Spleen deficiency and excess syndrome:introduction of its pathological reasons,syndrome differentiation and common syndromes.

Syndromes of Traditional Chinese Medicine. ✵Traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years. Through thousands of years of practice, it has been proved that Chinese medicine is effective and feasible in treating diseases, preventing diseases and maintaining health. The treatment of diseases with traditional Chinese medicine has saved countless lives. The treatment of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine is macro and comprehensive.

 The theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine is derived from and guided by long-term clinical practice. Through the analysis of the phenomenon, the internal mechanism is explored. Therefore, this unique theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine has two basic characteristics, one is the overall-concept, the other is the dialectical treatment.

Introduction of the Spleen viscus.
 
 ✵In the Traditional Chinese Medicine system, the spleen viscus is understood as a Zang-viscus. It is briefly introduced as:

 Spleen: the basis of the acquired constitution, the source of production and transformation of Qi and blood, in charge of transportation and transformation, pensiveness in emotions is related to the spleen, in the fluid related to the saliva, in the body, it coordinates with the muscle, main for the four limbs, open into the mouth, manifested in the lips, intolerant of dampness.

Spleen deficiency and excess syndrome.
 
 ✵The spleen deficiency is also known as spleen insufficiency, a general term for deficiency conditions of the spleen, generally refers to a series of pathological phenomena and syndromes of spleen physiological dysfunction caused by the deficiency of spleen Qi. There are various syndromes, mostly due to eating disorders, fatigue, and incontinence, or chronic illness.

 ✵The spleen excess, is also known as spleen excess heat syndrome.

Spleen Deficiency Syndrome.
Spleen Deficiency Syndrome 
 ✦The spleen belongs to the Earth in the five elements system, and it is the Yin aspect of the Yin among the five Zong-viscera Yin and Yang system. The spleen is the source of Qi and Blood. The spleen plays a very important role in the digestion and absorption of food, so almost all gastrointestinal diseases might observed or accompanied by spleen deficiency.

 1.The spleen Qi deficiency: Due to eating and drinking without temperance, or fatigue, or worry for a long time, hurt the spleen, insufficient resistance, weakness.

 2.The spleen Yang deficiency: Due to the deficiency of spleen Qi and further development, but also because of eating disorders, too much cold food, or because of taking too much cold medicine, hurt spleen Yang, or kidney Yang insufficiency.

 3.The spleen failing to control blood: the spleen Qi is deficient, could not control blood;

 ✧The common spleen deficiency syndromes are introduced as:

 Spleen Qi deficiency syndrome: a syndrome marked by dizziness, fatigue, sallow face, indigestion, abdominal distension, lassitude, anorexia, and loose bowels. The spleen Qi deficiency is a morbid condition characterized by Qi deficiency with impaired transforming and transporting function of the spleen, also known as Spleen Qi insufficiency.

 Spleen Yang deficiency syndrome: a syndrome marked by cold limbs, cold and pain in the abdomen, anorexia, abdominal fullness, chronic diarrhea, lassitude, emaciation, and edema. The spleen yang deficiency is a morbid condition characterized by the decline of the spleen yang with diminished warming action, also known as spleen yang insufficiency;

 Spleen Yin deficiency syndrome: a syndrome marked by anorexia, dryness of the lips and mouth, reddened tongue with scanty coating, and especially constipation with abdominal distension. The spleen Yin deficiency is a morbid condition ascribed to deficiency of fluid in the spleen;

 Spleen Qi sinking syndrome: a syndrome marked by bearing-down sensation in the epigastrium and abdomen, protracted diarrhea, even prolapse of the rectum or visceroptosis. The sinking of spleen Qi is a morbid condition characterized by weakness of the spleen with the sinking of the middle Qi.

 Spleen deficiency and vomiting: easy to vomit without care of food, vomit and stop, poor appetite, difficult to digest, epigastric distension, tastelessness and not thirsty, white face pale complexion with less glory, fatigue and lack in strength, pale tongue, tongue coating thin and white. The spleen deficiency and vomiting are mainly due to spleen weakness and stomach Qi counterflow upward. Therapeutic principle: should replenish the spleen, harmonize the stomach and relieve vomiting.

 Spleen deficiency and diarrhea: loose stools and diarrhea, repeated attack, diarrhea with undigested food, poor appetite(diet is reduced), feel oppression and uncomfortable after eating, defecation times increase once slightly taking greasy food, complexion yellow, mental fatigue and lassitude, pale tongue and white tongue coating. Spleen deficiency diarrhea is mainly due to spleen deficiency and dysfunction of the spleen in transportation, and dampness injects into the large intestine. Therapeutic principle: should invigorate the spleen, discharge the dampness, and relieve stop diarrhea.

 Spleen deficiency and edema: body swelling, severe below the waist region, not easy to recover after pressing, abdominal distension and full, poor appetite or reduced appetite(low food intake), pale complexion, mental fatigue and cold limbs, short of urination, pale tongue and tongue coating white and smooth. The spleen deficiency edema is mainly due to spleen deficiency and dysfunction of water metabolism, water and dampness overflow to the skin. Therapeutic principle: should warm spleen, using diuretic of hydragogue to alleviate water retention, eliminate edema.

 Spleen deficiency and bleeding: dark purple blood in the stool, or black, or bloody urine, vomiting blood, epistaxis and purple spots, mental fatigue and lack in strength, shortness of breath, low voice, pale face without glory, dizziness, pale tongue body, tongue coating thin white. The spleen deficiency and bleeding is the result of spleen Qi deficiency and lost blood control function. Therapeutic principle: should invigorate the spleen and invigorate Qi to control blood.

 Spleen deficiency and morbid leucorrhea: morbid leucorrhea, light yellow or white color such as saliva, no odor, pale yellow complexion, mental fatigue, no appetite(do not think about food), waist pain and stomach drop, or lower limbs edema, loose stool, etc. The spleen main for transfer water and dampness, spleen deficiency and such function weakened, accumulation of dampness and water injected downward, hurt the Ren and Belt vessel. Therapeutic principle: should replenish the spleen and benefit Qi, elevating Yang and eliminate dampness.

 Spleen deficiency and amenia:amenia, accompanied with poor appetite(low food intake), distention and fullness, loose stool and other symptoms. Mainly due to the spleen and stomach deficient and weak, lost health function of transfer, and hurt from diet and drink, appetite reduced gradually, lead to insufficiency in origin of energy and nutrients source, no enough blood flowing down to Chong and Ren and uterus and lead to menischesis. Therapeutic principle: should replenish the spleen and stomach, nourishing Qi and blood.

 Spleen deficiency and excessive salivation: mental fatigue and tired, yellow face complexion, much saliva and clear. Therapeutic principle: should replenish the spleen Qi and collect the body fluid.

 Spleen deficiency generates wind: slight spasm of hand and foot, cold limbs(cold in arms and legs, hands and feet), lethargic sleep with opening eyes, slight breath from mouth and nose are main symptoms. The spleen deficiency induce internal wind, mostly due to vomiting diarrhea or spleen hurt from medicine or eating. Therapeutic principle: should replenish the spleen and relieve the wind.

 Spleen deficiency like a ball: the upper and lower eyelid swelling, as the ball, no red pain, prefer to massage. It is mainly due to the deficiency of spleen with dampness or lack of Qi and blood, the deficient fire stagnant in the Qi phase. Therapeutic principle: should replenish the spleen and benefit the Qi, with herbs eliminating pathogens.

 Spleen deficiency generates fever: sallow yellow complexion(looks yellow and withered), mental fatigue and lassitude tired and idle, the upper and lower eyelid swelling, the tongue is pale with yellow greasy tongue coating, vexation thirst and cannot drink much, dander increased, speech powerless, urine short and red, tinnitus and spermatorrhea. It is mainly due to spleen asthenia and internal dampness stagnant, generate heat in a long period, without sufficient Qi and blood, water and dampness could not be transferred and eliminated, Yin asthenia and Yang excess. Therapeutic principle: should replenish the spleen and benefit Qi, nourish Qi and blood, aid with herbs clearing deficient heat, nourish kidney Yin.

 ✧The common spleen cold deficiency syndromes are introduced as:

 Spleen deficiency and swelling, pain in hypochondria region and panting, attack from now to then;

 Spleen deficiency cold, indigestion(food could not be digested), fatigue and lassitude, swelling and panting, sorrow worry and unhappy;

 Spleen deficiency cold, spleen Qi weakness, emaciation and thin, indigestion(food could not be digested);

 Spleen deficiency and weak, no appetite(could not take food);

 ✧The common spleen-stomach deficiency syndromes are introduced as the spleen-stomach deficiency syndrome is known Tai Yin and Yang Ming deficiency, suffering from empty in the stomach, Qi deficiency and short of breath, cold limbs, diarrhea unstoppable, is the syndrome of spleen-stomach deficiency.

 Abdomen swelling, want to vomit after diet, loose stool and diarrhea, dry mouth, heavy in limbs, easy to angry, do not want to hear other's voice;

 Spleen-stomach deficiency, suffering from hunger cold pain;

 Spleen-stomach deficiency, weakness and cold;

 Body heavy, no appetite(do not take food), tasteless, deficiency and full below the heart, want to defecate timely, like to sleep;

 Spleen-stomach deficiency, feel cold on body, poor appetite or no appetite;

Spleen Excess Syndrome.
Spleen Excess Syndrome 
 ✦The spleen excess is also known as spleen excess heat syndrome. Its main symptoms including cold in feet and heat on shanks, abdominal distention and fullness, vexation trouble could not sleep(upset, anxious, can not sleep), this is the syndrome of spleen excess.

 ✧The common syndromes of spleen excess are introduced:

 Tongue rigidity(stiffness of the tongue), or song and music in dreams, body heavy and could not walk;

 Spleen heat, yellow complexion(looks yellow) and red eyes, pain and fullness in hypochondriac region;

 ✦The spleen and stomach excess syndrome: symptoms spleen distention and hard abdomen, pain below the costal region, stomach Qi not flow smoothly, difficulty in defecation, sometimes diarrhea, pain in abdomen, counterflow upward and affect liver and lung, five Zang-viscera, frightened and body heat, no sweating, obstacle in throat and short of sperm, is the syndrome of spleen and stomach excess.

 ✧The common syndromes of spleen and stomach excess are introduced:

 Heat in abdomen and pains, stiffen tongue and abdomen swelling, body heavy, no appetite, acute pain in the spleen;

 Spleen heat and hypochondriac pain, heat and fullness could not rest, red eyes could not be relieved, dry and cracked lips;

 Spleen heat, pain on one side, full in the chest, swelling on one side of hypochondria;

References:
  • 1.Spleen deficiency and excess syndrome:introduction of its pathological reasons,syndrome differentiation and common syndromes.
  • 2.Su Wen:the Plain Questions of Huangdi's Internal Classic.By 黄帝(the Yellow Emperor).
  • 3.Mai Jing:The Pulse Classic.By 王叔和(Wáng Shūhé).
  • 4.Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun:the General Treatise on the Cause and Symptoms of Diseases.By 巢元方(Cháo Yuánfāng).
  • 5.Taiping Shenghui Fang:Peaceful Holy Benevolent Preions.By 王怀隐(Wáng Huáiyǐn).
  • 6.Pi Wei Lun,or Treatise on the Spleen and Stomach.By 李东垣(Lǐ Dōngyuán).
  • 7.Jing Yue Quan Shu:the Complete Works of Jing Yue.By 张景岳(Zhāng Jǐngyuè).

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