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Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic)
the Difficult Classic(or the Classic of Questioning, or the Classic of Difficult Issues)
before the Han Dynasty
Introduction: ✵《難經》(Nan Jing), is also known as the Difficult Classic, or the Classic of Questioning, or the Classic of Difficult Issues, a book which appeared in the 1st and 2nd century B.C. or earlier, the authorship was unknown, although it was often ascribed to Qin Yueren, it was a famous ancient book and its origin has several legendary versions. It deals with those fundamental theories and expounds on the main points of the Huang Di Nei Jing(the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic) in the form of questions and answers. The points for acupuncture and moxibustion, the method of needling, the physiological and pathological conditions related to the meridians and collaterals, and the method of pulse-taking are all discussed.
The theory of the Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), proposed the pulse taken from the Cunkou(site for taking wrist pulse), to judge the syndromes of the internal, which is different from the the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic. The earliest edition of Nan Jing which is known today was possibly preserved by ancient herbalist Wang Shuhe.
The content of the Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), is composed of 81 articles and could be classified into 6 parts of its main subjects, and known include: the 1st part is about meridian, from 1 to 22, the 2nd part is about meridians and collaterals, from 23 to 29, the 3rd part is about Zang-Fu viscera, from 30 to 47, the 4th part is about Disease, from 48 to 61, the 5th part is about acupuncture points, from 62 to 68, the 6th part is about acupuncture, from 69 to 81.
The theory of the Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic), has some difference from the Huang Di Nei Jing(the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic), simply they are: the theory about Qi and Blood are based on different, was discussed in chapter 22; the theory about heart main for the triple energizer, with a name but incorporeal, was discussed in chapter 25; the theory about the left kidney and the right life-gate, was discussed in chapter 36 and 39; the theory that there are five types of Cold-induced disease, was discussed in chapter 58; the theory about the five-shu point(five transport points) and accumulation of meridians, to differentiate Yin Yang and the five elements, was discussed in chapter 64; the theory about east excess and west deficiency, discharge the south and supplement the north, was discussed in chapter 75; the theory about liver excess and the lung deficiency, was discussed in chapter 81. From these differences, the works Nan Jing(the Difficult Classic) had references and theories from other ancient classics which different from Nei Jing(the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic), and it could not be simply understood as a summary version book of Nei Jing(the Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic).
1.Introduction of Nan Jing:the Difficult Classic.
2.Huang Di Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing:the Eighty One Difficult Classics of the Yellow Emperor.By 秦越人(Qín Yuèrén).
3.Nan Jing Ji Zhu:the variorum of the Difficult Classics.By 王唯壹(Wáng Wéiyī),王九思(Wáng Jiǔsī).
4.Wu Ting Zi Su Jie Ba Shi Yi Nan Jing:Don't listen to the Eighty One Difficult Classics annotated by layman.By 熊宗立(Xióng Zōnglì).