Kidney deficiency and excess syndrome:introduction of pathological reasons,syndrome differentiation and common syndromes.

Syndromes of Traditional Chinese Medicine. ✵Traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years. Through thousands of years of practice, it has been proved that Chinese medicine is effective and feasible in treating diseases, preventing diseases and maintaining health. The treatment of diseases with traditional Chinese medicine has saved countless lives. The treatment of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine is macro and comprehensive.

 The theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine is derived from and guided by long-term clinical practice. Through the analysis of the phenomenon, the internal mechanism is explored. Therefore, this unique theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine has two basic characteristics, one is the overall-concept, the other is the dialectical treatment.

Introduction of the Kidney viscus.
 
 ✵In the Traditional Chinese Medicine system, the Kidney viscus is understood as a Zang-viscus. It is briefly introduced as:

 Kidney: the foundation of the inborn constitution, stores essence, controls growth and development, in charge of reproduction, pertains to water, the root of Qi, fear in emotions is related to the kidney, in the fluid related to saliva, in the body governs the bones, controls the two private parts, manifested in the hair of the head, opens into the ears.

Kidney Deficiency and Excess Syndrome.
Kidney Deficiency and Excess Syndrome 
 ✵Kidney deficiency and excess syndrome: the kidney deficiency and excess syndrome are known including the kidney deficiency syndrome, or the kidney excess syndrome.

 ✵The kidney excess syndrome is normally kidney excess heat syndrome, left-hand upper part cunkou pulse Yin excess, is the foot Shao Yin, symptoms tongue dryness and swelling pharynx, vexation and dryness in throat(upset, dry pharynx), pain in chest and hypochondria, cough panting and perspiration(gasp for breath, sweating), distension fullness in lower abdomen, acute pain, stiff of low back and back, body heavy and bone heat, red-yellow urine, irritability(testiness, easy to anger) and amnesia(forgettery, poor memory), heat and pain at the bottom of the feet, dark or black limbs(dark or black on arms and hands, legs and feet), epicophosis(deaf), is the condition of kidney excess heat syndrome.

 ✵The kidney deficiency syndrome is normally kidney deficiency cold syndrome, right-hand Yin pulse feeble, is the foot Shao Yin, symptoms vexation in the heart, heavy at lower body part, feet edema, could not touch the ground, this is the condition of kidney deficiency cold syndrome.

Common Syndromes of Kidney Deficiency
Common Syndromes of Kidney Deficiency 
 ✦The common syndromes of kidney deficiency cold are introduced as:

 ✧Right-hand Yin pulse feeble, is the foot Shao Yin, symptoms vexation in the heart, heavy at the lower body part, feet edema, could not touch the ground, this is the condition of kidney deficiency cold syndrome.

 ✧Right-hand Yin pulse feeble, is the foot Shao Yin, symptoms weakness in shank(lower leg), aversion to cold, Pulse Dai no, not arrive, cold in feet, heavy in upper body part and light in lower body part, could not touch the ground in walking, distension fullness in lower abdomen, oppression chest upward, pain radiating to hypochondria, this is the condition of kidney deficiency cold.

 ✧Kidney Qi deficiency cold, Yin impotence, pain in low back and backbone, body heavy and weakness slowness, voice turbidity, Yang Qi exhaustion and collapse.

 ✦The kidney and the urinary bladder are in an interior-exterior relationship, the kidney deficiency might develop to kidney and urinary bladder deficiency syndrome. The kidney and urinary bladder deficiency syndromes are introduced as:

 ✧Left-hand Chizhong pulse Yin and Yang both feeble, is the foot Shao Yin and Tai Yang meridian deficiency, symptoms uninhibited urination, pain in the heart and cold in back, fullness in lower abdomen regularly, is the condition of kidney and urinary bladder both deficiency;

 ✧Right-hand Chizhong pulse Yin and Yang both feeble, is the foot Shao Yin and Tai Yang meridian deficiency, symptoms pain in the heart, heavy in the lower body part and not collect, on the contrary stretch out, Dong Xie(ancient syndrome name, diarrhea with much water, or defecation soon after take food), diarrhea in coldness(or diarrhea due to cold), pain in heart and kidney both, is the condition of kidney and urinary bladder both deficiency;

 ✦The five consumption and six exhaustion, seven hurt deficiency, all need replenish the kidney.The five consumption mainly affects the five-Zang viscera, the six exhaustion mainly affects the six-Fu viscera, the seven damages mainly from the exterior and interior. The five consumptions are consumption of wills, consumption of thinking, consumption of worry, consumption of heart, consumption of fatigue; The six exhaustion, are the exhaustion of Qi, exhaustion of blood, exhaustion of tendons, exhaustion of bone, exhaustion of marrow, exhaustion of essence. The seven damages, are liver damage and much dreams, heart damage and amnesia(easy to forget), spleen damage and prefer to drink, lung damage and easy to impairment or impotence, kidney damage and easy to spit, bone damage and easy to hunger, collateral damage and easy to cough. In conditions think far things and worry strongly hurt, sorrow regret sadness hurt, over happy and joy hurt, unrelieved anger and rage hate hurt, other emotional fluctuations all hurt.These are known as five consumptions, six exhaustions and seven damages. These conditions all need to replenish the kidney deficiency:

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage, acute pain in lower abdomen, deficiency of urinary bladder and fullness, cold limbs of hands and feet, spit sour phlegm and vomit retch in eating, diarrhea and weak breath, dizziness tinnitus(ringing in ears) and mouth parched(dry mouth, mouth burning), uninhibited urine;

 ✧Deficiency and weak breath, abdominal distension and incontinent(want to go to the toilet badly), spasm in lower abdomen and cold, could not lift or stretch out, no appetite(could not take food), alternating cold and fever with cephalea(headache), reversed cold limbs(cold limbs in syncope), difficulty in urination and defecation, or diarrhea again with dry mouth, seminal emission in dreams(nocturnal emission, wet dreams), or vomit retch and in a trance, withered complexion, and slightly swelling, ache pain in joints;

 ✧Five consumptions and seven damages, deficiency emaciation and insufficiency, dark complexion(look dark), pain in hands and feet, low back pain in long-standing, dizziness when stand up, abdominal pain with hurt, dragging pain radiating to limbs(dragging pain radiating to hands and feet);

 ✧Consumption and cold hurt, retained-fluid in the hypochondria, sounding after drink, affect the skin, dragging pain to two nipples, internal pain and abdominal pain(pain in lower abdomen or contraction of genital organ), easy to dreams and seminal emission(nocturnal emission, wet dream), short of breath(pant, breath hard), blurred vision, amnesia(easy to forget);

 ✧Five consumption and seven damages, pain in lower abdomen(or contraction of genital organ), swelling and distension of hypochondria, dragging pain of low back and back, dry nose and dry mouth, dim eyesight and blurred vision, unhappy, Qi counterflow in chest, no appetite(could not take food), phallalgia, yellow-red urine, dripping urine, communicate with ghosts and gods in dreams, seminal emission(spermatorrhea or nocturnal emission), pavor fears and deficiency fatigue;

 ✧Man or women, due to strains and consumptions, deficiency and weakness, or could not recover from serious illness, often suffering from sinking and powerless of limbs(feel heavy and lack of strength in arms and legs, hand and feet), ache pain in bones and muscles, weak breath, pant in movement(gasp for breath in activity), or cramping sensation of the lower abdomen, strong pain in low back and back, deficiency of heart and palpitation, dry pharynx and dry lips(dry throat, dry lips), not glory in appearance and complexion, or tasteless in diet or drink, weakness of Yin and Yang, or feel sorrow worry sad, much sleep and less wakeup, over years for chronic case, or over hundred days for mild case, gradually gaunt or very thin, Qi exhaustion in five Zang-viscera, it is not easy or difficult to recover;

 ✧Serious consumption strain and deficiency, alternating cold and fever, vomit, deficiency heat in the lower energizer, red urine and pain in urination, pathogenic heat affect the upper region, cephalea(headache) and pain in eyes, pain in bone and muscle, dry mouth;

 ✧Consumption or strain, abdominal pain(pain in lower abdomen or contraction of genital organ), various insufficiency;

  »Consumption, abdominal fullness and poor appetite(eat less food), much urine;

  »Great consumption and deficiency, pain in lower abdomen(or contraction of genital organ), strain cold dragging pain or spasm, Qi counterflow upward to chest, short of breath, wild talk or talk with mistakes, no appetite(could not take food), weak breath, vexation and in chaos;

  »Consumption deficiency, deficiency cold in lower energizer, serious diarrhea, thirst, frequent urine, or seminal emission;

  »Consumption strain, pain in the lower abdomen(or contraction of the genital organ), acute pain in the lower abdomen, Qi dragging pain radiating to chest and hypochondria, or pain in the heart and short of breath;

 ✧Consumption strain and insufficiency, irritable pain in limbs(irritable pain in legs arms hands and feet), no appetite(do not want to take food), distension after take food, perspiration(sweating);

  »Cosumption or strain, very tired and worn out, heavy in limbs(heavy in hands feet, arms and legs), or dry mouth, weak breath, uninhibited urination, various insufficiency;

  »Consumption of man, affected by wind-cold, or could not recover from serious illness and turn to strain or consumption, stiffness of the low back and back, pain in feet and weak, various deficiency;

  »Consumption or strain, weak breath, much urine;

  »Consumption or strain, exogenous pathogen stagnant in chest, cold and stagnant, indigestion, vomit, dampness and retained-fluid in hypochondria, bowel sounding, take food and could not grow muscle, cephalea(headache, pain in head), heavy in upper part and light in lower part, blurred vision, dryness-heat, uneasy in sleep, pain in lower abdomen(or contraction of genital organ), red urine, dripping in urine, could not erect in intercourse(impotence), dampness below the genital organ, or white cloudy urine, hurt from deficiency;

 ✧Consumption or strain, weak breath, cold in heart and chest, easy pavor, palpitation, reversed cold limbs(cold in hands and feet), often spontaneous sweating, various insufficiency and deficiency, deficiency hurt of five-Zang and six-Fu viscera, bowel sounding and wind dampness, disorder of Ying and Wei system, various conditions;

 ✧Consumption or strain, emaciation and tired, cough and short of breath(pant, gasp for breath), irritable pain in limbs(irritable pain in hands and feet, arms and legs), dragging pain in low back and back, tinnitus(ringing in ears), dark complexion(looks dark), heat in bones(general low fever, or bone steaming), urine color red-yellow, palpitation and dizziness, various deficiency and tired;

  »Serious deficiency and strain, nightmare or pavor in day time, rising of Qi, dyspnea with elevated shoulders, wind and dampness in kidney, pain in lower abdomen(or contraction of genital organ), pain radiating to low back and back bone, cold in limbs, uninhibited or inhibited of urination or defecation irregularly, red or white, slight swelling on feet, or dizziness in trance and amnesia(easy to forget);

  »Consumption or strain, kidney Qi insufficiency, ears could not hear;

 ✧Serious deficiency and insufficiency, frequent urination, gasp for breath, dryness and drink whole cups of water, fullness in the urinary bladder and want to pee;

 ✧Rsing of Qi in the left flank, fullness above the diaphragm, wind on the head as worms crawling, numbness of hands and feet, rhinobyon(nasal obstruction, stuffy nose), twitch or spasm of feet, could not stretch out and drawback, swelling and pain in eyes;

 ✧Deficiency of five-Zang viscera, exhaustion and short of breath, cough and hurt, depression and insufficiency;

 ✧Deficiency and short of breath(pant, gasp for breath), sputum condensed in pharynx and larynx could not spit out, as glue stick in the throat;

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage of man, counterflow in chest and fullness, weak breath and vomit, distension below two hypochondria, pain in the lower abdomen(or contraction of the genital organ), turning and extending pain unbearable and desire to die;

 ✧Five consumption and six exhaustion of man, in case of heart consumption, easy to pavor, capricious moods(subject to changing moods), in case of spleen consumption, fullness in abdomen and like to express anxiety or regret, want to sleep after diet, withered yellow complexion and eyes(looks withered yellow, and yellow eyes), in case of lung consumption, lack in essence, pain in low back and back, cold limbs; in case of liver consumption, deficiency in blood and dark complexion(looks dark or black); in case of kidney consumption, accumulation internally, fullness and numbness in lower abdomen low back and back, cough and spit sputum, difficulty in urination; the six exhaustion all due to serious consumption and feeble pulse, affected by exogenous wind, endogenous cold and heat, lead to ache and pain in hands and feet, cold below knees, thunder in abdomen, diarrhea regularly, alternating constipation or diarrhea, edema on face and eyes, worry in heart, do not want to speak, hate to hear other's voice;

 ✧Serious wind, limbs could not collect back, could not turn around, pain in shoulders, feel heavy body, pain in shanks and tendon swelling, could not walk, alternating cold and fever, pain in feet as cutting by knife, lost control in body, all due to serious wind attack after drink alcohol, sleep on damp ground, cold pathogen attack from lower part, cold below the waist, short of Qi and lack in essence, pulses cold, dampness below the genital organ, easy to let others unhappy, in a trance and easy to feel sorrow sad;(plus and minus cases: case of erection dysfunction, case of abdominal pain, case of pain in knees, case of weak breath, case of fall on ground and could not walk;)

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage of man, eight winds and two numbness, same suffering from winter to summer, emotional sorrow worry haggard(thin and pallid emaciation);

 ✧Consumption and exhaustion, Qi deficiency and weak breath, no appetite(or poor appetite, do not want to take food, or take less food), general low fever(bone steaming), Yin deficiency;

 ✧Consumption and deficiency, weak breath and lack in strength, various conditions of deficiency, aversion to cold and wind;

 ✧Consumption and seven hurt, are Yin decline, Essence clear, lack in essence, Yin exhaustion, dampness below the genital organ, pain in waist and hypochondria, pain and cold in knees, do not want to walk, bone steaming(general low fever), tears when looking at far distance, dry mouth, bowel sounding, irregular heat, urine dripping, phallalgia, or seminal emission, these are seven hurt;

 ✧Deficiency and hurt of kidney Qi, five consumption and seven hurt, ache and pain in low back and feet, pain in joints, dim eyesight and blurred vision, emotional changes happy or anger in heart, in a trance, much dreams in sleep, dry mouth when wake up, tasteless in diet, often unhappy, much anger and hate, erection dysfunction in intercourse, distension and fullness in heart and abdomen, pain and numbness in limbs and body, vomit sour liquid from mouth, cold Qi in lower abdomen, dripping urine, difficulty in defecation;(plus and minus cases: case of wind, case of Qi, case of cold, case of seminal emission, case of diarrhea, case of four seasons.)

 ✧Deficiency and strain of man or woman, dizziness and blurred vision, irritable pain in joints, poor appetite or no appetite(take less food or do not want to take food), thin and emaciation with various conditions;

 ✧Consumption and strain, deficiency of kidney Qi, low back pain and cold in genital organ, frequent urination, scrotum cold and damp, dripping urine, seminal emission, weak of genital organ and not erect, alternating happy and sorrow in emotions;

 ✧Consumption deficiency and emaciation of man or woman, hurt from cold and deficiency;

 ✧Consumption strain and deficiency, serious thirst and want to drink water, low back pain, contraction or spam in the lower abdomen, difficulty in urination;

 ✧Deficiency of kidney Qi, emaciated gradually, gasp for breath and weak breath, feel heavy of body, deaf and dim eyesight, various conditions;

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage, various deficiency and insufficiency, kidney Qi deficiency, blurred vision and dim eyesight, could not hear;

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage, Qi deficiency, weak breath, dampness itch below the genital organ, or sores, frequent urination, dripping urine, cold and pain in glans, seminal emission itself, pain in lower abdomen(or contraction of genital organ), pain around belly button, heavy in knees and could not stand long, blurred vision, tears in wind, ache in shank, decline and weakness of essence and Qi, sleep and do not want to wake up, reverse cold in limbs;

 ✧Five consumption six exhaustion and seven damages, carry heavy things or doing things with full strength or wills, sexual intercourse when marrow not filled after a serious illness, indigestion, stomach Qi unharmonized;

 ✧Five consumption and seven damages, things do not going smoothly to wills;

 ✧Consumption and strain hurt of five-Zang viscera, numbness of genital organs, dampness and itch below the genital organs or sores, phallalgia, dripping urine, limbs difficulty in stretching, exhaustion of Yang Qi, hurt of Yang vessels;

 ✧Five consumption six exhaustion and seven damage, weakness and deficiency of Zang-viscera and Fu-viscera, no appetite(could not take food), dark complexion(looks dark), hurt from eight winds;

 ✧Consumption and strain, stay in bed and unhealthy, itchy below the scrotum, sweating, dripping urine, rapid pain in penis(frequent phallalgia), urine often red-yellow in color, severe case seminal emission, suffering from vomit blood, blurred vision, tears in wind, cold in phallus, decline of essence and Qi, swelling on knees, could not stand for long, dizziness when standing up;

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage, emaciated and thin, not grow muscle after taking food;

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage, emaciation and lack in strength, extreme exhaustion;

 ✧Cold and wind affection, deficiency and consumption;

 ✧Cold due to consumption and strain, pain in bones, deficiency of Yang Qi, heat and pain below the genital organ;

 ✧Five consumption and seven damage of man or woman, maransis and emaciation, wind deficiency and cold, lack in strength, no glory in complexion(poor looks), difficulty in physical activity, suffering from bitterness in mouth and dry in pharynx(dry throat), uneasy in sleep, nightmare and pavor, various conditions;

Common Syndromes of Kidney Excess
Common Syndromes of Kidney Excess 
 ✦The common syndromes of kidney excess heat are introduced as:

 ✧Left-hand upper part cunkou pulse Yin excess, is the foot Shao Yin, symptoms tongue dryness and swelling pharynx, vexation and dryness in throat(upset, dry pharynx), pain in chest and hypochondria, cough panting and perspiration(gasp for breath, sweating), distension fullness in lower abdomen, acute pain, stiff of low back and back, body heavy and bone heat, red-yellow urine, irritability(testiness, easy to anger) and amnesia(forgettery, poor memory), heat and pain at the bottom of the feet, dark or black limbs(dark or black on arms and hands, legs and feet),epicophosis(deaf), is the condition of kidney excess heat syndrome.

 ✧Right-hand Yin pulse excess, is the foot Shao Yin, symptoms numbness, body heat and pain in the heart(general fever, or lower fever, heart pain), dragging pain in the back and hypochondria, cold feet and dysphoria with smothery sensation, is the condition of kidney excess heat syndrome.

 ✧Kidney excess heat, distension and fullness in lower abdomen, black or dark in four limbs(dark or black in arms and legs, hands and feet), epicophosis(deaf, could not hear), dream low back and antisternum and stay in water, shortness of breath;

 ✧Kidney excess heat, irritability(testiness, easy to anger) and amnesia(forgettery, poor memory), epicophosis(deaf, could not hear), fullness and pain in limbs(fullness or edema, pain in arms and legs, hands and feet), stiff of low back and back in turning around;

 ✧Kidney excess heat, yellow-red urine and difficulty in urination(or urine closed), urine discharged color as Cape jasmine juice(yellow), or color as Cortex Phellodendri juice(yellow), pain in glans when need to pee;

 ✦The kidney and the urinary bladder are in an interior-exterior relationship, the kidney excess might develop to kidney and urinary bladder excess syndrome. The kidney and urinary bladder deficiency syndromes are introduced as: Left-hand Chizhong pulse Yin and Yang both excess, is the foot Shao Yin and Tai Yang both excess, symptoms stiffness of back and bend back, hyperphoria with fixed eyeballs(Dai Yan), rising of Qi and oppress the heart, spinalgia(pain in the backbone), could not turn around on self, is the condition of kidney and urinary bladder excess syndrome; Right-hand Chizhong pulse Yin and Yang both excess, is the foot Shao Yin and Tai Yang both excess, symptoms insane(mentally deranged) and heavy head, dragging pain radiating to eyes, painful syncope and desire to die, reverse eyes, big wind and much perspiration, is the condition of kidney and urinary bladder excess syndrome;

References:
  • 1.Kidney deficiency and excess syndrome:introduction of pathological reasons,syndrome differentiation and common syndromes.
  • 2.Su Wen:the Plain Questions of Huangdi's Internal Classic.By 黄帝(the Yellow Emperor).
  • 3.Nan Jing:the Difficult Classic.By 秦越人(Qín Yuèrén).
  • 4.Mai Jing:The Pulse Classic.By 王叔和(Wáng Shūhé).
  • 5.Shengji Zonglu:the General Records of Holy Universal Relief.By 赵佶(Zhào Jí),etc.
  • 6.Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun:the General Treatise on the Cause and Symptoms of Diseases.By 巢元方(Cháo Yuánfāng).

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