孫壹奎(Sun Yikui):introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

TCM Knowledge:Prominent Ancient Herbalists ✵To help clients and TCM fans know better with the common knowledge of ancient TCM and syndrome differentiation, there comes the online knowledge database in classified categories.

 ✵The main content including: the introduction of the most famous and talented Ancient Herbalists and Distinguished Physicians, the most influential and Well-Known Ancient Works, common Diagnostic Methods, the introduction of Common Disease and Syndromes, etc.

孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí)Alias: 文垣(Wén Yuán),東宿(Dōng Sù)
Popular name:  生生子(Shēngshēng Zǐ)English Name: Sun Yikui, or Yikui Sun(Given/Sur Name)
Nationality: HanBelief:  Taoism
Hometown: Xiu Ning,AnhuiDates: about 1520-1619AD
Main works: 《赤水玄珠》(Chi Shui Xuan Zhu, or Black Pearl of the Red River) in 30 volumes,
《醫旨緒余》(Yi Zhi Xu Yu, or the Supplement of the Treatment Fundamental Points) in 2 volumes,
《孫文垣醫案》(Sun Wen Yuan Yi An, or Case Records of Sun Wenyuan) in 5 volumes
Representative works: 《赤水玄珠》(Chi Shui Xuan Zhu, or Black Pearl of the Red River) in 30 volumes
Reputation: 神醫(Miracle Herbalist)Star-rating:   

 Introduction: Sun Yikui
 ✵孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí),also known as 孙文垣(Sūn Wén Yuán) or 孙東宿(Sūn Dōng Sù),(1520 or 1522-1619), author of the 《赤水玄珠》(Chi Shui Xuan Zhu, or Black Pearl of the Red River),《醫旨緒余》(Yi Zhi Xu Yu, or the Supplement of the Treatment Fundamental Points) and 《孫文垣醫案》(Sun Wen Yuan Yi An, or Case Records of Sun Wenyuan), collected by his sons, in which he advocates the combination of various schools and maintains that a doctor should be conversant with all the theories in order to master the whole art of healing.

 ✧孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí,Sun Yikui,1522~1619AD), native to Xiu Ning of Anhui, alias 文垣(Wén Yuán), alternative name 東宿(Dōng Sù), monastic name 生生子(Shēngshēng Zǐ), born at Jia Jing Years of Ming(1522 AD), passed away during Wan Li Years of Ming(1619 AD), disciple of herbalist 汪石山(Wāng Shíshān). Herbalist 汪石山(Wāng Shíshān) inherited theory of herbalist 朱丹溪(Zhū Dānxī) and also affected with the theory of herbalist 东垣(Lǐ DōngYuán), good in the application of herb Ginseng and Astragalus, attention with Ying-Qi and Wei-Qi. Although herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) was then passed on a disciple of herbalist 朱丹溪(Zhū Dānxī), he did not learn the theory “Yang is usually redundant, while Yin is ever deficient.", instead, he was good in warm tonics in academic aspects.

 ✦Herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) very rich in talent,and wise intelligent than others ever since he was a child, he learned Confucianism and achieved much, at his 15 years age, travel to Kuo Cang area to visit his eldest brother, and occasionally met a Taoist, passed him some incarnation and magic theurgy, very miraculous and effective in practice. After Jiajing Years of Ming(1522~1566AD), crafty sycophant full in the court, obstacles the official routine of those able and virtuous persons,corrupt court condition turned many scholars gave up official career and turned to medical practice,at the same time 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) knew clearly that his father generation studied very hard but physical condition weaker and body tired, his father studied with Confucianism and joined test many times but never passed, fell sick from overwork, hard and trudge in official career, so he gradually changed his life plan too, and gave up official career too. Ever since his father caught disease, he aspired to learn medicine, studied with legacy classics of ancient immortals Huang Di and Qi Bo, and works of those great herbalists, never stopped reading for 3 years, later he followed with herbalist 黄古潭(Huáng Gǔtán), 黄古潭(Huáng Gǔtán) was a disciple of herbalist 汪石山(Wāng Shíshān), herbalist 黄古潭(Huáng Gǔtán) often hold above normal viewpoints, and 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) asked his teaching when met trouble disease, and never gave up easily for those cases hardly to be diagnosed with hesitation, those high-level healing arts of 黄古潭(Huáng Gǔtán) got herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) benefit a lot both in medical theory and clinical practice.

 ✧To raise his academic level ever travel far to area of Xiang Gan Zhe Jiang seek teachers and herbalists friend,he traveled out from Xin Du(today's Xin Du county of Si Chuan) far to Poyang Lake and Lu Shan Mountain, Yuan Jiang River, and Xiang Jiang River, Su Nan and Zhe Jiang, visit famous teachers everywhere,consulted widely and learned widely, study and knowledge turned rich, study with medical crafts, and gradually became excellent in medicine in 30 years,treat folks and god good result every case,famous near and far. Experienced over 30 years study and travel,at early years of Wang Li(1573~1620AD), he habitat at Wu Xing, started his clinical practice to save folks, his prescriptions often successfully treated severe and lingering illness, high success rate to diagnosis of life or death for others, so his medical fame rise up soon, enjoyed quite a reputation.

 ✦Herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) not only good in clinical practice,also gave development and elaboration in medical theory,famous for his specific theory of Vital Gate(gate of vitality) and theory of Triple Energizer,from the preface of his works,laters knew that his medical study and clinical practice experience may similar as ancient herbalist 倉公(Cāng Gōng) and 扁鵲(Biǎn Què), full of legendary characters, and he was respected as a famous herbalist at the epoch. In scholarship, herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) hold opinion against "use recipe books as fast track" and thought highly of theory study,he not only buried himself in ancient classics Nei Jing,Nan Jing and herbal classics, also combined various schools after herbalist Zhang Zhongjing,putting together to achieve mastery through a comprehensive study,he hold a viewpoint that “醫者能因古人之法,而審其用法之時,斯得古人立法之心矣.Herbalist should think about the ancient methods, and question the epoch and case of the ancient methods applied, so can understand the goal of ancient herbalist.”, and proposed to read works of ancient folks,must do in-depth study with their own initial intention and meanings in writing itself,gave complete analysis and emphasis that in medical study should learn widely from others' strong points,his scholastic spirit still worthy to be referred for today's folks.

 ✧In practice, herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) attached importance to syndrome differentiation and identification first. He held viewpoints that “for the cases whatever serious or mild, big or small, all have differences on cold, heat, deficiency, excess, external, internal, Qi, blood”, and pathological changes oftenly have cases start from same conditions and end with different conditions, so the treatment also should not hold one method without vary and changes. Based on this kind of guiding ideology, he pointed out that those errors and mistakes of those doctors same epoch abuse herbs with cold and bitter characteristics for syndromes including fever due to internal injury, asthenic disease, blood disease, and feared to use herbs with warm and sweat property. He thought highly of protection and treatment with the Primordial Qi of the Triple Energizer, against abuse cold herbs, and also pointed out the problems of overuse herbs with hot bitter property, and herbs to dredge and eliminate dampness and diuresis,and proposed that not only the herbs with pure Yin property and cold bitter property may lead to weakness of spleen stomach, exhaustion of Primordial Qi,or if overuse herbs for dredging, may also lead to exhaustion of Primordial Qi. And if abuse and overdose of herbs for dredging and eliminating dampness and diuresis, may often cause of the Kidney-Qi. As the Triple Energizer is the result which the Primordial Qi works elsewhere,also support the ministerial fire,so all cases if the Primordial Qi of the Vital-Gate not sufficient, or Ministerial Fire turned weak,syndrome of Primordial Qi at Triple Energizer may occur, its pathological changes may including different cases like (kidney)could not receiving and holding Qi, grain and water could not be transformed,unable to distinguish clarity and turbidity(essence and waste of digested food) etc. In the pathological changes of the Triple Energizer, herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) paid high attention with the Cold and Deficiency of the lower energizer, in his treatise and discussion about abdominal distension with qi-deficiency, the kidney type diarrhea, hold an opinion these all attributed to deficiency and cold of Lower Energizer. And other cases like retention of urine, enuresis, urinary incontinence etc, may also be related to it. And, for the treatment of lower dispersion(renal diabetes) and (kidney)could not receiving and holding Qi, he also attention treatment together with Essence and Qi together.

 Sun Yikui ✦With careful and hard study widely over 30 years, herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) gradually became wide knowledge and rich experience, finally reached to very high state both in theory and practice, in theory his experience and mind level up to like "as know the theory in mirrors", in practice his level reached to "effective and cured once a prescription issued", and his medical crafts already reached to very high accomplishments, and ever since he bears some great eminence, during the years of his clinical practice, herbalist ever compiled great works, and what survived till today are known as:《赤水玄珠》(Chi Shui Xuan Zhu,or Black Pearl of the Red River) in 30 volumes,over 70 sections;《醫旨緒余》(Yi Zhi Xu Yu, or the Supplement of the Treatment Fundamental Points) in 2 volumes,over 70 articles; and 《孫文垣醫案》(Sun Wen Yuan Yi An, or Case Records of Sun Wenyuan) in 5 volumes, collected total 407 cases; and these three works got collected by later folks and titled as 《赤水玄珠全集》(Chi Shui Xuan Zhu Quan Ji, or Collected Works of the Black Pearl of the Red River),as he proposed in the preface: "The Tao of treatment intiated from Ben Cao of Shen Nong and Nei Jing of Huang Di, Tang Ye of Yi Yin,...those who drink water, should know its origins, those residue classics of Xuan Yuan and Qi Bo, are the top Kunlun Mountains of ancient alchemy. Those schools after herbalist Zhang Zhongjing, are all the branches of the Kunlun Mountains. Those herbalists will get refine study if profession in it, or miscellaneous if not a profession in it. Those who hold will, unchanged if one will, interrupt if wills. The ancient story of Weixun shoot the louse, for the cause of professionalism....thus the book is mainly for evidence. About treatment skills, the difficulty is syndrome differentiation and syndrome identification, the easiness is use recipes. For the cases, whatever serious or mild, big or small, all have differences on cold, heat, deficiency, excess, external, internal, Qi, blood. If one knows these eight words in a real sense, then will not losing the odds. Ancient saying watch the syndrome as interrogation with enemy, know oneself as well as the enemy, fight a hundred battles, win a hundred victories." these works generated important influence to later generation field of treatment and left very previous legacy for later herbalist, these works still kept and gleaned the wisdom and those creative insights of this great herbalist 孫壹奎(Sūn Yīkuí) and his legendary story.

References:
  • 1.孫壹奎(Sun Yikui):introduction about his biography and legends,main books and academic thoughts.

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