Gasping:Panting or Asthma, an introduction about its etiology and pathogenesis, syndrome differentiation, common syndromes and main symptoms.

Syndromes of Traditional Chinese Medicine. ✵Traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years. Through thousands of years of practice, it has been proved that Chinese medicine is effective and feasible in treating diseases, preventing diseases and maintaining health. The treatment of diseases with traditional Chinese medicine has saved countless lives. The treatment of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine is macro and comprehensive.

 The theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine is derived from and guided by long-term clinical practice. Through the analysis of the phenomenon, the internal mechanism is explored. Therefore, this unique theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine has two basic characteristics, one is the overall-concept, the other is the dialectical treatment.

Gasping(Panting)
Gasping:Panting 
 ✵Gasping(Panting or Asthma): Gasping or Panting is a kind of syndrome due to exogenous or endogenous injury, bring symptoms that impairment of dispersing and descending function of the lung, adverse rising of pulmonary Qi, no master of Qi, kidney loses the governing and collecting function, as a result, breathes difficult, even open mouth or lift shoulder, nares flaring, cannot lie down, etc. In severe cases, panting may develop to the collapse syndrome caused by dyspnea. Ancient literature also called gasping or panting as Bi Xi(nasal breath), Jian Xi(shoulder breath), Shang Qi(rising of Qi), Ni Qi(adverse rising qi), Chuan Cu(a syndrome characterized by dyspnea).

 Panting is a common disease, but also can be seen in the process of a variety of acute and chronic diseases, traditional Chinese medicine has a systematic theory of Panting, accumulated rich experience in treatment, with the correct syndrome differentiation, has a significant therapeutic effect.

 There are many discussions on panting or asthma in the ancient works Nei Jing(Huangdi's Internal Classic.). As it is discussed in the Ling Shu(the Spiritual Pivot of Huangdi's Internal Classic)., that asthma mainly affects the lung viscus, and symptoms are shortness of breath, nasal flaps, and elevated shoulders. Su Wen(the Plain Questions of Huangdi's Internal Classic) pointed out that the etiology of panting or asthma has both exogenous affections and endogenous injury, and its types are excess or deficient, indicates that although panting or asthma is mainly affect the lung, it is also involved other Zang-viscera.

 Asthma or panting is named after the symptoms of the disease, is an independent disease, but also a symptom from the process of a variety of acute, chronic disease, if accompanied by other diseases, should be treated with the principle of other syndromes too.

 ✵Etiology and Pathogenesis: The etiology of asthmatic syndrome or panting is very complicated, exogenous pathogen is invaded, food is not proper, emotions and wills is in disorder, consumption from sex strain and chronic illness all could be the etiology of asthmatic or panting syndrome, cause lung lost descending, rising of Lung Qi or Qi lost governing, kidney loses governing and collecting and develop to asthmatic syndrome or panting:(1).Exogenous pathogen invades,(2).Improper diet,(3).Emotional disorders,(4).Long illness.

 There are two kinds of pathological reasons for asthma or panting. The excess asthma(excess panting) in the lung, mainly due to exogenous pathogens, sputum turbidity, liver stagnation depression and Qi inverse, lung obstruction pathogenic Qi and difficulty in descending; The deficient asthma(deficient panting) normally due to the lung and kidney viscera, because essence and Qi is insufficient, Qi and Yin are in depletion and exhausted, lung could not master Qi, kidney does not accept Qi.

 ✵Manifestations: The symptoms of asthma or panting due to rising of lung Qi, lost descending, or kidney lost collecting and taking, are dyspnea, even opening the mouth and lifting the shoulders, nares flaring, unable to lie down, are known shared symptoms of various panting or asthma syndromes, are the characteristic symptoms of asthma or panting.

 Dyspnea or difficulty breathing is a characteristic symptom of asthma or panting, with different level manifestations. In the mild conditions observe breath urgent only, exhalation inspirates deep, still can lie on back. In the severe conditions observe nares flaring, open mouth and lift the shoulder, shake body and hold belly, sit upright for breathing, face and lip color cyanosis. In the urgent conditions breath deep and laborious, with exhaling quick, the chest is full of stuffy, even the chest is full and dependent on breathing, voice is high and breathing is surging, asthma has nothing to do with labor and posture. The chronic case normally with symptoms breath is weak and shallow and feeble, prefer to a deep breath, voice low and breath is short, aggravating in movement, wheeze is related apparently with labor and posture. If the condition is critical and serious, shortness of breath continued, also might observe cold limbs and perspiration, body temperature and blood pressure quickly decreasing, palpitations and flustered, face blue lips purple symptoms of collapse syndrome caused by dyspnea.

 ✵Diagnosis:(1). It is characterized by dyspnea, reversed the flow of qi, difficulty in breath, even open mouth, lift shoulders, nasal flaps, inability to lie flat, bluish lips and mouth.

 (2). Most have a chronic cough, wheeze, lung consumption, palpitations, and other history, and induced once encounter exogenous affections and fatigue.

 (3). Dry and wet retch sound or wheezing sounds are heard from both lungs.

 ✵Syndrome differentiation and treatment:

 (1). Distinguish the location of the disease, for asthma or panting which is caused by exogenous pathogen, turbid phlegm, liver depression stagnation and rising of Qi, the location of the disease is in the lung, for the pathogen blocking the lung Qi; Asthma or panting caused by long illness and desire strain, disease is mainly in the lung and kidney, if aversion to wind and spontaneous perspiration(involuntary sweating), easy to catch a cold is the lung deficiency, if accompanied by ache and softness in waist and knees, much urine at night is in the kidney.

 (2). Distinguish the excess or deficiency better according to the breath, sound, pulse, disease development and so on. Breathing deep and abundant, exhaling fast, rough voice, accompanied by sputum sounding cough, pulse strong is asthma or panting of excess type; Shortness of breath and difficult to continue, deep inhale, fearsome and low voice, phlegm sounding cough not much, pulse weak is asthma or panting of deficient type.

 Asthma is mostly developed from other diseases. Active treatment of the primary disease is the key to block the development of the disease and improve the efficacy.

Common syndromes of panting or asthma.
Common syndromes of panting or asthma. 
 ✦Asthma or panting syndromes of excess type:

 ✧Asthma or panting of the wind and cold closes the lungs type:

 Symptoms: panting, shortness of breath, distension and oppression in the chest, cough, thin white sputum and much, with cephalea(headache), nasal congestion, no sweat, aversion to cold, or with fever, not thirsty, tongue coating thin white and slippery, pulse floating tight.

 ✧Asthma or panting of the phlegm heat inhibit the lungs type:

 Symptoms: panting and coughing, rising of Qi, swelling pain in chest, much sputum and phlegm viscous yellow color, or with blood color, accompanied by irritable feverish sensation in chest, red face and body heat, sweat out thirsty and prefer to cold drink, dry in pharynx(dry throat), urine color red, or stool constipated, tongue coating yellow or greasy, pulse slippery and rapid.

 ✧Asthma or panting of sputum turbidity obstruction of the lungs type:

 Symptoms: panting and chest full of suffocating, or chest full and dependent on breath, cough with much sputum sticky and color white, difficulty in cough and spit, both with the nausea and reduced appetite(vomiting or throw up, low food intake), sticky in mouth and not thirsty, tongue coating thick greasy and color white, pulse slippery.

 ✧Asthma or panting of fluid-retention invasion the heart and lung type:

 Symptoms: panting and cough, rising of Qi, dyspnea and difficult to lie flat, cough up phlegm thin and white, palpitations, edema on face and limbs or body, urinate volume less, aversion to cold and cold limbs, face and lips blue or purple, tongue fat and dark, tongue coating white slippery, pulse sinking and fine.

 ✧Asthma or panting of Liver Qi exploiting the lungs type:

 Symptoms: encounter emotional stimulation and induced, the onset of sudden, shortness of breath, raucous breathing and breathlessness, chest oppression tightness and chest pain, suffocating in pharynx, cough phlegm sounding not obvious, similar to healthy condition after panting, or insomnia(loss sleep), palpitations, often more depression and much thinking worry sorrow, tongue coating thin, pulse string-like.
 ✦Asthma or panting syndromes of deficient type:

 ✧Asthma or panting of the Lung Qi deficiency type:

 Symptoms: dyspnea and shortness of breath, fright due to deficiency of Qi and timid voice, throat snoring, cough voice low and weak, thin sputum, spontaneous sweating and fear wind, very easy to catch a cold, tongue color pink, pulse soft and weak.

 ✧Asthma or panting of the kidney deficiency type:

 Symptoms: dyspnea and shortness of breath for a long time, breathing short and rapid, exhale more and inhale less, dyspnea in movement or sports, breathing could not continue(exhale and inhale could not connect with eachother), aconuresis or urine incontinence often due to serious cough, or dribbling after urine, shape thin and spiritlessness(exhausted or weariness), face blue and cold limbs(looks bluish on face, cold in arms hands and legs feet), or with feet swelling, pale tongue and tongue coating thin, pulse weak fine or sinking weak.

 ✧Asthma or panting of collapse syndrome caused by dyspnea type:

 Symptoms: severe dyspnea or panting, open mouth and lift shoulders, nares flaring, sitting upright to breath can not lie flat(lie on back), panting turn serious and will collapse in a little movement, or have phlegm sounding, cough and spit out sputum in foams, flustered and palpitation, dysphoria(irritable, uneasy), face bluish and lips purple, sweat such as beads, cold limbs(cold in arms hands and legs feet), pulse floating big and rootless, or pulse stopped, or unclear.

The prognosis of asthma or panting.
The prognosis of asthma or panting. 
 ✦The prognosis of asthma or panting is introduced as:

 ✧The prognosis of asthma has different results which depend on the nature and treatment of asthma. In general, the excess syndrome of asthma or panting for a long time, could develop from excess to deficient type, or deficient type asthma or panting affected by pathogen again and turn to deficient with excess syndrome, excess at the upper and deficient at the lower; In the condition of asthma or panting due to phlegm turbidity, there is transformation of heat and cold due to therapeutic reasons. Asthma or panting for a long time, because lung Qi can not regulate the heart collaterals, lung Qi can not transport and spread body fluid, often lead to phlegm stasis and stagnation due to asthma, phlegm stagnation aggravating asthma again. Over time, asthma or panting can develop to lung-distention(the lung distension is mainly due to lobi pulmonis distention for long period and not collect, resulting in distention and oppression in the chest, cough and spit sputum, shortness of breath and dyspnea, lips and tongue color turn purple.).

 Asthma or panting is a critical disease, but its prognosis is not the same. Generally speaking, the excess type of asthma is due to pathogen obstruction. As long as the pathogen is removed, it is easy to be cured, but if the pathogen is very serious, high fever, dyspnea and could not lie flat, the pulse is urgent and rapid, it is serious, the prognosis is not good. The deficient type asthma or panting is due to unsolid of the root and primordial, Qi decline and lost its intake and collecting functions, invigorating could not be effective in short period, so treatment is difficult; If deficient asthma or panting affected by new pathogen again, and pathogen is more serious, then the prognosis is poor; If it develops to collapse syndrome caused by dyspnea(Chuan Tuo), deficiency at lower and excess at upper, Yin and Yang depart from each other, sole Yang floating, the condition is very dangerous, should actively rescue, might save it with a very small chance and lucky.

The prevention and control of asthma or panting.
The prevention and control of asthma or panting. 
 ✦The prevention and control of asthma or panting are introduced as:

 ✧Beware of wind and cold, give up the addiction of smoking and alcohol, the diet should be light, avoid eating hot spicy stimulating food and sweet sticky greasy diet. In daily life should regulate the mood emotion and wills, those who suffer from asthma or panting due to emotions, especially need to be happy, to avoid bad stimulation. Strengthen physical exercise, improve the body's ability to resist diseases, help to prevent the occurrence of asthma or panting.

 Asthmatic disease in the attack, should rest in bed, or half-lie down to rest, give oxygen adequately. Observe the change of illness closely, keep indoor air fresh, avoid stimulation of physical and chemical factors, do a good job in preventing cold and keeping warm, the diet should be light and rich in nutrition, eliminate tension.

References:
  • 1.Gasping:Panting or Asthma,an introduction about its etiology and pathogenesis,syndrome differentiation,common syndromes and main symptoms.
  • 2.Ling Shu:the Spiritual Pivot of Huangdi's Internal Classic.By 黄帝(the Yellow Emperor).
  • 3.Su Wen:the Plain Questions of Huangdi's Internal Classic.By 黄帝(the Yellow Emperor).
  • 4.Shang Han Lun:the Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases.By 王叔和(Wáng Shūhé).
  • 5.Jin Kui Yao Lue Fang Lun:the Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber.By 张仲景(Zhāng Zhòngjǐng),王叔和(Wáng Shūhé),林亿(Lín Yì),高宝衡(Gāo Bǎohéng).
  • 6.Danxi Xinfa:the Mastery of Medicine.By 朱丹溪(Zhū Dānxī).
  • 7.Jing Yue Quan Shu:the Complete Works of Jing Yue.By 张景岳(Zhāng Jǐngyuè).
  • 8.Lin Zheng Zhi Nan Yi An:A Guide to Clinical Practice with Medical Records.By 叶桂(Yè Guì).
  • 9.Lei Zheng Zhi Cai:Treatment of Different Kinds of Diseases.By 林佩琴(Lín Pèiqín).
  • 10.Zheng Zhi Hui Bu:the Compensation for Syndrome.By 李用粹(Lǐ Yòngcuì).

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