Introduction of Solar Terms and Pentads in Autumn:the End of Heat,the Autumnal Equinox,the First Frost.
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24 Solar Terms and The Seventy-Two Pentads.
Introduction:The Seventy-Two Pentads system is one of China's earliest calendar, it is also a combination of astronomy, meteorology, phenology of knowledge, and used as the calendar of agricultural activities. It originated from the Yellow River basin, its complete version literature record was found in an ancient book of the 2nd century BC, its name is known as the Yi Zhou Shu(the Lost Book of the Zhou Dynasty).The Seventy-Two Pentads is an important pentad calendar of ancient China, the system defined 5 days as one Pentads, 3 Pentads as 1 solar term or 1 lunar term, 3 solar term as 1 Season, 4 Season as 1 Year, total 12 solar terms plus 12 middle solar terms, total 24 solar terms, added up total 72 pentads. Each Pentad is corresponding to one phenomenon of natural things, which known as Hou Yin(or the natural phenomena pair of the Pentad), to represent the general change conditions of the natural things and climate. The Hou Yin(or the natural phenomena pair of the Pentad) could be classified into 3 types, one type defined according to natural creatures, such as activities of birds,insects,earthworms,etc, a second type defined according to plants, such as peach blooming,duckweed grow out,grain crops mature, etc, a third type defined according to climate changes, such as water frozen, storm and thunder heard, soil turn moisture,etc.The change in the 72 pentads in orders reflects the general situation of climate change in the year.
The celestial equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth's equator. In other words, it is a projection of the terrestrial equator out into space.As a result of the Earth's axial tilt, the celestial equator is inclined by 23.4° with respect to the ecliptic plane.Directly above the Earth’s equator lies the celestial equator, a circle which goes all the way around the sky and which divides the northern half of the celestial sphere from the southern half.In the precession of the equinoxes, motion of the equinoxes along the ecliptic (the plane of Earth’s orbit) caused by the cyclic precession of Earth’s axis of rotation.The Celestial Sphere "rotates" on the Celestial Axis, which goes through earth’s north and south poles and extends out to the Celestial Sphere intersecting it at the North Celestial Pole (NCP) and the south Celestial Pole (SCP).The Celestial Equator is an imaginary line around the middle of the Celestial Sphere, equidistant from the NCP and SCP and on the same plane as the earth's equator. It intersects the Circle of the Horizon at East and due West.
13.The Li Qiu, or the Beginning of Autumn, is the 12th solar term of the 24 solar terms, the 1st solar term of the autumn.Its date is around 6th to 9th of August, the sun reaches the celestial longitude 135°.The Autumn comes, the plane trees start fallen leaves, it is recognized as a mark of the autumn. In days of the Beginning of Autumn, the temperature cooling down.In ancient China, the Li Qiu or the Beginning of Autumn was divided into 3 pentads,"In the first pentad, the cool breeze start blows; In the second pentad, the white dew appears; In the third pentad, the winter cicada starts crying".The cool breeze means people will feel cooling when it blows, and the wind already not the heat type of summer.The white dew appears and fog appears in the morning on the ground. The winter cicada starts crying once sensed the Yin Qi(Yin energy).After the Beginning of Autumn, the temperature turns from high to lower, hot to cooling down, the exhaustion of human body gradually reduced, appetite increase gradually. In the autumn, diet regulation should follow principles moistening dryness, better take food which nature nourish Yin and clearing heat, moistening dryness and relieve thirsty, clearing the mind and calm down the spirit.For examples, black sesame, honey, white fungus, milk etc which nature moistening.In the autumn days, the moisture content in air decreased, skin easily turn dry, should attention and intake enough water and vitamins.
14.The Chu Shu, or the End of Heat, is the 13th solar term of the 24 solar terms, the 2nd solar term of the autumn.Its date is around 23rd of August, the sun reaches the celestial longitude 150°.The subsolar point keeps moving toward south, the sun radiation turns weaker gradually at the North Hemisphere, the feverish summer will pass by, the temperature keeps lowering, the End of Heat solar term means the beginning of the Autumn in the meteorological significance, after the End of Heat, the area North of the Yangtze River starts lowering gradually.In ancient China, the End of Heat was divided into 3 pentads,"In the days of the 1st pentad, the Eagle starts to sacrifice with bird; In the days of the 2nd pentad, the weather turn austere and sombre(somber); In the days of the 3rd pentad, the grains starts mature."The eagle is a bird with sensation of justice, in the five elements system the autumn weather belong to the metal, the Qi of metal means austere and represent justice, the eagle sensed the Qi of the autumn and starts to hunting birds, but firstly it will sacrifice the birds and do not attack those birds who have eggs and small birds, so means justice.The Yin Qi initiated, so the Qi between the sky and the land turns austere and sombre; The grains all come to mature stage and need to be collected.In the days of the End of Heat, folks are easily troubled with dryness syndrome, dry mouth and nose, dry lips and throat, the temperature keeps lowering down apparently, temperature difference of day and night increased, folks may easily be troubled with health problems of inspiratory tract, gastroenteritis(inflammation of stomach and intestines), common cold, etc.The dryness provides conditions for the generation and spread of bacteria and disease, prevention measure should be applied for the respiratory disease.In the cases of a cough due to the Qi of autumn, diet tonics could be used to relieve a cough,for examples,soaking white fungus 50 grams till soft,boiling till cooked,add one egg and some sugar,suitable for those who suffering with dry cough without phlegm;take 3 pear, peel off it, cut into slices or pieces,boiling with water proper volume for 3 and half hours, remove residue and add 50 grams rice, stewing till the porridge cooked, enjoy it which functions clearing heart heat, suitable for those who suffering with cough due to lung heat.
15.The Bai Lu, or the White Dew, is the 15th solar term of the 24 solar terms, the 3rd solar term of the autumn.Its date is around 7th to 8th of September, the sun reaches the celestial longitude 165°.The temperature keeps lowering quickly, rain days comes.In ancient China, the White Dew was divided into 3 pentads,"In the days of the 1st pentad, the swan goose flying to the south; In the days of the 2nd pentad, the swallow flying to the south; In the days of the 3rd pentad, local birds collect grains."The swan goose is a kind of bird flying to the south when the climate changed and autumn comes, the swallows flying to the south too at this season, local birds find grains and prepare for winter.The native folks hold habit to enjoy green tea, rice wine, longan aril and sweet potato.At the date of the White Dew, the temperature difference of day and night is the biggest in the whole year, after the day, the temperature starts dropping down, moisture in the air easily formed dews near to the ground.People may be troubled with syndromes dry mouth, dry lips, dry throats and dry skin for the Qi of the Autumn.Diet regulation in the days of the White Dew should follow principles replenish the spleen and moistening dryness, take some food which nature neutral and sweet tasty, or sweet and warm, digestible and rich in nutrition, should not eat too much to avoid heavy burden for stomach and intestines.
16.The Qiu Fen, or the Autumnal Equinox, is the 16th solar term of the 24 solar terms, the 4th solar term of the autumn.Its date is around 22nd to 24th of September, the sun reaches the celestial longitude 180°(the autumn equinox), the sun shining directly at the equator, almost all area of the earth the day and the night hours equal.
After the autumnal equinox, the subsolar point keeps move toward the South Hemisphere, daytime shorter and night time at the area of the North Hemisphere(day hours less than night hours in one day), day time longer than night time at the area of the South Hemisphere(day hours more than night hours in one day).The temperature difference between day and night increase gradually, temperature keep lowering.
At the day of the Autumnal Equinox, the sun stay at the apparent horizon at the North and South poles, after the autumn equinox, the 6 months polar night comes to the area of the North poles, the 6 months polar day comes to the area of the South poles.In the autumn, various kinds of disease easily broke out, for examples, intestinal infectious disease, malaria, epidemic encephalitis B will become popular, the climate change will bring some old disease back, for examples, gastric disease, asthma, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, prevention measure should be paid attention to avoid these old disease turn serious.
17.The Han Lu, or the Cold Dew, is the 17th solar term of the 24 solar terms, the 5th solar term of the autumn.Its date is around 7th to 9th of October, the sun reaches the celestial longitude 195°.The temperature keeps lowering gradually. The solar term Han Lu or the Cold Dew is a period at which the temperature passing from cooling to cold.In ancient China, the Cold Dew was divided into 3 pentads,"In the days of the 1st pentad, the swan goose come to the south; In the days of the 2nd pentad, the small birds turned into clams; In the days of the 3rd pentad, the chrysanthemum flower starts blooming."The swan goose starts flying to the south in a flying formation, in the cold days of the late autumn, the small birds all disappeared, ancient folks saw many clams appear at the sea shore, and the claims shell color looks similar to small birds, so misunderstanding they were shapeshifted from birds, at the late autumn, the chrysanthemum flower already in blooming. After the Cold Dew, the temperature keeps lowering gradually, coldness is one of the most popular diseases in the days of low temperature and dry air, the infectious ability of Coryza virus becomes stronger, respiratory disease and digestive system disease get more chances to infect people, prevention measure should be prepared.Old people will more chances troubled with cardiovascular disease,chronic bronchitis(winter cough),asthma,pneumonia,etc.
18.The Shuang Jiang, or the First Frost, is the 18th solar term of the 24 solar terms, the 6th and the last solar term of the autumn.Its date is around 23rd of October, the sun reaches the celestial longitude 210°.The temperature keeps lowering gradually, the dew starts frozen into frost. The solar term Shuang Jiang or the First Frost is a period at which the temperature keeps lowering and the dews start frozen into frost.In ancient China, the First Frost was divided into 3 pentads,"In the days of the 1st pentad, the wolves start to sacrifice small animals; In the days of the 2nd pentad, the grass and trees turn yellow; In the days of the 3rd pentad, the small creatures and animals starts hibernation."Which means in the period of the First Frost, jackals and wolves start to hunting and store food for winter, grass and leaves turn yellow and falling to the ground, small creatures and animals start to hide in tunnels and in hibernation.The First Frost is the last solar term of the Autumn, folks of many area in China hold habit to enjoy persimmon.In the days of the First Frost, people may easily be troubled with chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, etc.TCM herbalists suggested, the health reservation tips in the days of the First Frost are including prevent autumn dryness, relieve depression and melancholy or gloomy in autumn, prevent coldness.The dryness in autumn will bring symptoms dry mouth, dry lips, dry throat, constipation, dry skin etc.Should better take some food which nature moistening dryness and nourish Yin, such as sesame seed, honey, white fungus, bok choy, apple, banana, etc.The austere and swaying scene of the autumn will make people feel melancholy and hopeless, should better take more food rich in proteins, such as milk, eggs, mutton and beans, and join some outdoor activity, such as hiking, etc.But those old people should pay attention to climate changes, and dress more cloth to avoid hurt from dampness and coldness pathogens.
1.Introduction of Solar Terms and Pentads in Autumn:the End of Heat,the Autumnal Equinox,the First Frost.
2.Shang Han Za Bing Lun:the Treatise on Cold-induced and Miscellaneous Diseases.By Zhāng Zhòngjǐng.