Emesia:introduction of its pathological reasons,syndrome differentiation and common syndromes.

Syndromes of Traditional Chinese Medicine. ✵Traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years. Through thousands of years of practice, it has been proved that Chinese medicine is effective and feasible in treating diseases, preventing diseases and maintaining health. The treatment of diseases with traditional Chinese medicine has saved countless lives. The treatment of diseases in traditional Chinese medicine is macro and comprehensive.

 The theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine is derived from and guided by long-term clinical practice. Through the analysis of the phenomenon, the internal mechanism is explored. Therefore, this unique theoretical system of traditional Chinese medicine has two basic characteristics, one is the overall-concept, the other is the dialectical treatment.

Emesia(throw up).
Emesia 
 ✵Emesia(throw up): the emesia, is commonly known as vomiting or throw up, or Ou Tu, a syndrome name of traditional Chinese medicine. It is a disease caused by the stomach loss harmonization and descending, Qi counterflow upward, force the stomach to vomit out from the mouth, which can appear in the course of many diseases.

 ✵The name of Ou Tu was firstly found in ancient works NeiJing, and it gave a detailed discussion of its pathogenic reasons, the Plain Question recorded: "the cold pathogen hosted in the intestines and stomach, counterflow upward, thus painful and vomit.", and "various kinds of vomiting acid liquid...due to heat pathogen." The ancient works Jin Kui Yao Lue gave a detailed discussion of its syndromes and understood that vomiting is a kind of protective reaction of the human body to expel harmful substances from the stomach, for example, it recorded: "for the cases vomiting with pus carbuncle, should not treat vomiting, should treat pus and carbuncle, once pus eliminated the vomiting will be relieved too." The ancient works Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun(General Treatise on the Cause and Symptoms of Diseases) ever pointed out that vomiting id due to counterflow upward of the stomach Qi.

 ✵In general, the pathogenic reasons of the emesis could be attributed to:

 (1).Exogenous pathogen affects the stomach,(2).Improper diet(eating and drinking without temperance),(3).Emotional disorders(emotional maladjustment),(4).Deficiency after disease.

 ✵Pathogenesis: vomiting mainly affects the stomach, but has a close relationship with the liver and spleen. The basic pathogenesis of the disease is gastric disorder(the stomach lost harmonization and descending function), gastric Qi counterflow upward. The pathological nature are two types excess or deficiency, the excess type is mainly due to exogenous pathogen, food stagnation, phlegm retention, liver Qi and other pathogen invading the stomach, as a result of the stomach Qi stagnation and blocking, disorders of ascending and descending, Qi counterflow upward and vomiting nausea; Deficiency type is mainly due to spleen and stomach Qi and Yin deficiency, abnormal in transformation, lost harmonization and descending.

 ✵Pathological development: the initial stage is mostly excess type, vomiting for a long time, injury to the spleen and stomach, spleen and stomach weakness, can be developed from the excess type to deficiency type. There are also weak spleen and stomach, due to diet injuries, and show syndromes of deficiency with excess natures.

Common Excess Syndromes of Emesia.
Common Excess Syndromes of Emesia. 
 ✦The common excess syndromes of emesia are introduced as:

 ✧1. Exogenous pathogen invade the stomach type emesia

 Symptoms: sudden vomiting, chest full and tightness, fever and aversion to cold, cephalea(headache) and body pain, tongue coating white and greasy, pulse soft and slow.

 ✧2. Food stagnation internally type emesia

 Symptoms: vomiting acid and decay, abdominal fullness and distention, belching and anorexia(do not want to take food), loose stool or constipated, tongue coating thick and greasy, pulse slippery and forceful.

 ✧3. Phlegm drink blocking internally type emesia

 Symptoms: vomiting clear liquid sputum saliva, oppression in abdomen and no appetite(do not want to take food), dizziness and palpitations, tongue coating white greasy, pulse slippery.

 ✧4. Liver Qi invading the stomach type emesia

 Symptoms: vomiting and swallowing sour liquid, frequent belching, swelling pain in chest and hypochondria regions, tongue color red, tong coating thin and greasy, pulse string-like.

Common Deficiency Syndromes of Emesia.
Common Deficiency Syndromes of Emesia. 
 ✦The common deficiency syndromes of emesia are introduced as:

 ✧1. Deficiency of spleen and stomach Qi type emesia

 Symptoms: poor appetite or loss of appetite(do not want to take food), food difficulty to be digested and transformed, nausea and vomiting, oppression in epigastric and abdomen regions, difficulty in defecation, tongue coating white and greasy, pulse feeble and string-like.

 ✧2. Deficiency of spleen and stomach Yang type emesia

 Symptom: take a little more food and vomit immediately, affect irregularly, white or pale complexion(looks white or pale), lassitude and lack of energy(fatigue, powerless), fond of warm and aversion to cold(fear cold, like warm), not warm in limbs, mouth is dry and do not want to drink, loose and thin stool, pale tongue, pulse soft and weak.

 ✧3. Insufficient stomach Yin type emesia

 Symptoms: vomiting repeated attack, or dry vomiting sometimes, similar as hunger but no appetite(do not want to take food), dry mouth and pharynx(dry mouth, dry throat), red tongue with less saliva fluid, pulse fine and rapid.

Other Syndromes of Emesia.
Other Syndromes of Emesia. 
 ✦The other common syndromes of emesia are introduced as:

 ✧Qi counterflow upward, vexation and oppression in heart, fullness and vomiting;

 ✧Alternating cold and heat, vomiting and emsia, short of breath, accumulation below the heart, fullness and could not take food, cold heat and consumption thirst(alternating cold and heat,frequent drinking and urination);

 ✧Emesia, cold limbs, Qi counterflow upward and heat on abdomen, irregular triple energizer;

 ✧Emedia, unstoppable;

 ✧Emesia, cold at region above the diaphragm;

 ✧Emesia, stomach Qi deficiency, affected by wind and heat pathogen, no appetite(could not take food);

 ✧Affected by seasonal cold pathogen in spring and summer, cold affect the stomach, stomach cold and emesia;

 ✧Emesia and vomiting, hard below the heart, water phlegm stagnant between the diaphragm, dizziness and palpitation;

 ✧Emesia with Qi counterflow upward, unstoppable;

 ✧Dry emesia, and cold in limbs(cold in hands and feet);

 ✧Emesia after cold-induced disease, dysemesia(retching), no appetite(could not take food);

 ✧Dysmesia(dry retching), vomiting and Qi counteflow upward, spit saliva and sputum;

 ✧Dysmesia(dry retching), vomit out food soup or herb decoction, unstoppable;

 ✧Emesia, vomit out food immediately after diet;

References:
  • 1.Emesia:introduction of its pathological reasons,syndrome differentiation and common syndromes.
  • 2.Su Wen:the Plain Questions of Huangdi's Internal Classic.By 黄帝(the Yellow Emperor).
  • 3.Jin Kui Yao Lue Fang Lun:the Synopsis of Prescriptions of the Golden Chamber.By 张仲景(Zhāng Zhòngjǐng),王叔和(Wáng Shūhé),林亿(Lín Yì),高宝衡(Gāo Bǎohéng).
  • 4.Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun:the General Treatise on the Cause and Symptoms of Diseases.By 巢元方(Cháo Yuánfāng).

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