張介賓(Zhāng Jièbīn):introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

TCM Knowledge:Prominent Ancient Herbalists ✵To help clients and TCM fans know better with the common knowledge of ancient TCM and syndrome differentiation, there comes the online knowledge database in classified categories.

 ✵The main content including: the introduction of the most famous and talented Ancient Herbalists and Distinguished Physicians, the most influential and Well-Known Ancient Works, common Diagnostic Methods, the introduction of Common Disease and Syndromes, etc.

張介賓(Zhāng Jièbīn).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 張介賓(Zhāng Jièbīn)Alias: 会卿(Huì Qīng),景嶽(Jǐng yuè)
Popular name:  通壹子(Tōng Yī Zǐ)English Name: Zhang Jiebin, or Jiebin Zhang(Given/Sur Name)
Nationality: HanBelief: mainly Li Xue
(an idealist philosophy of the Song
and Ming Dynasties),and  Taoism.
Hometown: HuiJi of ZhejiangDates: about 1563~1640 A.D.
Main works: 《類經》(Lei Jing, or the Classified Canon, or the Systematic Compilation of the Inner Canon),《類經附翼》(Lei Jing Fu Yi),《類經图翼》(Lei Jing Tu Yi),《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works),《質疑錄》(Zhi Yi Lu),etc.
Representative works: 《類經》(Lei Jing, or the Classified Canon, or the Systematic Compilation of the Inner Canon),《類經附翼》(Lei Jing Fu Yi, or Supplementary to the Classified Canon),《類經图翼》(Lei Jing Tu Yi, or Illustrated Supplementary to the Classified Canon),《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works),《質疑錄》(Zhi Yi Lu),etc.
Reputation: 神醫(Miracle Herbalist)Star-rating:   

 Introduction: Zhāng Jǐngyuè
 ✵張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè,1563~1640 A.D.), alias 会卿(Huì Qīng), name 介宾(Jièbīn), alternative name 通壹子(Tōng Yī Zǐ), a famous herbalist of Ming Dynasty. Especially versed in the Internal Classic, ever compiled medical works known including 《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works), 《類經》(Lei Jing, or Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic), 《類經附翼》(Lei Jing Fu Yi), 《類經图翼》(Lei Jing Tu Yi), 《質疑錄》(Zhi Yi Lu).

 張介賓(Zhāng Jièbīn), his last generations immigrated to HuiJi of Zhejiang(today's Shaoxing of Zhejiang) for battle achievements, he was a smart and gifted genius in childhood, hobby reading books, his father 張壽峰(Zhāng Shòufēng) taught him ancient medical works since a child, and introduced him as a disciple of famous herbalist 余夢石(Yú Mèngshí) when he was 14 years age, learned all the crafts from his teacher in several years. Finished his learning of medicine, 張景嶽(Zhāng Jǐngyuè) not started clinical practice immediately, as a great-hearted person like traveling here there, he hoped to fight in battlefields like his ancestors and achieved in battles, so he joined the army, and ever tripped to the areas include Yu Lin, Jie Shi, Feng Cheng, Ya Jiang, his footstep throughout half China. Later for the reason his character and personality not totally with the secular temporal affairs, not achieved in battle, so he returned to his hometown and started to do medical research.

 Herbalist Zhang Jingyue read and knew well with schools of history and classics, familiar with ancient Six Classics and various schools. He spent many years to study ancient classics since Huang Di and Qi Bo, has his specific understanding of them, and with 40 years of energy, he compiled and finished famous medical works 《類經》(Lei Jing, or the Classified Canon, or the Systematic Compilation of the Inner Canon) 32 volumes, with detailed contents into 12 categories including She Chen, Yin Yang, Visceral Manifestation, Mai Se, Channel and Meridians, Root cause and Symptoms, Scent and Taste, On Treatment, Disease, Acupuncture, the doctrine on Yunqi(five evolutive phases and six climatic factors), Hui Tong. The academic works Lei Jing(Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic) was a masterpiece, according to literature record, its compilation cost long years "Ever edited over 30 years, changed drafts over 4 times, till the edition finished.”, the works come into books till Tian Qi four Years(the year 1624 A.D., Tian Qi is the reign title of Ming Xi Zong, year 1621~1627 A.D.). Herbalist Zhang Jingyue studied and practiced ancient works Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) for almost 30 years, and he considered that the ancient classicsNei Jing(the Inner Canon) is the supreme works of medicine, and herbalists must learn it. But the works Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) “the literature has its depth and is abstruse, really has difficulty for reading and study", and needs to note and explain. Ever since the Tang Dynasty, the work Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) got very rich notes from generations of herbalists, herbalist 王冰(Wáng Bīng) was a big scholar with most influences because ever gave edit and notes on the part of Su Wen(the Plain Questions), but Wang Bing did not ever give notes and interpretation on the part of Ling Shu(the Miraculous Pivot), and various notes of different schools have more detailed fields not explained and not interpreted. The literature of Su Wen(the Plain Questions) and Ling Shu(the Miraculous Pivot) have close relationships and may interpret on each other correspondingly, to seek its convenience, Zhang Jingyue “searched completely these two works, and changed old editions", classified them, “then combined the two into one, and named it Lei Jing. The meaning of Lei, which open the essence of Su Wen with Ling Shu, and find the secret of Ling Shu with Su Wen, combine the two as internal and external with each other, and detect its meanings thoroughly", the contents of Lei Jing(Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic) are divided into 12 categories, several sections, and titled according to the same content, followed with original literature from the two works, attached with detailed notes and interpretations, also pointed out the shortcomings of those various schools notes ever since herbalist Wang Bing, listed in clear orders and easy for reading and check, his notes has extreme meanings of interpretation. Herbalist Zhang Jingyue is open-minded, has an in-depth fine study with the ancient classics Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), with wide references from works of various schools. The work Lei Jing(Systematic Compilation of the Internal Classic) accumulated essence and extracts from previous commentators and interpreters, with his viewpoints added, has its breakthroughs and creative viewpoints on theory, freshness on notes and explains, characteristics on editions, is an important reference book for study and read Nei Jing(the Inner Canon). He also applied diagram forms and gave detailed system interpretations on topics of Yin Yang, Five Elements, Yun Qi, Meridians, Acupuncture, and compiled professional works Lei Jing Tu Yi 11 volumes, accumulated his special treatise on the development of the Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) and compiled works Lei Jing Fu Yi 4 volumes. The two works Lei Jing Tu Yi and Lei Jing Fu Yi gave further supplement notes on those residue questions which not explained and interpreted in the work Lei Jing. In his late years, he combined his own rich clinical experience and in-depth study with theories, wrote an academic book Jing Yue Quan Shu(Jing Yue's Complete Works) 64 volumes, which recorded departments of theory, treatment recipes, and herbs. Huang Zongxi(1610~1695) ever wrote a legend for him that "helps patients to relieve sufferings, meditate on pathogenic origins, simple recipe, and large dosage, all works well enough. And folks who seek treatment, all come to his gate. Generals all send gold to ask him for treatment.", Zhang Jingyue knows wide, except medicine, he also knows the depth of divination, astrology, etc. When staying at Liao Yang Dao, heard the horse driver singing loud, so he said: "This is a bad sounding!... ", and later events really the same as his prophecy. Then herbalist Zhang Jingyue returned to the Yue area at his 58 years old age and lived there for 20 years. He also drew a portrait of himself on the day he was dying, and gave a teaching to his three sons, passed away at age 78.

 The book 《類經附翼》(Lei Jing Fu Yi, or Supplementary to the Classified Canon) 4 volumes, published in the Tian Qi 4th year(the year 1624 A.D.), it is a supplement book of Lei Jing, explain the related research and specific viewpoints of the author. The 1st volume under the title "Yi Yi", give discussions of the theoretical relationships between the medical theory and theory of Zhou Yi(the I Ching); the 2nd volume under the title "Lv Yuan", discussions of ancient melody and medical theory; the 3rd volume under the title "Qiu Zheng Lu", elaborate the theory of tonifying kidney; the 4th volume under the title "Zhen Jiu Fu", edited various kinds of acupuncture poems from previous herbalists, with values for references.

 The book 《類經圖翼》(Lei Jing Tu Yi, or Illustrated Supplementary to the Classified Canon) 11 volumes, published in the Tian Qi 4th year(the year 1624 A.D.), it is a supplement book of the book Lei Jing with graphs and graphic explanations, it gave those content of Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) with in-depth meanings further explanation with graphs, mainly Yunqi(volume 12) and acupuncture(volume 311), discussions and graphic explanations about the Yunqi(the five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors), discussions and graphic explanations about the meridians and Shu-acupoint, main acupuncture and moxibustion points, related key points, attached with abundant graphs of acupuncture and meridians. It quoted a big volume of literature and provided numerous graphs and graphic explanations, which is a necessary reference book for the study of Yunqi theory, acupuncture, and moxibustion.

 Zhāng Jǐngyuè ✧The book 《景嶽全書》(Jing Yue Quan Shu, or Jing Yue's Complete Works) was finished till the year 1640 A.D., a total of 24 categories, 63 volumes, rich in content, including theory, herbs, prepared prescriptions, clinical disease, is a complete and system clinical reference books. Zhang Jingyue has wide knowledge and is talented, good in declamation, the articles wrote in an imposing manner, discussion vertical and horizontal, quoted and reference from many origins, deduction and inference have strong logic, so the book Jing Yue Quan Shu(Jing Yue's Complete Works) spread widely and learned by many herbalists of later generations, ever became a necessary book for a herbalist to read for two hundred years after that and generated big influences. The book covered 63 volumes and classified in 24 categories, its main contents are briefly introduced: 1st~3rd volume under title "Chuan Zhong Lu", about Yin Yang and Six climate factors, comments on previous herbalists and sages; 4th~6th volume under title "Mai Shen Zhang", selected refined and essential theories from various schools, for syndrome conditions; 7th~8th volume under title "Shang Han Dian", general discussion on syndrome and treatment of seasonal exogenous diseases; 9th~36th volume under title "Za Zheng Mo", discussion in details of internal diseases, include various wind syndrome, non-wind syndrome, syncope syndromes, wind affection, wind numbness(wandering arthritis), perspiration syndromes, palpitation, wasting thirsts syndromes, depression syndromes and other various syndrome over 70 kinds, listed classical meanings, syndrome discussion, treatment discussion, quotation of previous thesis, attached with simple recipes, alternative recipes, acupuncture, moxibustion methods; 37th~38th volume under title "Fu Ren Gui", about menstruation, pulse, pregnancy, birth, postpartum, leucorrhea, breast syndromes, offsprings, etc; 39th~40th volume under title "Xiao Er Ze", about birth of baby, care, infantile convulsions, vomit and diarrhea, night sweat, infantile feverish perspiration, etc; 41st~44th volume under title "Ma Zhen Quan" and "Dou Zhen Quan", discussion about the pathological reasons and treatment of measles and exanthema variolosum, etc; 45th~46th volume under title "Wai Ke Qian", about syndrome differentiation and identification of external diseases, treatment and recipes, etc; 47th~48th volume under title "Ben Cao Zheng", recorded over 300 kinds of herbs, imitate the categories of the book Ben Cao Gang Mu and classified herbs in 14 categories, give introductions about its other names, nature tastes, types of Yin and Yang, main functions and mechanism, application scope, precautions and cautions, etc; 49th~50th volume under title "Xin Fang Ba Zhen", mainly about collection of effective new recipes and prescriptions from himself, total collected 186 kinds of new prescriptions, etc; 51st~59th volume under title "Gu Fang Ba Zhen", mainly about collection of effective ancient recipes and prescriptions, total 1516 kinds of prescriptions, etc; 60th~63rd volume under title "Fu Ren Fang, Xiao Er Fang, Dou Zhen Fang Ji Wai Ke Fang", mainly about collection of effective recipes and prescriptions for gynaecology, paediatrics, exanthema variolosum and external diseases. Collect essential discussions from previous herbalists, combined with own subtle conclusions, as complete works.

 The book 《質疑錄》(Zhi Yi Lu) 11 volumes, published in the year 1688 A.D., it is a late work of Zhang Jingyue, collected 45 medical articles, mainly discussing the success and failure of previous schools and herbalists, gave reasonable discussions with those bigoted viewpoints of previous schools and herbalists during the Jin and Yuan period, to correct their loses, recorded discussion focused on syndrome differentiation and treatment principles of various diseases, elaborate the theory of warm tonics, also gave further correction and analysis of his improper viewpoints in early years.

 The works Zhi Yi Lu, collected 45 treatises and wrote by herbalist Zhang Jingyue at his late age, it gave detailed detection and discussion on theories of various school during the Jin and Yuan period, and also gave some amend and supplement for the treatise he published at early years. Herbalist Zhang Jingyue good at differentiating the eight principal syndromes, detect pathogenesis and origin of disease, good in the warm tonic, and has special treatment method for deficiency and asthenic disease. He holds viewpoints against use bitter cold herbs to nourish Yin, and properly corrected mistakes of the cold theory. His theory of Yin-Yang, Life-Gate showed active effects and influence for the development of the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, the academic achievement of herbalist Zhang Jingyue is great without a doubt, and he made prominent outstanding devotions to the development of the Chinese Traditional Medicine.

 According to later authors, in the late years of herbalist Zhang Jingyue, he ever re-compiled the ancient works Shang Han Lun(Treatise on Febrile Diseases) with his remarkable insights, but the pity is that this book was never published, and the drafts also disappeared without a trace, this is a big loss for later generations.

 Herbalist Zhang Jingyue ever suggested the theory of herbalist 朱丹溪(Zhū Dānxī) ever lived in the epoch at which pharmacia Ju Fang was popular, and physicians at that epoch often use herbs with property spicy hot drying which may damage and cause Yin injury and loss of body liquid, so herbalist Zhu Danxi ever based his theory on the conclusion “Yang is excess and Yin is deficiency", in the period of Ming the fire-heat theory of Liu Hejian and Zhu Danxi occupy the mainstream position, many doctors hold on one theory and hold conservative viewpoints on prescriptions, abuse herbs with cold and chilling property, led to nourishing herb's injury the spleen and bitter cold herbs harm the stomach, which became current malpractice in the clinical field. In his clinical practice years and with rich experience, Zhang Jingyue gradually abandoned the theory of Zhu Danxi, and followed a pioneer of the Warm-recuperation school, herbalist 薛己(Xuē Jǐ), was assigned as the Tai Yi Yuan Shi of Ming, and his career mainly help treat disease for those imperial households, their disease pathogenesis often related to deficiency, so prefer tonics. Zhang Jingyue also followed Xue Ji and hold own viewpoints of warm tonics, he created another theory different from the theory "Yang is excess and Yin is deficiency" of Zhu Danxi, instead he established the theory "Yang is not excess, Essence Yin is deficiency", and created many famous recipes for kidney replenish, the theory of herbalist Zhang Jingyue born from the epoch correction needs and generated big influence to a later generation. For his application prefers more on warm tonics, but problems are that charlatans may hide their shortcomings with this method, and brought an abuse of warm tonics.

 Taiji Tu of Jing Yue:the diagram of the universe in three circles The medical philosophy of Zhang Jingyue: herbalist Zhang Jingyue emphasized on the study of ancient philosophy, and he knows well and indepth with ancient works Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) and Zhou Yi(the book of changes, or the I Ching), his purpose of studying philosophy is "to disclose essential meanings of the I ching for flexible applications in medical theories.", as he ever wrote sincere advice in his works "the opinion about learning medicine without necessity to learn the Zhou Yi, surely based on the belief that there is no difficulty in the study of medicine, just similar to such a declaration, but who know that there are things not visible to the eyes, and there are sounds inaudible to the ears, could not avoid of being a superficial view of one song,...the study of medicine and the study of the Zhou Yi are necessary for each other, as understand them both at the same time, then the changes of the I Ching come from the heaven, the applications of medicine from me." He advised that it is necessary to study the Zhou Yi with the study of medicine together. And he gave interpretations from the basic opinion "the study of medicine and Zhou Yi are from the same origin", to explain the basic theory of the traditional Chinese medicine, as "the Yin and Yang were already discussed in the Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), but the changes are no bigger than what described in the Zhou Yi(the book of changes, or the I Ching)", as he proposed the theory of Yin and Yang, is the guiding theory of traditional Chinese medicine. His main viewpoints on this could be introduced briefly in six key points:⑴.The explanation the integration or unity of the heaven-earth with the San Yuan Taiji Tu(the diagram of the universe in three circles), herbalist Zhang Jingyue recorded a graph named the San Yuan Taiji Tu(the diagram of the universe in three circles) in his book Lei Jing Tu Yi, and quoted a related discussion of Yin and Yang from the article Nei Jing·Yin Yang Ying Xiang Da Lun(the Inner Canon·the Great Treatise about Yin Yang classification of natural phenomena) for a supplement note: "Yin-yang is the law of nature, the principle of all things, the mother of all changes, and the root of life and death.";⑵.Proposed the integration of Yin and Yang: herbalist Zhang Jingyue emphasized the guiding functions of the Yin Yang theory on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, and he clearly pointed out a famous inference that "the Yin and Yang are the two from the one", this integration opinion of Yin and Yang is from the works Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), and he pointed out that Yin and Yang is an outline of medicine, it is a basic law, and the Yin and Yang are in an interdependence relationship;⑶.Respect the water and the importance of Yang, the incompatibility between the healthy energy and the pathogens: the core part of the Yin Yang theory from herbalist Zhang Jingyue respects the water and importance of Yang, the Yang aspect determines the prosperity and decline of a thing, this viewpoint came from the article Nei Jing·Sheng Qi Tong Tian Lun(the Inner Canon·the treatise about the vitality of human communicating and corresponding to the universe), combined with the balance of Yin and Yang;⑷.Combine the Yin Yang and the Five Elements as an integration, proposed the water and fire are the roots of the life: the theory of Yin and Yang originated from the Pre-Qin Period, as ancient works Tao Te Ching said "All things have Yin on their back and Yang in their embrace.", the Five Elements theory is one important part of ancient Chinese philosophy, the works Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) combined these two theories, herbalist Zhang Jingyue attached great importance to water and fire, this declaration is the philosophical basis for his warm tonic theory in treatment;⑸.the wills and intentions are all from the form and quality: about the relationships between spirit and substance, herbalist Zhang Jingyue hold a viewpoint that the substantial world exists from the condensation of Qi, and the existence depends on the changes of Yin and Yang, as he proposed in his works Lei Jing Tu Yi·Yin Yang Ti Xiang: "...the Mosquito mouth is minimal, Qi and blood could pass through, the eye of a louse is very small, could recognize things. Deduce from this fact, to the widest and extreme, or to the tiniest and essential, accumulated with Qi, generated by chances, the biggest which could not be measured, the tiniest which could not be detected, ...how they could be simply described as manufacture!";⑹.the balance between the movement and quiet: herbalist Zhang Jingyue clearly pointed out that the movement and quiet belong to Yin and Yang, the disorder of Yin and Yang are the root causes of diseases, so he attached great importance to the relationships of movement and quiet in practice, they depend on each other and in an interdependence relationship.

 The warming therapy of Zhang Jingyue: herbalist Zhang Jingyue is the main representative personage of the warming tonification school, his warm supplement theory is affected by ancient herbalist Xue Lizhai, Li Dongyuan, and Xu Shuwei. There are frequent plagues during the Ming dynasty, recipes with nature cold and bitterness are used mostly, for residual pathogen not cleared after treatment, symptoms of low fever due to Yin deficiency lasting for long period, so the theory "six Qi all follow the transformation of fire" by herbalist Liu Hejian, and the theory "Yang is usually redundant, while yin is ever deficient" by herbalist Zhu Danxi are popular. Herbalist Zhang Jingyue holds a viewpoint that to correct the mistakes of popular theory, one should discuss those theories of different schools clearly and for differentiation, then could absorb the usefulness of those schools and avoid mistakes. He pointed out that the theory "six Qi all follow the transformation of fire" by herbalist Liu Hejian is against "imbalance of the six climatic factors", in diagnosing should be based on the real conditions of patients, should differentiate the various reasons cold, heat, deficiency, excess, etc, should not attribute all pathogenic reasons only to excess fire. He also pointed out that the theory "Yang is usually redundant, while yin is ever deficient" by herbalist Zhu Danxi is illiberal, lost the utmost changes of the Yin and Yang, only know one aspect of Yin and Yang, but did not see the integrity of Yin and Yang, and he proposed in practice should not use many herbs with nature of bitterness and cold, to hurt the Yang energy of the patient, should pay attention to warming tonification and sustain the Yang energy. The core part of Zhang Jingyue's theory is to respect the water and Yang energy, so in practice, it means attach importance to the Primordial Qi and use warming tonics. His main theory of warm supplement is introduced in three key points:⑴.to correct the theory "Yang is usually redundant, while yin is ever deficient" by herbalist Zhu Danxi, herbalist Zhang Jingyue proposed the theory "Yang is ever deficient, while yin is basically not redundant", and discussed his theory in his articles, and pointed out the importance of Yang energy from three point; ⑵.The ministerial fire could not be seen as a thief:as herbalist Li Dongyuan ever proposed the theory that "the ministerial fire is the thief of the Premordial Qi", and "fire and the Premordial Qi could not stand together", herbalist Zhang Jingyue hold a different viewpoint based on the ancient works Su Wen·Tian Yuan Ji Da Lun "the sovereign fire for lightening, the ministerial fire for positioning", and proposed "the sovereign fire is the body, the ministerial fire for application, the quality and fire is in an integrity", the sovereign fire is not a pathogenic fire, so it is not a thief of the primordial Qi, the ministerial fire could generate primordial Qi, is a spring and source of life, so "the ministerial fire is not a thief", thus "fire and primordial Qi could not stand together" is wrong, so herbalist Li Dongyuan identified the "fever of heat" and similar pathogens as the "ministerial fire", for it can hurt the primordial Qi, so he called it as "thief of primordial Qi", but the "ministerial fire" of herbalist Zhang Jingyue is not the same, so they are basically different in the concept;⑶.the theory of the life gate: the life gate theory of herbalist Zhang Jingyue is a combination of Yin Yang and five elements, theory of essence and Qi, the life gate concept was originally recorded in the ancient work Nei Jing·Ling Shu, the eyes are understood as the life gate, another ancient works Nan Jing defined the life gate has close relationships with the kidney, till the Ming dynasty, the discussion of the life gate has some further development, the life gate theory of herbalist Zhang Jingyue was influenced by herbalist Zhao Xianke. Herbalist Zhang Jingyue proposed his life gate theory in his works Lei Jing Fu Yi, He also combined the life gate theory with Yin Yang theory, enriched and develop the theory of life gate.

 Zhang Jingyue's syndrome differentiation and treatment theory:⑴.clear syndrome differentiation, essential and professional in treatment: herbalist Zhang Jingyue ever proposed that the pathogenic reasons of diseases are complicated and varies, the methods of treatment varies too, the key point is to know the essence of the disease, use prescriptions reasonably and treat the root cause, then it is not difficult to eliminate the symptoms. He also pointed out that the herbs in use should be essential and professional, the kinds of herbs not necessary too many, but each kind of herbs should be selected according to standard and quantity, or it could not get effects;⑵.the important tips in treatment is the treatment of physical, the treatment of physical should set the treatment of essence and blood as priority:herbalist Zhang Jingyue attached great importance to the treatment of physical, also paid attention to the prosperity and decline of essence and blood, and he holds a viewpoint that the condition of essence blood and physical conditions could be a representation on the prosperity and decline of the Primordial Yin;⑶.strengthening the positive energy, pay attention to supplement Yin:herbalist Zhang Jingyue attached importance to strengthen the positive energy, in the practice his principle is "surely should check the conditions of Primordial Qi first, then seek the treatment of the disease", although he is a representative figure of warm-supplement school, but he also attached exteme importance to nourish Yin.⑷. Differentiate deficiency and cold in details, good in the warm supplement: reflect the mistakes, herbalist Zhang Jingyue paid attention to the syndrome differentiation of deficiency cold syndrome, he proposed "the cold syndrome has slight symptoms, a physician might not know it.", thus should identify symptoms in details, and he criticized the popular opinion that "there is no supplement method for cold-induced disease", he thinks this opinion is very confusing, so he corrected this opinion concerning methods in Shang Han Lun and proved that supplement method and attack method were both applied in the treatment of cold-induced disease, "among the three hundred ninety-seven methods of Zhongjing, the case of deficiency and cold are over one hundred types; established one hundred thirty prescriptions, among them Ginseng are used in thirty prescriptions, Gui and Fu are used in over fifty prescriptions. Who can say there is no supplement method for cold-induced diseases?", he also gave a further discussion on the harm of the theory "there is no supplement method for cold-induced diseases." and pointed out that in case of attack method is used without identification of deficiency and excess, the result will hurt the health Qi while the pathogenic reasons are not eliminated yet, thus, he holds a viewpoint that "the cold-induced disease is totally on deficiency and excess, it is easier to treat a case of excess, it is difficult to treat a case of deficiency, for the Primordial Qi is already deficient, as a result, the pathogenic reason is not easy to be relieved. In the treatment of cold-induced disease with deficiency, do not know support but only know attack pathogens, attack method applied then deficient condition turns worse, deficiency turns worse then there is no hope of surviving.", and he also explained the reasons for applying supplement method in the treatment of cold-induced disease, insist on the treatment principle based on syndrome differentiation, he also criticized provincial popular opinions, for example "there is no relief method for dysentery",or "there is no coldness when blood is observed", and he proposed the treatment of disease should be based on the condition of disease, should not strictly follow the established old rules, for those popular hematemesis treatment method "all use nourishing Yin to eliminate fire as method", he strongly advises the theory of herbalist Wang Haogu "all six Qi could lead to loss of blood, not only fire", and pointed out different principles for various conditions, herbalist Zhang Jingyue could identify the deficiency and cold in details, good in warm supplement, is that he knows well about syndrome differentiation and treatment of Yin and Yang, exterior and interior, cold and heat, deficiency and excess, not impartial and based on method of bias;⑸.apply supplement discharge warm or cool, according to syndrome identification: herbalist Zhang Jingyue hold a viewpoint that the application of supplement discharge warm or cool methods, should see details of syndrome identification, should not insist own opinion, the previous herbalist ever had a viewpoint that "relieving the exterior should not away from heat, attack the interior should not away from cold", herbalist Zhang Jingyue hold a viewpoint that the harm of this viewpoint is much, should analysis in details, and should follow the principles that the application of supplement need basing on the precondition "there is no excess syndrome get identified", the application of warm supplement need based on the precondition "there is no heat syndrome get identified", for those syndromes of excessive fire and heat, he is against the opinion "misidentify deficiency and cold, use warm supplement rashly.".

 Zhang Jingyue's academic achievement, classification of the Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), systemized the theory of TCM: the ancient works the Nei Jing(the Inner Canon) is one of the four fundamental classics of TCM, the indepth study of the Inner Canon was a contribution of herbalist Zhang Jingyue to the development of TCM, the works Lei Jing is the result of his 30 years study of the Inner Canon, he classified the part Su Wen and Ling Shu all into 12 categories, the content of his classification is basically same and consistent with the basic fundamental theories of modern TCM(Yin Yang and five elements, Zang Fu viscera and meridians, pathological reasons and pathogenesis, four diagnostic methods and eight principles include exterior, interior, cold, heat, deficiency, excess, Yin Yang, treatment methods and treatment principles, etc.), it is a proof that herbalist Zhang Jingyue has an indepth study of the Inner Canon.

 Zhang Jingyue's academic achievement, exploration and in-depth study of Shang Han Lun: herbalist Zhang Jingyue has his in-depth study with the ancient works Shang Han Lun, the related articles are collected in his book Jing Yue Quan Shu·Mai Shen Zhang·Shang Han Dian, total 2 volumes, the 1st volume is composed of 32 articles, interpreted the meaning of ancient works Nei Jing(the Inner Canon), to correct the meanings of "Shang Han", gave an interpretation on the theory of Shang Han Lun, focused on the general pathogenic reasons, syndrome differentiation, treatment methods, the 2nd volume is composed of 26 articles, interpreted the main syndromes and symptoms, and treatment of the syndromes accordingly, he tried to interpret the ancient works Shang Han Lun from its fine details and meanings not easily understood, and explained the in-depth connotation of herbalist Zhang Zhongjing from three aspects, pathological reasons, develop and transmission, and eight principles. His study method of Shang Han Lun is really rare and can be counted on fingers, etc.

 Zhang Jingyue's academic achievement, contributions to the fundamental theory of TCM: about the fundamental theory of TCM, herbalist Zhang Jingyue hold a viewpoint that medicine theory and Zhou Yi(the I Ching) are of the same origin, he enriched the application of Yin Yang theory in the TCM with the theory of Zhou Yi(the I Ching), and this also pushed the development of the Yi-ology.

 Zhang Jingyue's academic achievement, contributions to the diagnostics of TCM: herbalist Zhang Jingyue emphasized in the diagnosis questions of TCM and has his specific viewpoints on inspection, inquiry, and pulse-taking, related articles are collected in his works Lei Jing under the title “Mai Se Lei”, and in articles under the title "Chuan Zhong Lu","Ming Li" and "Yin Yang", are collected in his works Jing Yue Quan Shu.

 Zhang Jingyue's academic achievement, contributions to prescriptions and medicine: herbalist Zhang Jingyue is excellent in the supplement of Yang and Yin, he has own specific viewpoints in the applications of prescriptions, the related volume "Ben Cao Zheng" is his academic herbalism works and collected in his book Jing Yue Quan Shu, his interpretation and application of ancient classical prescriptions and newly established prescriptions are collected in the volume "Gu Fang Ba Zhen" and "Xin Fang Ba Zhen", he proposed that the application of herbs should be based on identification the Yin and Yang nature of the herbs, established a complete theory of physical treatment in supplement Yin, and paid attention to the Zhen Yin(the Primordial Yin), suggested the herb prepared Rehmannia root and Chinese angelica root in nourishing of essence and blood, besides, his works "Ben Cao Zheng" recorded the herb Chuan Bei Mu(Fritillaria roylei Hooker) earlier than other herbal works.

 Zhāng Jǐngyuè Refine and Simple Principle for Medication in practice: in the medication and practice, herbalist Zhang Jingyue proposed that "Refined and Professional" as his principle, never passed off fish eyes like pearls. These characteristics are represented clearly in his works Xin Fang Ba Zhen(New Prescriptions of Eight Tactical Arrays) incisively and vividly. As herbalist Zhang Jingyue proposed that “the key point of treatment, should be fine and not in chaotic, thus to the best.”, so firstly he suggested the herb's potency should be professional and single-minded. Those recipes and prescriptions created by himself all have pure simple and refined professional characteristics in efficacy. For example those recipes in the Tonic Tactical Arrays, and transformed from ancient recipes. These four recipes all reduced those discharge herbs in original ancient recipes which they based on, and added tonics for nourish essence, which make it pure tonifying without a mix, the herbs used are professional and with strong potency. And his prescriptions thoughts are also represented, “to supplement with counteracting, better use small dosage to replenish.”, and “without refining treatment, then supplement could not treat deficiency, the attack could not drive away pathogens.”. Second, herbalist Zhang Jingyue also advised prescription herbs should be used with refined principles. As if the herbs are used in various chaotics orders and with many kinds, its potency and efficacy definitely could not be professional. So the herbs should be simple and refine, is an obvious characteristic in the prescription application of herbalist Jingyue, according to statistics in the Xin Fang Ba Zhen(New Prescriptions of Eight Tactical Arrays), a total of 186 prescriptions, the medication of herbalist Zhang Jingyue in actual practice, is consistent with his principle and propose, refined and professional in herb potency and efficacy, simple easy with effective results.

 Use ancient prescriptions with flexibility: herbalist Zhang Jingyue created many new prescriptions, based on ancient prescriptions with his flexible application and supplements with new methods. His magic and miracle skills in the transformation of the ancient prescriptions were not the same as others, instead, based on his own creative viewpoints. Based on ancient recipes, hold the meaning “intentions better full and penetrating” of those ancient prescriptions, and created many new prescriptions, achieved obvious results in practices. For example, the prescription Liu Wei Di Huang Wan was a general tonic to replenish the liver nourish kidney, and nourish Yin, based on this, herbalist Zhang Jingyue drew out inferences about other cases from one instance, generated five similar prescriptions. These transformed new prescriptions all followed the principle of kidney and essence tonifying, based on this, and varied with other supplements to achieve different purposes including warm tonic for Qi and blood, or replenish the Kidney-Yang, or replenish kidney and nourish Yin, or replenish vital essence and supplement blood. From these cases, herbalist Zhang Jingyue transformed the ancient recipe Liu Wei Di Huang Wan with subtraction and addition, and already achieved optimal results, grasp and apply them skillfully, his transformation, and application of other ancient recipes is a verification of his skills and level both academic and practical.

 Zhang Jingyue's academic achievement, contributions to internal medicine department:Herbalist Zhang Jingyue also made contributions to syndrome differentiation and treatment of internal medicine department, has his specific viewpoints on various kinds of internal syndromes, has new interpretations and innovations on the theory of previous schools, and treatment methods of previous herbalists. His related innovations are introduced briefly in 6 points:⑴.Established the new syndrome name "Fei Feng" to correct the mistakes of "Zhong Feng", identify conditions with or without pathogens, and set up treatment principles based on deficiency;⑵.Classified vertigo and giddiness to upper vertigo and lower dizziness types, and proposed a pathogenic reason theory deficiency at the lower lead to vertigo;⑶.Differentiate panting into deficiency and excess types, identify cough as endogenous syndrome and exogenous syndrome;⑷.Differentiate insomnia into pathogenic or without pathogen, differentiate the distension and fullness syndrome according to deficiency and excess;⑸.Differentiate blood syndrome into the excessive fire and the hurt of Qi, set up treatment according to differences between fire, Qi and blood;⑹.Establish the prompt diuresis principle for the treatment of diarrhea, cautiously attack principle for constipation syndrome, and dysentery not only attribute to dampness and heat pathogens.

 Zhāng Jǐngyuè Take pity on Primordial Qi and prevent disease, the ancient article Su Wen·Shang Gu Tian Zhen Lun suggested that, a person in living life, able to “pass away over a hundred years age”, which means the ancient wise man already discovered the natural lifespan of a living person is over 100 years. Herbalist Zhang Jingyue also holds a viewpoint in his treatise Zhong Xing Lun(the Treatise on Reviving at Middle Age) that the natural life span of a person should be over 100 years. Although the lifespan of individuals may differ for various reasons including inherited genes, etc, most living persons should live over age 90 to 100 years. But in fact, most of the living persons became slow in movement over 50 years of age, the reason is for the cause lack of health reservation in the postnatal period. Herbalist Jingyue also holds this kind of viewpoints and suggested in his treatise Zhong Xing Lun that except for the natural and man-made disasters, this theory of herbalist Jingyue not only see the normal physiological and social demand of living person but also should self-control these demands, compare with those suppression thoughts of normal human desires in those epochs, it is big progress both in cognition and practice.

 Besides, herbalist Zhang Jingyue also made new development and contribution to health maintenance theory, senile disease and pediatric diseases, syndromes of gynecology, external medicine, ENT department(ear nose throat department), ophthalmology, psychics, psychosomatic medicine, eugenetics, acupuncture and moxibustion of TCM. The epoch of herbalist Zhang Jingyue, is a flourishing epoch of TCM academics, and schools of thought, his academic theories triggered big resounding ever since it was known, he is a great herbalist, physician, and medical scientist of the Ming dynasty.

References:
  • 1.張介賓(Zhāng Jièbīn):introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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