張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè):introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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張介賓(Zhāng Jièbīn).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 張介賓(Zhāng Jièbīn)Alias: 会卿(Huì Qīng),景嶽(Jǐng yuè)
Popular name:  通壹子(Tōng Yī Zǐ)English Name: Zhang Jiebin, or Jiebin Zhang(Given/Sur Name)
Nationality: HanBelief: mainly Li Xue
(an idealist philosophy of the Song
and Ming Dynasties),and  Taoism.
Hometown: HuiJi of ZhejiangDates: about 1563~1640 AD
Main works:  《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works),
《類經》(Lei Jing, or Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic),
《類經附翼》(Lei Jing Fu Yi),《類經图翼》(Lei Jing Tu Yi),
《質疑錄》(Zhi Yi Lu).
Representative works: 《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works)
Reputation: 神醫(Miracle Herbalist)Star-rating:   

 Introduction: Zhāng Jǐngyuè
 ✵張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè,1563~1640AD), alias 会卿(Huì Qīng), name 介宾(Jièbīn), alternative name 通壹子(Tōng Yī Zǐ), famous herbalist of Ming Dynasty. Especially versed in the Internal Classic,Ever compiled medical works known including 《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu,or Jing Yue's Complete Works),《類經》(Lei Jing,or Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic),《類經附翼》(Lei Jing Fu Yi),《類經图翼》(Lei Jing Tu Yi),《質疑錄》(Zhi Yi Lu).

 ✧張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè), his last generations immigrated to HuiJi of Zhejiang(today's Shaoxing of Zhejiang) for battle achievements, he was smart and gifted genius in childhood,hobby reading books, his father 張壽峰(Zhāng Shòufēng) taught him ancient medical works since child,and introduced him as disciple of famous herbalist 余夢石(Yú Mèngshí) when he was 14 years age, learnt all the crafts in several years.

 ✦Finished his learning of medicine,張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) not started clinical practice immediately,as a great-hearted person like traveling here there,he hoped to fight in battlefields like his ancestors and achieved in battles, so he joined the army, and ever tripped to area like Yu Lin, Jie Shi, Feng Cheng, Ya Jiang, his footstep throughout half China.Later for the reason his character and personality not fit for the common culture, not achieved in battle, so he returned back to hometown and started to do medical research.Herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) read and knew well with schools of history and classics, familiar with ancient Six Classics and various schools.He spent many years time to study ancient classics since Huang Di and Qi Bo, has his own specific understanding of them,and with 40 years energy he compiled famous medical works Lei Jing(Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic) in 32 volumes,with detailed contents into 12 categories including She Chen,Yin Yang,Visceral Manifestation,Mai Se,Channel and Meridians,Root cause and Symptoms,Scent and Taste,On Treatment,Disease,Acupuncture,Qi Direction,Hui Tong.The academic works Lei Jing(Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic) was a masterpiece of herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè), according to literature record, its compilation cost long years "Ever edited over 30 years, change drafts over 4 times, till the edition finished.”,the works come into books till Tian Qi four Years(year 1624AD).Herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) studied and practiced ancient works Nei Jing almost 30 years, and he considered that the ancient classicsNei Jing is the supreme works of medicine, and herbalists must learn it. But the works Nei Jing “literature has depth and abstruse, really has difficulty for reading and study", and really has the necessity to note and explain.Ever since Tang Dynasty the work Nei Jing got very rich notes by generations herbalist, herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) was a big scholar with most influences because ever gave edit and notes on the part of Su Wen(the Plain Questions),but 王冰(Wáng Bīng)did not ever give notes and interpretation on the part of Ling Shu(the Miraculous Pivot), and various notes of different schools have more detailed fields not explained and not interpreted.The literature of Su Wen(the Plain Questions) and Ling Shu(the Miraculous Pivot) may have close relationships and may interpret on each other correspondingly, to seek its convenience,so 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) “searched completely these two works, and changed old editions", classified into categories,“ then combined the two into one, and named it as Lei Jing.The meaning of Lei, which open the essence of Su Wen with Ling Shu, and find the secret of Ling Shu with Su Wen, combine the two as internal and external with each other, and detect its meanings thoroughly",the content of Lei Jing(Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic) divided into 12 categories,several sections,and titled according to same content,followed with original literature from the two works,and attached with detailed notes and interpretations,also pointed out the shortcomings of those various schools notes ever since herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng), listed in clear orders and easy for reading and check, his own notes has extreme interpretations.Herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) open-minded, and has an in-depth fine study with Nei Jing, and referenced widely with various school works.The work Lei Jing(Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic) accumulated essence and extracts from previous commentators and interpreters,with his own viewpoints added, and dare to broken theories of previous generations,has creative viewpoints on theory,freshness on notes and explains,characteristics on editions, is an important reference works for study and read Nei Jing.He also applied diagram forms gave detailed system interpretation on topics of Yin Yang,Five Elements,Yun Qi,Meridians,Acupuncture,and compiled professional works Lei Jing Tu Yi in 11 volumes,accumulated his special treatise on development of the Nei Jing works and compiled worksLei Jing Fu Yi in 4 volumes.The two works Lei Jing Tu Yi and Lei Jing Fu Yi gave further supplement notes on those corners which not explained and interpreted in details in the work Lei Jing.In his late years combine his own rich clinical experience and specializes in-depth theory, wrote academic works Jing Yue Quan Shu(Jing Yue's Complete Works) in 64 volumes, which recorded clinical departments theory treatment recipes and herbs, really complete works. Huang Zongxi(1610~1695) ever wrote a legend for him that "help patients to relieve sufferings, meditate on pathogenic origins, simple recipe, and large dosage, all works well enough. And folks who seek for treatment, all come to his gate. Generals all send gold to ask him for treatment.",張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) know wide, except medicine, he also knows in depth of divination, astrology, etc. When staying at Liao Yang Dao, heard the horse driver singing loud, so he said: "this is bad sounding!... ", and later events really the same as his prophecy. Then herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) returned to Yue area at his 58 years age and died 20 years later.He also drew a portrait of himself at the day he died and called three sons taught them something, and passed away at age 78.

 Zhāng Jǐngyuè ✧The works 《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works) rich in content, including theory, herbs, prepared prescriptions, clinical disease, is a complete and system clinical reference books.景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) has wide knowledge and talented, good in declamation, the articles wrote in an imposing manner, discussion vertical and horizontal, quoted and reference from many origins, deduction and inference has strong logic, so the works Jing Yue Quan Shu(Jing Yue's Complete Works) spread widely and learned by many herbalists of later generations, and ever became a necessary book for herbalist to read for two hundred years after that and generated big influences.

 ✦ The worksZhi Yi Lu, total collected 45 treatises and wrote by herbalist 景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) at his late age,its content gave detailed detection and discussion on theories of various school during the jin and yuan epoch, and also gave some amend and supplement for the treatise he published at early years. Herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) good in differentiating the eight principal syndromes, detect pathogenesis and origin of disease, good in the warm tonic, and has special treatment method for deficiency and asthenic disease. He holds viewpoints against use bitter cold herbs to nourish Yin, and properly corrected mistakes of the cold theory. His theory of Yin-Yang, Life-Gate showed active effects and influence for the development of the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the academic achievement of herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) is great without a doubt, and he made prominent outstanding devotions to the development of the Chinese Traditional Medicine.

 ✧According to later authors, in the late years of herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè), he ever re-compiled the ancient works Shang Han Lun(Treatise on Febrile Diseases) with his own remarkable insights,but the pity is it not came into works, and the drafts also disappeared without a trace, this is a big loss for later generations.

 ✦張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) ever suggested theory of herbalist 丹溪(Zhū Dānxī),朱丹溪(Zhū Dānxī) ever lived in the epoch at which pharmacia Ju Fang was popular,and doctors at that epoch often abuse herbs with property spicy hot drying which may damage and cause Yin injury and loss of body liquid,so herbalist 朱丹溪(Zhū Dānxī) ever based his theory on conclusion “Yang is excess and Yin is deficiency", in the epoch of Ming the fire-heat theory of Liu Hejian and Zhu Danxi occupy the mainstream position,and many doctors hold on one theory and hold conservative viewpoints on prescriptions, abuse herbs with cold and chilling property, led to nourishing herbs injury spleen and bitter cold herbs harm stomach, which became a current malpractice in the clinical field. In his clinical practice years and with rich experience,張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) gradually abandoned theory of Zhu Danxi, and followed a pioneer of the Warm-recuperation school,薛己(Xuē Jǐ,1486~1558),薛己(Xuē Jǐ) was assigned as the Tai Yi Yuan Shi of Ming,and his career mainly help treat disease for those imperial households,their disease pathogenesis often related to deficiency,so prefer tonics.張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) also followed 薛己(Xuē Jǐ) and hold own viewpoints of warm tonics,and he created another theory different from the theory "Yang is excess and Yin is deficiency" of Zhu Danxi, instead he created theory "Yang is not excess, Essence Yin is deficiency", and created many famous recipes for kidney replenish, the theory of herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) born from the epoch correction needs and generated big influence to later generation. For his medication prefer more on warm tonics, but problems are that charlatans may hide their own shortcomings with this method, and brought abuse of warm tonics.

 Zhāng Jǐngyuè ✧Refine and Simple Principle for Medication in clinical practice: in the medication and clinical practice, herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) proposed "Refined and Professional" as his principle, never passed off fish eyes as pearls. These characteristics represented clear in his New Prescriptions of Eight Tactical Arrays incisively and vividly. As herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) proposed that “the key point of treatment, should be fine and not in chaotic, thus to the best.”,so firstly he suggested herbs potency should be professional and single-minded. Those recipes and prescriptions created by himself all have pure simple and refined professional characteristics in efficacy. For example those recipes in the Tonic Tactical Arrays, and transformed from ancient recipes. These four recipes all reduced those discharge content in original ancient recipes which they based on, and added tonics for nourish essence, which make it pure tonifying without a mix, the herbs used professional and potency strong. And represented his medication thoughts such like “to supplement with counteracting, better use small dosage to replenish.”,and “without refining treatment, then supplement could not treat deficiency, the attack could not drive away pathogens.”.Second, herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) also suggested prescription herbs should use with refined principles. As if the herbs used various chaotics orders and many kinds, its potency and efficacy definitely could not be professional. So herb ingredients simple and refine, is an obvious characteristic in the medication of herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè),according to statistics in the New Prescriptions of Eight Tactical Arrays, total 186 prescriptions, the herbs used over 10 kinds in one prescription only numbered 13, shared about 7% ratio in all the prescriptions;the herbs used in prescriptions numbered from 6 to 8 mostly, totally 88 prescriptions, shared about 47% in all prescriptions, and the herbs used lower than 5 kinds total 58 prescriptions, share about 31%. Averagely, each prescription only used 6 kinds of herbs, so from this evidence, the medication of herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) in actual practice, really consistent with his principle and propose, refined and professional in herb potency and efficacy, simple easy with effective results.

 ✦ Use ancient prescriptions with flexible: herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) created many new prescriptions, based on ancient prescriptions with his flexible application and supplements with new methods. His magic and miracle skills in the transformation of the ancient prescriptions were not the same as others, instead of based on his own creative viewpoints. Laid and based on ancient recipes, hold the meaning “intentions better full and penetrating” of those ancient prescriptions, and created many new prescriptions, achieved obvious results in clinical practice. For examples, the prescription Liu Wei Di Huang Wan was a general tonic for replenish liver nourish kidney and tonify Yin, based on this, herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) drew out inferences about other cases from one instance, generated out five similar prescriptions. These transformed new prescriptions all followed the principle of kidney and essence tonifying, based on this, and varied with other supplements to achieve different purpose including warm tonic Qi-blood, or replenish Kidney-Yang, or tonify kidney and nourish Yin, or replenish vital essence and tonify blood. From these cases, herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) transformed the ancient recipe Liu Wei Di Huang Wan with subtraction and addition, and already achieved optimal state grasp and apply skillfully, for his transform and application with other ancient recipes, this can be one case verifications for his skills and level both academic and practical.

 Zhāng Jǐngyuè ✧Take pity on Primordial Qi and prevent disease,ancient works Su Wen·Shang Gu Tian Zhen Lun suggested that,a person in living life,able to “pass away over a hundred years age”,which means the ancient wise man already discovered the natural lifespan of living person is over 100 years. Herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) also hold a viewpoint in his treatise Zhong Xing Lun(Treatise on Reviving at Middle Age) that the natural life span of a person should be over 100 years. Although the lifespan of individuals may differ for various reasons including inherited genes etc, most living person should live over age 90 to 100 years. But in fact, most of the living person became slow in movement when into 50 years age, the reason may from the Primordial Qi exhaust for the cause lack of health reservation in the postnatal period. Herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) also hold this kind of viewpoints,and suggested in his treatise Zhong Xing Lun that except for the natural and man-made disasters, this theory of herbalist 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) not only see the normal physiological and social demand of living person but also should self-control these demands, compare with those thoughts suppression thoughts of normal human desires in those epochs, means big progress both in cognition and practice.

References:
  • 1.張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè):introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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