Introduction of the Eight-principle syndrome differentiation.
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✵The main content including: the introduction of the most famous and talented Ancient Herbalists and Distinguished Physicians, the most influential and Well-Known Ancient Works, common Diagnostic Methods, the introduction of Common Disease and Syndromes, etc.
✵The Syndrome Differentiation of TCM is the process of an overall analysis of data to determine the location, cause, and nature of a person's syndrome and achieve a diagnosis of a syndrome or pattern.
Introduction of Eight-principle syndrome differentiation.
Introduction: The eight-principle syndrome differentiation, also known as eight-principle pattern identification, is the the process of diagnosis a syndrome(or pattern) by analyzing the patient's condition according to the eight principles. i.e., differentiating the location of a disease between exterior and interior, distinguishing the nature of a disease between cold and heat, identifying the patient's condition as deficiency or excess, and generalizing the syndrome or pattern as yin or yang.
Introduction of the syndromes of the Eight-principle.
Introduction: The syndromes of the eight-principle is a collective term for diseases(or syndromes) of the eight-principle, exterior and interior, cold and heat, deficiency or excess, yin or yang.
✵Yin and Yang: two basic principles for the categorization of syndromes or patterns, including the categorization of the remaining principles, e.g., interior, cold, and deficiency pertaining to yin, and exterior, heat, and excess pertaining to yang.
✦Yin syndrome: a collective term for interior, cold and deficiency syndromes with inhibitory, hypofunctional, quiescent or dimmed manifestations, or inward and downward symptoms, as well as diseases caused by pathogenic factors of yin nature.
✧Yang syndrome: a collective term for the exterior, heat and excess syndromes with excitatory, hyperfunctional, restless or bright caused by pathogenic factors of yang nature.
✵Exterior and Interior: parts of the body, the exterior referring to the skin and body hair, subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and superficial meridians, and the interior referring to internal viscera and bone marrow. An exogenous affliction only involving the exterior is usually milder than that penetrating into the interior.
✦Exterior syndrome: a general term for syndromes that occur chiefly at the early stage of exogenous afflictions or acute infectious diseases invading the human body through the skin surface or respiratory tract and affecting the exterior part of the body.
✧Interior syndrome: a general term for syndromes that indicate the existence of the disease in the zang-fu viscera, Qi and blood, or bone marrow.
✵Cold and Heat: a pair of principles for differentiating the nature of disease.
✦Cold syndrome: a general term for syndromes caused either by exogenous cold factors or by insufficient yang within the body.
✧Heat syndrome: a general term for syndromes resulted either from yang prevalence or from yin deficiency.
✵Deficiency or Excess: is also known as insufficiency or excessiveness, a pair of principles for determining the condition of the body resistance to pathogenic factors. Deficiency denotes insufficiency of normal Qi, while excess indicates the presence of excessive pathogenic factors with intense body reaction or the accumulation of pathological products due to dysfunction of the internal viscera.
✦Deficiency syndrome: a general term for syndromes caused by insufficiency of normal Qi(including yang Qi, yin fluid, essence, blood, nutrients, and defensive Qi).
✧Excess syndrome: a general term for syndromes caused by exogenous pathogenic factors or by accumulated pathological products due to dysfunction of internal viscera, such as phlegm, retained fluid, stagnant blood, and undigested blood.
✦Exterior cold syndrome: a type of exterior syndrome in which the external part of the body is attacked by exogenous cold or wind, manifested by chills or aversion to cold or wind, headache, general aching or joint pains, thin and white tongue coating, and floating and tense pulse.
✧Exterior heat syndrome: a type of exterior syndrome in which the external part of the body is attacked by exogenous wind-heat, manifested by mild aversion to wind, moderate fever, headache, slight thirst, thin white or thin yellowish tongue coating or red tip of the tongue, and floating rapid pulse.
✦Exterior deficiency syndrome: a type of exterior syndrome resulted from lowered superficial defense Qi, and manifested by spontaneous sweating, intolerance of wind, and floating feeble pulse.
✧Exterior excess syndrome: an exterior syndrome with the forceful or light floating pulse and no sweating, showing the external part of the body being attacked by exogenous pathogens, yet the patient's defense Qi is not damaged.
✦Interior cold syndrome: a type of interior syndrome caused either by endogenous cold, i.e., deficiency of yang or by exogenous cold transmitted to the interior of the body, mainly manifested by intolerance of cold, pallor, cold limbs, pale tongue with white moistened coating, and deep, slow or fine pulse.
✧Interior deficiency-cold syndrome: an interior cold syndrome resulting from yang deficiency.
✦Interior heat syndrome: a type of interior syndrome caused by pathogenic heat in the internal viscera, especially in the stomach, intestines, lung, liver and gallbladder, mainly manifested by fever, intolerance of heat, thirst, irritability, scanty and condensed urine, full, rapid and forceful or taut pulse, and reddened tongue with yellow coating.
✦Interior deficiency: a general term for deficiency of Qi, blood, yin, and yang of the internal viscera.
✧Interior excess syndrome: (1).syndrome caused by accumulated heat in the stomach and intestines after an attack of exogenous pathogenic factors;(2).syndrome caused by retention of phlegm, blood, stasis, accumulation of undigested food or parasitic worms.
✦Dual exterior-interior syndrome: (1).coexistence of exterior and interior syndromes;(2).syndromes involving both the exterior and the interior.
✧Exterior-cold and interior-heat syndrome: a complicated condition seen either in cases with pre-existing internal head and affected by exogenous cold and wind in addition, or in cases with the transformation of exogenous cold into heat after having penetrated into the interior of the body while the pathogenic cold in the exterior of the body is still present. Its main symptoms are the coexistence of both exterior cold(chills and headache with no sweating) and interior heat(fever with irritability, thirst, scanty condensed urine, and constipation).
✦Exterior-heat and interior-cold syndrome: jumbled case with pre-existing deficiency-cold of the spleen and stomach, affected by wind-heat, with symptoms showing the coexistence of exterior heat(fever, headache, and intolerance of wind) and internal cold(cold limbs, loose bowels, etc.)
✧Exterior-deficiency and interior-excess syndrome: jumbled case in which symptoms of exterior deficiency such as intolerance of wind and spontaneous sweating exist together with symptoms of interior excess such as abdominal pain with tenderness and constipation.
✦Exterior-excess and interior-deficiency syndrome: jumbled case in which symptoms of exterior excess such as chills, headache, and general aching exist together with symptoms of interior deficiency such as anorexia, lassitude, palpitation, and shortness of breath, usually seen in chronic disease complicated with new exogenous affliction.
✧Half-exterior and half-interior syndrome: syndrome due to affliction located between the exterior and interior of the body, marked by alternate fever and chills, fullness and choking feeling in the chest and costal region, bitter taste in the mouth, dry throat, nausea and loss of appetite, and taut pulse. The Shaoyang meridian syndrome belongs to this category.
✦Upper-cold and lower-heat syndrome: jumbled case in which cold symptoms in the upper(e.g. aversion to cold, nausea and vomiting) exist together with heat symptoms in the lower(e.g. constipation, scanty and condensed urine.)
✧Upper-heat and lower-cold syndrome: jumbled case in which heat symptoms in the upper(e.g. acid regurgitation with annoying sensation of heat in the chest) appear simultaneously with cold symptoms in the lower(e.g. loose stool and abdominal pain which can be eased by warmth).
✦Upper-deficiency and lower-excess syndrome: a jumbled case with deficiency of normal Qi in the upper and preponderance of pathogenic factors in the lower part of the body, e.g., a case of cardiac palpitation due to heart insufficiency complicated by damp-heat dysentery.
✧Upper-excess and lower-deficiency syndrome: jumbled case with deficiency of normal Qi in the lower and preponderance of pathogenic factors in the upper part of the body, e.g., a case of lumbago, weakened legs and nocturnal emission due to kidney insufficiency associated with dizziness, headache and irritability resulting from exuberant liver Qi.
✦Deficiency complicated by excess: deficiency syndrome complicated by excess symptoms while the former is dominant, e.g., a case of consumptive disease with emaciation and other deficiency symptoms complicated by blood stasis with amenorrhea.
✧Excess complicated by deficiency: excess syndrome complicated by deficiency symptoms while the former is dominant, e.g., a case of ascites with abdominal distension complicated by emaciation, lassitude, loss of appetite and other deficiency symptoms.
✦ Deficiency-cold syndrome: a cold syndrome caused by deficiency of yang, marked by intolerance of cold, epigastric or abdominal pain which can be relieved by heat and pressure, loose bowels, fine thready pulse, and profuse whitish and thin leukorrhea in women.
✧Deficiency-heat syndrome: a heat syndrome resulting from deficiency of normal Qi or impairment of normal Qi by excessive pathogenic factors.
✦ Deficiency-fire syndrome: (1).fire syndrome caused by consumption of yin, marked by afternoon fever, heat sensation in the palms and soles, thirst, night sweat, reddened tongue, and fine, rapid pulse;(2).pseudo-heat symptoms resulting from rejection of yang by the excess of yin.
✧Excess-cold syndrome: a syndrome caused by pathogenic cold accumulated in the interior of the body, marked by aversion to cold, cold limbs, abdominal pain, constipation, absence of thirst, whitish thick or greasy coating of the tongue, and deep, taut and forceful pulse.
✦Excess-heat syndrome: a heat syndrome caused by excessive pathogenic factors while the body resistance is still sufficient, with intense reaction, marked by high fever with restlessness, constipation, and gigantic or slippery and rapid pulse.
✧Excess-fire syndrome: fire syndrome caused by excessive pathogenic factors, usually marked by blood-shot eyes, bitterness in the mouth, thirst, irritability, constipation, reddened tongue with yellow coating, and gigantic rapid pulse.
✦Exuberant fire-heat syndrome: a synonym for excess-fire syndrome and excess-heat syndrome.
✧ Yin deficiency syndrome: a syndrome resulting from insufficiency of yin fluid, incapable of restraining yang and usually manifested by afternoon fever, night sweats, malar flush, vexing heat sensation in the palms and soles, dryness of the mouth and throat, reddened tongue with scanty coating, and fine, rapid pulse.
✦Yin-fluid insufficiency syndrome: a synonym for yin deficiency syndrome.
✧Yang deficiency syndrome: a syndrome resulting from deficiency of Yang Qi, usually accompanied by cold symptoms, marked by pallor, intolerance of cold, cold extremities, loose bowels, pale tongue, and feeble pulse.
✦Damage to yin: impairment of yin, especially that of the liver and kidney in advanced cases of febrile disease, usually manifested as low fever, heat sensation in the palms and soles, emaciation, thirst, malar flush, dry and scarlet red tongue, and fine, feeble and rapid pulse.
✧Damage to fluid: impairment of body fluid, especially that of the lung and the stomach, usually manifested as thirst, dry cough, irritability, scanty urine, and constipation.
✦Damage to yang: impairment of yang, resulting from various causes such as excessive use of cold-natured herbs, attack of cold on meridians, usually manifested as an aversion to cold, cold extremities and other symptoms of yang deficiency.
✧Yin exhaustion(yin collapse): excessive loss of essence and fluid due to high fever, profuse sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, or other consumptive conditions.
✦Yin-exhaustion syndrome: serious syndrome resulting from exhaustion of yin fluid, manifested by thirst and craving for a cold drink, flushed face, restlessness, dry tongue, and thready, swift pulse.
✧Yin-collapse syndrome: a synonym for yin-exhaustion syndrome.
✦Yang exhaustion, Yang collapse: a critical condition is seen in cases of high fever, profuse perspiration, drastic vomiting and diarrhea, massive bleeding, etc., manifested as dripping of cold sweat, intolerance of cold, cold limbs, exceedingly feeble pulse or rapid, floating and void pulse.
✦ Yang exhaustion syndrome: a serious syndrome resulting from exhaustion of yang Qi, manifested as pallor, dripping of cold sweat, cold limbs, pale and moistened tongue, and hardly perceptible pulse.
✧Yang collapse syndrome: a synonym for Yang-exhaustion syndrome.
✦Yin syndrome resembling yang: Yin syndrome that appears as a yang syndrome, e.g., an advanced case of Yin deficiency showing pseudo-heat symptoms such as feeling hot and thirsty.
✧Yang syndrome resembling yin: yang syndrome that appears as a yin syndrome, e.g., a severe case of febrile disease showing pseudo-cold symptoms such as intolerance of cold and cold limbs.
✦Pseudo-cold: apparent cold symptom in cases of diseases caused by heat.The patient is intolerant of cold but dislikes to be thickly covered; has cold limbs through the chest and abdomen feel hot.
✧Pseudo-heat: apparent heat symptom in cases of diseases caused by cold.The patient feels hot yet wishes to be thickly covered, feels thirsty yet drinks little, moves restlessly yet is mentally quiescent.
✦True cold with false heat: cold syndrome with pseudo-heat symptoms.
✧True heat with false cold: heat syndrome with pseudo-cold symptoms.
✦True excess with false deficiency: an excess syndrome with pseudo-deficiency symptoms, e.g., accumulation of damp-heat presenting such signs as lack of strength and weak limbs, also known as "great excessiveness looking like debilitation".
✧True deficiency with false excess: deficiency syndrome with pseudo-excess symptoms, e.g., a severe decline of Zang-Fu functions with such manifestations as abdominal distension, panting and constipation, also known as "extreme insufficiency present signs of exuberance".
✦Transmission between exterior and interior: transmission of the pathogen in the course of a disease from the exterior to the interior part of the body and vice versa.
✧Penetration from the exterior into the interior: development of a disease with the pathogen penetrating from the exterior to the interior of the body.
✦Recession from the interior to exterior: the process of a disease where the pathogen goes from the interior out of the body surface, e.g., the appearance of skin eruption followed by abatement of fever in the course of measles, indicating improvement of the case.
✧Transmission of exterior heat into the interior: the process of a disease where interior heat syndrome develops along with the disappearance of exterior heat symptoms, also known as the transmission of pathogenic heat into the interior.
✦Transmission of pathogenic heat into the interior: another way of saying transmission of exterior heat into the interior.
✧Conversion of cold and heat: conversion of a cold syndrome into a heat syndrome, and vice versa.
✧Conversion into heat after penetration into the interior: the transformation of exogenous pathogenic factors into heat after having penetrated into the interior of the body.
1.Introduction of the Eight-principle syndrome differentiation.