are: General discussion of three Yin, Harmonization depends on time or seasons.

General discussion of three Yin by Han Zhihe.
 
 ✦General discussion of three Yin by Han Zhihe is introduced as:

 ✧Herbalist 韩祗和(Hán Zhīhé) discussed the three Yin are affected by cold, and three Yin syndromes, pulse manifestations and symptoms accordingly, and gave his viewpoints about its conditional application at the time of Song Dynasty. He proposed that ever since it was recorded in ancient works Nei Jing and detailed in Shang Han Lun, later shallow man do not know it but only said affect the exterior then could induce perspiration, affect the interior then could induce purgation, or say could not induce perspiration or could not induce purgation, but there was never a theory of warm the middle.

 ✧In the section of cold-induced disease cases of Zhongjing, it said: case Chi pulse and Cunkou pulse are all sinking and fine, the Tai Yin is affected; case Chi pulse and Cunkou pulse are all sinking, the Shao Yin is affected; case Chi pulse and Cunkou pulse are all weak and slow, the Jue Yin is affected.

  »It also differentiate Tai Yin syndrome:Tai Yin disease, pulse floating, could induce perspiration, better use... And case warm in hands and feet, uninhibited urination and not thirst, better use... And case fullness in abdomen and pains from time to time, better use...

  »And it also differentiates Shao Yin syndrome: Shao Yin syndrome, in the initial stage, fever and pulse sinking, use...And case Shao Yin syndrome, two to three days, use...And case Shao Yin syndrome, body pain, cold in hands and feet, joint pains, pulse sinking, use Fu Zi Tang decoction.

  »And Jue Yin syndrome, vomit and diarrhea, reverse cold in hands and feet, vexation restless and desire to die, use...

  »And Shao Yin disease, pulse sinking, should warm it urgently, better use...

 ✧Above listed entries from herbalist Zhang Zhongjing, are good methods for three Yin syndromes. The applications of this time till Song, still not completely. Ever identify it ever since beginning year of Zhi He(about the year 1054), over 30 years till now, set the not excess or inferior of seasonal Yun Qi(five evolutive phases and six climatic factors), before the Summer Solstice (10th solar term) of every year, there are patients of cold-induced disease, among ten of them there are seven or eight case, pulse of two hands both sinking fine and rapid, most observed symptoms fullness and oppression in chest and diaphragm, or vomit, or Qi blocking, or bowel sounding, or abdominal pain, compared with three Yin disease theory of Zhongjing, pulse manifestation is same but syndromes are not same, as a result, dare not use prescriptions of three Yin from Zhongjing. Only observe pulse sinking and fullness in chest and diaphragm, and use purgation method to discharge, normally should not save. Ever weigh and consider to use Li Zhongwan(Bolus for Regulating Middle Energizer) from Zhongjing and let take it, the case of mild condition feel comfortable in the chest, the case of the severe condition still feel the same fullness and oppression in the chest in half days. Or there is a case with pulse sinking fine and retarded, use Si Ni Tang of Zhongjing to warm it, mostly the potency of prescription is too hot, and later surely lead to vexation and restlessness. As consider and compare the syndromes and symptoms, set up new prescriptions to treat it, and get a proper prescription for the related syndromes. The epoch of Zhongjing was the end of the Han Dynasty, and the epoch of herbalist Han Zhihe was the period of the Song dynasty, time changed a lot.

  »Case two hands pulse sinking fine and rapid, or powerful, or powerless, or Guna pulse short and not powerful, blocking and oppression in chest and diaphragm, short of breath and inhale and exhale could not connect each other, could use warm middle prescriptions to treat it according to pulse and syndromes, this method is very agile.

  »Case two hands pulse sinking and slow(retarded), moderate or tight, are condition of cold in stomach. In case cunkou pulse short and less powerful than Guan pulse or Chi pulse is the case of Yin excess and Yang deficiency. Or blocking and oppression in chest and diaphragm, fullness and distension in abdomen, spasm or contraction of the body, reverse cold in hands and feet, should warm it(use warm method) urgently.

  »In date after the Beginning of Spring(the 1st solar term) and before Qing Ming(the Pure Brightness), better use...In date after Qing Ming and before Mang Zhong(the Grain in Ear), better use...In date after Mang Zhong and before Li Qiu(the Beginning of Autumn), better use...All apply according to seasons and time.

Harmonization depends on time or seasons.
 
 ✦Harmonization depends on time or seasons is introduced as:

 ✧Case two hands pulse sinking fine and powerless, although three parts pulse powerful and stopped, is also the case of Yin excess, and should not need to wait and treat when cunkou pulse short, or fullness and oppression in chest and hypochondria, body spasm and pain, reverse cold in hands and feet, better use warm recipes to harmonize it urgently.

 Above entry, "should not need to wait and treat when cunkou pulse short" sentence, should better be understood as three parts pulse sinking, is no cunkou pulse.

 ✧In date after the Beginning of Spring(the 1st solar term) and before Qing Ming(the Pure Brightness), better use...In date after Qing Ming and before Mang Zhong(the Grain in Ear), better use...In date after Mang Zhong and before Li Qiu(the Beginning of Autumn), better use...

 ✧Conclusion from herbalist 王好古(Wáng Hǎogǔ): As herbalist Zhang Zhongjing said it is warm disease(epidemic febrile disease) in spring, it is pyrexia in summer, it is great pyrexia in long summer, prescriptions should be applied to meridians with plus or minus, means harmonization depends on time or seasons. In case of syndrome comes not at the time accordingly, it is difficult to use related recipes, if use related recipes, means not according to time. As if the Beginning of Spring, the Pure Brightness, the Grain in Ear, the Beginning of Autumn, are the main Qi of the year, which determines the time or seasons. The main Qi affect and lead to disease, then only discuss the main Qi; the guest Qi affect and lead to disease, then only discuss the guest Qi; the main Qi and the guest Qi overcome each other, affected with each other between the Up and the Down, varies accordingly. The deficiency and excess of congenital body constitution is similar to it too.

References:
  • 1.Yin Syndromes of Han Zhihe.
  • 2.Shang Han Za Bing Lun:the Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases.By 张仲景(Zhāng Zhòngjǐng).
  • 3.Shang Han Wei Zhi Lun:the Essential points of the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases.By 韩祗和(Hán Zhīhé).
  • 4.Yin Zheng Lue Li(the Sketchy Cases of Yin Syndromes).By 王好古(Wáng Hǎogǔ).

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