龐安時(Páng ānshí):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.

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 ✵The main content including: the introduction of the most famous and talented Ancient Herbalists and Distinguished Physicians, the most influential and Well-Known Ancient Works, common Diagnostic Methods, the introduction of Common Disease and Syndromes, etc.

龐安時(Páng ānshí).

  
Brief Introduction
漢語名(Chinese Name): 龐安時(Páng ānshí)Alias: 安常(ān cháng)
Popular name:  蘄水道人(Qí Shuǐ Dào Rén,or Qi River Taoist)English Name: Pang Anshi, or Anshi Pang(Given/Sur Name)
Nationality: HanBelief:  Taoism
Hometown: QiShuiDates: about 1042~1099,or 1100AD
Main works: 《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Disease Theory on Cold-Induced Disease) in 6 volumes,
《難經辨》(Nan Jing Bian, or Discussion on the Classic of Questioning),《難經解義》(Nan Jing Jie Yi, or Interpretation of the Classic of Questioning),
《主對集》(Zhu Dui Ji),《本草补遗》(Ben Cao Bu Yi),
Representative works: 《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases)
Reputation: 北宋醫王(Master Herbalist of NorthSong Dynasty)Star-rating:   

 Introduction: Pang Anshi
 ✵龐安時(Páng ānshí):physician noted for several medical works, among which the most widely read was a detailed and comprehensive treatise on various kinds of fever under the title of Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, or General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases(1100).

 ✧龐安時(Páng ānshí,year 1042~1099,or 1100AD),alias 安常(ān cháng),self title 蘄水道人(Qí Shuǐ Dào Rén,or Qi River Taoist), native to QiShui(ancient toponym, today's XiShui county, Hubei province),he was titled as “Bei Song Yi Wang”(Master Herbalist of NorthSong Dynasty).龐安時(Páng ānshí) born at family with doctor tradition, smart and fond of learning since child, do not forget once read. Ever read the classics of Huang Di and Pulse classics of Bian Que, know well its theories sooner,then could gave new interpretations,he was 20 years age the time,caught disease and deaf later,went on with studying ancient herbal classicsLing ShuTai SuJia Yi Jing etc, also studied with those classics related to medicine, and studied thoroughly and correlatively. Herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) mastered with and had excellent treatment crafts,treat and care with patient urgent conditions,not seek private benefit when treat people,often invite patients who came to seek treatment stay in his own house and took care of them by himself until they recovered health and said farewell with each other,in his late years,herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) combined theories from different schools and his own clinical experience,compiled and edited medicine classics 《傷寒總病論》(Shang Han Zong Bing Lun) in 6 volumes,gave further supplement and interpretation elaboration with the thought of ancient herbalist Zhang Zhongjing. Its extreme characteristics are lay importance on the interpretation of febrile disease and hold a viewpoint to differentiate with and separate febrile disease from cold-induced disease, this new thought was regarded by later generation as a big devotion to the development of the exogenous disease.

 ✦Herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) fond of recipes in his childhood,carefully studied with ancient classicsNei JingNan JingShang Han Lun and other professional medicine academic works,also knew well with different classics and history schools,think thoroughly and away from disruption of Confucian school of idealist philosophy, thus he had many correct and penetrating views on medical theory and practice, extreme devotions on cold-induced disease, for his study with depth and brave clinical practice, made it easy for apply medicine, acupuncture or massage in treatment,and obvious effects achieved,but he was a classical person not bundled with previous theories, hold on his free will seek with audacity and mediated in depth,and achieved many new theories and creations. For example herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) set up a Patient Workshop,let patients stay with,this was a creation of the TCM system in the middle of North Song Dynasty,he also tried to reduce the burden of patients and produce herbs for patients, hold on his own belief "(to be a doctor) not for benefit",his distingue medical ethics,really hard to reach for doctors of today's China.

 ✧On the academic thoughts, herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) not only master with cold-induced disease, also good with epidemic febrile disease, knew well internal, pediatric and gynecology,wide and rich experience of clinical practice, gave extreme elaboration with cold-induced disease and epidemic febrile disease.

 ✦Interpretation on theory of cold-induced disease:for the treatment of cold-induced disease,herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) hold his theory major from pathogenic factors and pathogenesis,and combined other factors including physique,geography,climate factors to detect,he inherited previous theory and viewpoint that the pathogenic reason of cold-induced disease was severe pathogenic cold,and it varies for the different cases suffered from difference of time, geography location, physique, and represented as different syndrome as cold-induced disease,wind-stroke syndrome,wind-warm syndrome, febrile or warm disease, diseases caused by dampness,summer-heat disease, these different syndromes. He gave further elaboration on the basis of discussions from《傷寒例》(Shang Han Li),emphasised that the common shared pathogenic reason for all exogenous febrile disease was toxic pathogen, although the toxic pathogen has different properties like yin, yang, cold, heat etc, the clinical representation syndrome also varied multiply as wind-stroke,febrile warm,summer dampness,type urgent not serious or serious,but as once caught the toxic pathogen,then caught the common characteristics of all exogenous febrile disease,which means the treatment of exogenous disease should lay importance on method of detoxification. On the other side,he also pointed out that “although the severe pathogenic cold already invaded the human body,but whether it could turned disease depend on factors like the physique strong or weak and the genuine Qi conditions excessive or deficiency,and on the tendency of the severe pathogenic cold transformed",herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) also laid emphasis on the determination of physique reasons,hold viewpoints that “for those cases cold pathogens inside, normally transformed into disease with excess of yin due to yang insufficiency, or into Yin toxin disease; for those with heat inside, normally transformed into disease with excess of yang due to yin insufficiency, or into Yin toxin disease.”,the basic viewpoint about pathogenic factors based on internal reasons,he also recognized that exogenous disease closely related with four seasons climate,geography and dwelling place,for the same hit with severe pathogenic cold,when it attack in winter turned into cold-induced disease,when it attack in spring induced by warmth turned into febrile disease, when it attack in summer induced by heat turned into summer-heat pyrexia disease, attack in summer induced by summer dampness turned into diseases caused by dampness, different syndromes occurred for season climate changes. Not only this, patients living in mountain area more frequency caught wind-stroke syndrome and syncope due to pathogenic cold, patients living in plain area more frequency caught the summer-heat disease and dampness-disease, which proved that disease attack has relations with living habitat too.龐安時(Páng ānshí) treat cold-induced disease both respect rules of Zhang Zhongjing, also change well with flexibility, often treat with personal conditions and place conditions, got many rich experiences on treatment and accumulated rich therapy method of cold-induced disease.

  Pang Anshi✧Interpretation on the theory of epidemic febrile disease: for the epidemic febrile disease, basically herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) classified them as latent Qi(latent pathogen, or warm disease caused by a latent pathogen) and epidemic disease. The former(latent Qi) caused by cold pathogen hit in winter,then varies according to different seasons,including "febrile or warm disease" in spring," heat disease" in summer,and wind-stroke syndrome(Zhong Feng),diseases caused by dampness,wind-warm syndrome etc,龐安時(Páng ānshí) hold a viewpoint that “the cause of the disease is that caught cold in winter, syndromes varies with time changes, thus master herbalists defined them as cold-induced diseases in general.”, and the latent Qi(Fu Qi, or latent pathogen) also could be classified as insidious cold(Fu Han) and insidious heat(Fu Re),but they all different from epidemic febrile disease. Thus he pointed out:“the epidemic febrile disease was caused by the abnormal Qi(Yi Qi, also named pestilential pathogen Li Qi) which display strong toxic, and with characteristics including epidemic, infectiousness, is a kind of syndromes with another kind of character among the exogenous febrile disease,its treatment may differ from the treatment of cold-induced disease, the treatment of cold-induced disease may "has theory to induce perspiration or purgative methods",but "for the epidemic febrile disease,if treatment like cold-induced disease with sweat or purgative methods then definitely death",so herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) hold a viewpoint that the epidemic febrile disease and cold-induced disease should be treated separately,this showed some influence on the form of seasonal febrile disease doctrine in later generations.龐安時(Páng ānshí) observed from his rich clinical practice that,among the epidemic febrile disease the epidemic heat syndrome may be the most serious and dangerous type, he tried made syndrome differentiation of the epidemic heat 5 syndromes with theory of four seasons,five elements, meridians collaterals, and Zang-Fu-organs, has some wise viewpoints, and pointed out different symptoms of the epidemic heat syndromes that “自受乖氣而成臟腑陰陽溫毒者,則春有青筋牽,夏有赤脈,秋有自氣貍,各有黑骨溫,四季有黃肉隨,治療各有各法”.For the treatment of the epidemic heat 5 syndromes, he focused on the heat poison, treat with a large dose of herbs with toxic heat removing property, hot warm and poison diffusion, prescriptions normally used a large dose of gypsum as main content, actually initiated a new way for later herbalist to treat pestilence. Except this, he also compiled works 《辟溫疫論》(Pi Wen Yi Lun) and listed out recipes which could treat epidemic disease and prevent folks caught, etc, which embodies his viewpoints on the importance of prevention for the epidemic disease treatment.

 ✧Works and works survived:herbalist 龐安時(Páng ānshí) gave very high recommend on ancient classics Nan Jing, ever compiled works known in ancient time including Nan Jing Bian, or Discussion on the Classic of Questioning, Zhu Dui Ji, Ben Cao Bu Yi, for the long years, most of the works lost till today, only survived one copy titled Shang Han Zong Bing Lun, General Discourse on Cold-induced Diseases in 6 volumes, Nan Jing Jie Yi(Interpretation of the Classic of Questioning), etc.

References:
  • 1.龐安時(Páng ānshí):introduction about his biography and legend,main books and academic thoughts.

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