Amenia:an introduction of amenorrhea or menostasis.


 TCM Knowledge:Gynecology Syndromes,Women Syndromes ✵Gynecology of TCM is a branch to study the physiological and pathological characteristics of women and to prevent and treat syndromes specific to women. Gynecology of TCM research scope including irregular menstruation, amenia, metrorrhagia, infertility, postpartum syndromes, breast syndromes, and miscellaneous syndromes, etc.

Amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis).
Amenia:menostasis,failure of menstruation 
 ✵The amenia is also known as amenorrhea or menostasis, failure of menstruation to occur at puberty or abnormal stoppage of the menses for more than three months after menstruation.

 ✧ A girl should have first menstruation at around 14 years age, in the case, there is no menstruation after 14 years age, or never has menstruation any longer after one menstruation, or the menstruation stopped suddenly after years of regular menstruation, these are known as amenorrhea or menostasis(failure of menstruation). In the cases, the menstruation stopped itself during pregnancy or breastfeeding, this is normal and not menostasis.

 ✦ The pathogenic reason that leads to amenorrhea or menostasis, are known mostly due to reasons including spleen deficiency, blood deficiency, Qi stagnation, and blood stasis, cold and dampness accumulation, etc. The cases of spleen deficiency and blood deficiency types are mainly because of Qi and blood exhaustion and insufficiency; the cases of Qi stagnation and blood stasis are mainly because of cold and dampness obstruction, blood could not go downward. The related syndromes are introduced: amenia of the spleen-deficiency type, amenia of the blood-deficiency type, amenia of the blood deficiency and deficiency-heat type, amenia of the blood heat and Qi deficiency type, amenia of the Qi-stagnancy and blood stasis, amenia of the cold-dampness stagnation and accumulation type, amenia of the kidney and lung deficiency type, amenia of the heart deficiency type, amenia of fat constitution and phlegm type, amenia of slim constitution and blood stagnancy type, amenia of slim constitution and blood heat type, amenia of much raw food or drink type, amenia of much hot spicy food type, amenia of sexual intercourse hurt type, amenia of impatient and anger type, amenia of psychosis type, amenia of the blood-phase type and amenia of the water-phase type, amenia of unmarried girl; also give introduction about various types of deteriorated syndromes develops from amenia: amenia develops to regurgitating menstruation, amenia develops to Pian Jing(slanting menstruation), amenia develops to consumption, amenia develops to general edema, amenia with enlarged abdomen, amenia of unmarried girl develops to consumption, etc.

 ✵Common terms related to amenia are introduced:

 Ceasing of menstruation: a general term for the stoppage of the menses, including abnormal stoppage in a disease state or normal stoppage during pregnancy and lactation, or even referring to the ending of a period with no more menstrual discharge.

 Amenorrhea: failure of menstruation to occur at puberty or abnormal stoppage of the menses for more than three months after menarche.

 Evil-fire amenorrhea: a type of amenorrhea ascribed to endogenous heat and fire, usually accompanied by cough and shoulder pain if the lung is involved, by restlessness at night if the heart is involved, by hypochondriac pain if the liver is involved, and by constipation if the spleen is involved.

 Helminthic amenorrhea: a type of amenorrhea caused by intestinal worms that consume yin and blood.

 Blood-stasis amenorrhea: a type of amenorrhea caused by stagnation of Qi or accumulation of cold which leads to blood stasis in the thoroughfare and conception vessels, usually accompanied by lower abdominal pain and tenderness.

 Blood-deficiency amenorrhea: a type of amenorrhea caused by chronic loss of blood, multiple deliveries, or intemperate sexual life which leads to the deficiency of yin and blood, usually accompanied by anorexia, emaciation, pallor or sallow complexion.

 Blood-exhaustion amenorrhea:severe case of amenorrhea due to blood deficiency.

 Heart-insufficiency amenorrhea: a type of amenorrhea caused by depression or anxiety that involves the heart in the function of governing blood.

 Spleen-insufficiency amenorrhea: a type of amenorrhea usually accompanied by anorexia, stuffiness in the abdomen, and loose bowels.

 Kidney-insufficiency amenorrhea: a type of amenorrhea caused by a congenital defect, marrying too early, intemperate sexual life or multiple deliveries, usually marked by tinnitus, aching in the loins, and weakness of the legs.

Amenia of the spleen-deficiency type.
Amenia:menostasis,failure of menstruation 
 ✵The amenia of the spleen-deficiency type is mainly due to spleen-deficiency: symptoms normally including menstruation stopped for several months, mental weariness and mental fatigue, emaciation with sallow complexion(or pale looks with sallow complexion), flustered and shortness of breath, poor appetite(do not feel like eating), distaste for food(tasteless for food), tastelessness(bland taste in the mouth), abdominal distension, dilute stool(watery stool), the coldness of limbs(feel cold in hands and feet), edema of the face(puffy swelling of the face and eyes), edema of feet and legs, pale tongue and slimy white tongue coating, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "For the amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there is the case due to spleen deficiency and could not generating blood, there is the case due to spleen hurt and exhaust blood, there is the case due to stomach fire and exhaust blood, there is the case due to spleen and stomach hurt and blood insufficiency, there is the case due to strain hurt heart, anger hurt the liver and blood insufficiency, there is the case due to kidney-water insufficiency and could not support the liver as a result blood insufficiency, there is the case due to lung deficiency and could not circulate blood." [02].

 "For the woman or girl amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there are cases mainly due to spleen and stomach hurt, should not randomly use herbs to induce or hasten menstrual flow..." [03].

 "For the amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there are cases due to spleen deficiency hurt and could not generate blood, or cases due to spleen stagnant hurt and blood exhaustion...or cases due to spleen and stomach hurt and blood insufficiency." [04].

 "A woman suffers from amenia(menstruation stop), or due to intercourse after drunk, or due to strain hurt, or due to vomit blood and blood loss, hurt the liver and spleen..." [06].

 "A woman suffers from amenia(menstruation stop), there are cases could not generate blood due to spleen deficiency, there are cases blood circulation obstruction due to spleen depression, there are cases blood exhaustion due to stomach fire, there are cases blood insufficiency due to spleen and stomach hurt, there are cases blood insufficiency due to strain hurt blood, there are cases blood insufficiency due to liver hurt from anger, there are cases blood insufficiency due to kidney deficiency, there are cases blood circulation slow due to lung Qi deficiency..." [06].

 "The spleen and stomach are hurt, reduced appetite(take little food), Qi exhaustion and blood withered, menses not come, ...should not use recipes to hasten menstrual flow, or it hurt the middle Qi, the Yin blood will be dried and might develop to consumption, difficult to treat..." [08].



Amenia of the blood-deficiency type.
Amenia:menostasis,failure of menstruation 
 ✵The amenia of the blood-deficiency type is mainly due to blood-deficiency: symptoms normally including menstruation stopped for several months, dizziness and blurred vision(dizzy of the head and dim of sight), or occasionally headache, palpitation flustered(fearful and flustered), defecate is dry(constipation), looks pale(pale facial appearance), lip and tongue color pale white and bloodless, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "The amenia(absence of normal menstrual flow) is the condition of blood exhaustion." [02].
 "For the amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there is the case due to spleen deficiency and could not generating blood, there is the case due to spleen hurt and exhaust blood, there is the case due to stomach fire and exhaust blood, there is the case due to spleen and stomach hurt and blood insufficiency, there is the case due to strain hurt heart, anger hurt the liver and blood insufficiency, there is the case due to kidney-water insufficiency and could not support the liver as a result blood insufficiency, there is the case due to lung deficiency and could not circulate blood." [02].

 "For the amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there is a case due to wind and cold pathogen affecting collaterals of the uterus, or intercourse in a drunk state, or blood exhaustion and blood mass, or frightened and fearsome from falling, these all lead to stoppage of the menses." [03].
 "Cases woman blood exhaustion, or stasis blood accumulation, irregular menstruation, menses comes or not comes with uncertainty, irregular abdominal pain, heaviness and pain in waist and hips, tightness and hard in lower abdomen..." [03].

 "For the amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there are cases due to strain hurt heart and blood insufficiency, or cases due to anger hurt the liver and blood insufficiency..." [04].

 "A woman suffers from amenia(menstruation stop), there are cases could not generate blood due to spleen deficiency, there are cases blood circulation obstruction due to spleen depression, there are cases blood exhaustion due to stomach fire, there are cases blood insufficiency due to spleen and stomach hurt, there are cases blood insufficiency due to strain hurt blood, there are cases blood insufficiency due to liver hurt from anger, there are cases blood insufficiency due to kidney deficiency, there are cases blood circulation slow due to lung Qi deficiency..." [06].

 "There are Qi abundance and blood excess, menses is stagnant and blocked, and menses is stopped, ...constitutional weakness, weakness of the Chong and Ren and blocked, blood exhaustion and menses stopped, ...after several times of abortion, ... Ren and Chong are hurt from strain, ..." [07].

Amenia of the blood deficiency and deficiency-heat type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the blood deficiency and deficiency-heat type is mainly due to blood deficiency and deficiency-heat: symptoms normally are menstruation stopped for several months, tidal reddening of the cheeks, heat in the palm of the hand and arch of the foot, fever in an array, sweating in sleep, perspiration stop woke up, vexation, insomnia, dry skin and shed white scales, or cough, spitting blood, sticky phlegm, short of breath, asthma, dry mouth, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "Cases blood deficiency with fire, menses exhausted, gradually develops to amenia or stoppage of menses, gradually thin and emaciated and affected by hot flash..." [03].

 “A woman and the unmarried girl suffers from amenia(amenorrhoea), what is it? The regular menstruation comes once a month; the menstruation comes twice a month, due to the reason blood heat; the menstruation comes once in two months, due to the reason blood cold... Woman and the unmarried girl suffer from menstruation comes once in three months, what is it? It is the condition of seasonal menstruation, possibly a sign of not longevity." [05].

 "A woman suffers from amenia(menstruation stop), or due to intercourse after drunk, or due to strain hurt, or due to vomit blood and loss of blood, hurt the liver and spleen..." [06].

 "As the book Nei Jing recorded: the syndrome of two Yang attack the heart and the spleen;... Woman's menses do not come, due the blood is exhausted by heat...it develops to Feng Xiao(ancient syndrome name, blood deficiency then heat, the more heat the severe deficiency, skin and muscle emaciated as the wind blows things, normally is known as emaciation due to emotional upset)...it is the syndrome of menses stoppage due to blood deficiency." [10].



Amenia of the blood heat and Qi deficiency type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the blood heat and Qi deficiency type is mainly due to blood heat and Qi deficiency: symptoms normally including numbness in body and limbs, pain in the body, vexation and tiredness, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "In case a woman suffers from blood heat and Qi deficiency, amenia, as a result, blood accumulation, numbness in body and limbs, pain in the body, vexation and tiredness, or Shi Nǚ(unmarried girl) age about 15 years old, menses not come, emaciated and yellow complexion gradually, it will develop to consumption..." [03].



Amenia of the Qi-stagnancy and blood stasis.
Amenia:menostasis,failure of menstruation  
 ✵The amenia of the Qi-stagnancy and blood stasis is mainly due to Qi-stagnancy and blood stasis: symptoms normally including menstruation stopped for several months, mental depression and unhappy, fidgety mood and easy angry, distention oppression and pain in chest abdomen and bilateral hypochondria pain, distention in the lower abdomen, or pain with block, severe under the touch, there is purple-black petechia at sides of the tongue, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "In the case of menstruation stopped in months(amenia), swelling, is the condition of blood stasis entering into the spleen channel." "In the case of menstruation stopped in months(amenia), abdominal mass and pains, is the condition of blood accumulation and forming an abdominal mass." [03].

 "A woman often worry and easy to be angry, as a result, Qi stagnancy and blood stasis, menses stopped,... If mistakenly treated as deficiency syndrome and use tonics, then Qi is supplemented and binding furtherly, blood is supplemented and condensed furtherly, will develop to syndromes Zheng Jia and swelling pains..." [08].

 "A woman suffers from menses stopped due to cold, is the syndrome of Shi Jia recorded in the book Nei Jing(the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor). Cold pathogen invading the gate of the uterus, blood condensed and not dissipated, retained and accumulated, abdomen enlarged, shape like a cup, menses do not come, also known as Xue Jia..." [10].



Amenia of the cold-dampness stagnation and accumulation type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the cold-dampness stagnation and accumulation type is mainly due to cold-dampness stagnation and accumulation: symptoms normally including menstruation stopped for several months, cold pain in the lower abdomen, cold in limbs, looks green, sense of suppression in the chest(choking sensation in the chest), nausea(feel like vomiting), dilute stool(watery stool), leucorrhoea much, lumbar cold pain(cold pain in the low back), etc.

Amenia of the kidney and lung deficiency type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the kidney and lung deficiency type is mainly due to kidney and lung deficiency:
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "The amenia(absence of normal menstrual flow) is the condition of blood exhaustion." [02].
 "For the amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there is the case due to spleen deficiency and could not generating blood, there is the case due to spleen hurt and exhaust blood, there is the case due to stomach fire and exhaust blood, there is the case due to spleen and stomach hurt and blood insufficiency, there is the case due to strain hurt heart, anger hurt the liver and blood insufficiency, there is the case due to kidney-water insufficiency and could not support the liver as a result blood insufficiency, there is the case due to lung deficiency and could not circulate blood." [02].

 "For the amenia(amenorrhea or menostasis), there are cases due to lung Qi deficiency and could not promote the circulation of blood." [04].

 "A woman suffers from amenia(menstruation stop), there are cases could not generate blood due to spleen deficiency, there are cases blood circulation obstruction due to spleen depression, there are cases blood exhaustion due to stomach fire, there are cases blood insufficiency due to spleen and stomach hurt, there are cases blood insufficiency due to strain hurt blood, there are cases blood insufficiency due to liver hurt from anger, there are cases blood insufficiency due to kidney deficiency, there are cases blood circulation slow due to lung Qi deficiency..." [06].



Amenia of the heart deficiency type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the heart deficiency type is mainly due to worry hurt the heart, heart deficiency and exhaustion of heart Qi: symptoms are worrying, no appetite, anemia(menstruation stop, menostasis), etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman depends on blood, blood is vigorous and menstruation is in order...The blood is governed by the heart viscus, in general, the heart controls the blood, the liver storing blood, the spleen governs the blood...In the condition worry hurt the heart,...the spleen lost support, then no appetite,...the heart is deficient and could not regulate the lung,...the liver turn deficient and hurt, blood could not be stored, as a result, menses blood withered and dried,...the amenia or menostasis comes..." [08].



Amenia of fat constitution and phlegm type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the fat constitution and phlegm type is mainly due to body constitution fat, phlegm accumulation, Qi deficiency and blood dryness, or blood stasis: symptoms normally including anemia(menstruation stop, menostasis), red leukorrhea, phlegm accumulation, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman's physical constitution is fat, phlegm condensed, stagnant and stasis in meridian and collaterals, Qi deficiency and dryness of blood, as a result, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis), or passing red leukorrhea(leukorrhea with bloody discharge)...
 A woman's physical constitution is fat, phlegm accumulation, and much, blood stasis and menses stopped(amenia or menostasis)..." [08].



Amenia of slim constitution and blood stagnancy type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the slim constitution and blood stagnancy type is mainly due to body constitution slim, much heat and much depression, blood insufficiency, and Qi deficiency.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman's physical constitution is slim, much heat and much depression, blood is insufficient and Qi is deficient, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis),..." [08].



Amenia of slim constitution and blood heat type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the slim constitution and blood heat type is mainly due to body constitution slim, blood deficiency and generate heat, endogenous hurt of the Chong channel and Ren channel. This syndrome is one specific type among the Amenia of blood deficiency and deficiency-heat type.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman's physical constitution is slim, blood is insufficient and generates heat, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis), is the condition endogenous hurt of the Chong and Ren channels..." [08].



Amenia of much raw food or drink type.
 
 ✵The amenia of much raw food or drink type is mainly due to take much raw food or drink during menses or after childbirth, symptoms are: irritable or vexed, bitterness in mouth and dryness of tongue, cyanotic yellow complexion, heat or fever, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman takes much raw and cold food or cold drinks during menstruation period or after childbirth, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis) and fever...In the initial stage one or two months, feel cold and heat(or fever), dysphoria in chest palms-soles(upset, irritable, and fever in the chest, palms-soles), bitterness in mouth and dryness of the tongue, cyanotic yellow complexion(looks cyanotic yellow or greenish-yellow), is still treatable,...if it is not treated for a long period, it will develop to Gu Zheng(bone steaming syndrome)..." [08].

 "Anemia with fever: its syndrome is due to hobby taking raw and cold food and drink during menses, or take fruits and cold things after childbirth. In general, it is due to blood turn stasis when meet water. In the initial stage one or two months, chills and fever, irritable and vexed in five centers(vexed in the heart and four palms-cores)...In the condition it is not treated in a half year or a year, it will develop to bone steaming, hot-flash on the face at Zi or Wu time, emaciation, unstoppable diarrhea, no survive in a hundred cases, should be treated urgently..." [09].



Amenia of much hot spicy food type.
 
 ✵The amenia of much hot spicy food type is mainly due to taking much hot spicy food during menses or after childbirth, symptoms are blood exhaustion, hidden fire in the Chong channel and Ren channel, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman got hurt in the Chong and Ren, blood exhaustion and menses stopped(amenia or menostasis), or mistakenly take hot and spicy food, as a result, blood exhaustion, fire hide in Chong and Ren, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis)..." [08].



Amenia of sexual intercourse hurt type.
 
 ✵The amenia of sexual intercourse hurt type is mainly due to hurt from sexual intercourse during menses or after childbirth, symptoms are mass accumulation in the abdomen, size up to egg size, move around left or right, menses stopped, irritable and dysphoria, dizziness and dazzled, cough and panting with phlegm, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman got hurt from sexual intercourse during menses, a mass formed and accumulated in the abdomen region, size could be up to as big as an egg, could move around left or right, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis), develops to dysphoria in chest palms-soles(upset, irritable, and fever in the chest, palms-soles), dizziness and dazzled cough and panting due to excessive phlegm...if it is not treated in half a year, it will develop to syndrome emaciation, diarrhea, and in danger." [08].



Amenia of impatient and anger type.
 
 ✵The amenia of impatient and anger type is mainly due to Qi heat and blood heat, symptoms are depression, much anger, etc. This syndrome is one specific type among the Amenia of blood deficiency and deficiency-heat type.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman's character is impatient and much anger, easy to be jealous or envy, Qi and blood are both heats, surely suffers from depression, as a result, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis)..." [08].



Amenia of psychosis type.
 
 ✵The amenia of psychosis type is mainly due to psychosis or a woman could not attain her purpose, lost in thoughts and accumulated depression, Qi binding of the heart and spleen, symptoms are amenia or menses stopped, fatigue, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman could not get her emotions and desires satisfied, lost in thoughts and accumulated depression, Qi binding of the heart and spleen...as a result, menses stopped(amenia or menostasis)..." [08].



Amenia of the blood-phase type and Amenia of the water-phase type.
 
 ✵The amenia of the blood-phase type and Amenia of the water-phase type are mainly due to disorder of diet and daily life, a disorder of seven emotion and affection from six pathogens, as a result, deficiency of the spleen and stomach.
 The Amenia of the blood-phase type was defined as: amenia or stoppage of the menses firstly, edema of limbs later, urinary stoppage, blood turned to water, is the amenia of blood-phase. The Amenia of the water-phase type was defined as: difficulty in urination firstly, edema of body and face later, amenia or stoppage of the menses later, the water turned to blood, is the amenia of water-phase.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "The amenia of the blood-phase and amenia of the water-phase is mainly due to the disorder of diet and daily life, seven emotions disorder, result leading to deficiency of the spleen and stomach. Amenia or stoppage of the menses firstly, edema of limbs later, urinary stoppage, blood turned to water, is the amenia of blood-phase. Difficulty in urination firstly, edema of body and face later, amenia or stoppage of the menses later, the water turned to blood, is the amenia of water-phase." [04].

 "A woman suffers from edema of the whole-body(general dropsy), is the condition spleen earth could not restrict and transform, water develops to edema and distension..." [08].



Amenia of unmarried girl.
Amenia:menostasis,failure of menstruation 
 ✵The amenia of an unmarried girl, normally due to insufficiency of Yin blood, liver hurt from anger, spleen hurt from depression, heat accumulation in the stomach, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 (1).“The unmarried girl suffered from no menstruation after 14 years of age... It is due to constitutional Yin blood insufficiency, ...or due to liver blood hurt from anger, ...or due to spleen hurt from depression binding, ...or due to liver fire from depression, ...or due to heat accumulation in the stomach..." [06].


 ✵The amenia of unmarried girl develops to edema, normally due to improper health care for the first menses, or mistakenly drink cold water, symptoms are cyanotic yellow complexion, general edema.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl met menses for the first time, do not know proper health care method, mistakenly drink cold water, or wash hands or clothes with cold water, menses blood condensed, as a result, menses stopped, cyanotic yellow complexion(looks cyanotic yellow or green-yellow), general edema, in most cases it is mistakenly treated as edema, treatment normally failed..." [08].

 "Amenia of unmarried girl: an unmarried girl met menses for the first time, mistakenly wash hands and feet with cold water, as a result, blood sea affected by cold and condensed, cyanotic yellow on face and eyes(cyanotic yellow complexion, or looks greenish-yellow on face and eyes), general edema on the whole body..." [09].


 ✵The amenia of an unmarried girl with swelling pains, normally due to residue blood stagnancy, etc, symptoms are menses stopped, distension and swelling, pains regularly.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl at age around 14 years old, the Chong and Ren meridian are vigorous, menses come on time, if menses does not come after the date, distension and pains regularly..." [08].


 ✵The amenia of an unmarried girl of excess heat type, normally due to excess heat, etc, symptoms are menses stopped, pharynx dryness(dryness in the throat) and dry lips, prefer to cold and aversion to heat, blood and Qi are sufficient and flourishing, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl suffers from menses stopped, fever, pharynx dryness and drip lips, prefer to cold and aversion to heat, blood and Qi are sufficient and flourishing, the pulse is forceful and powerful, menses stopped and blocked, is the syndrome of the excess heat..." [08].


 ✵The amenia of an unmarried girl of deficient-heat(asthenic fever) type, normally due to Yin deficiency and blood heat, etc, symptoms are menses stopped, gradually emaciated, regular hot-flash, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl suffers from menses stopped, gradually emaciated, regular hot-flash, is the condition of Yin deficiency and blood weakness, fire excessive and water insufficiency..." [08].

 "An unmarried girl suffers from menses stopped, emaciated, and hurt from deficiency, is the syndrome of strain hurt or child consumption, mostly is difficult..." [10].


 ✵The amenia of an unmarried girl with abdominal pain type, normally due to residue blood stasis, etc, symptoms are menses stopped, blood stasis and pain in the abdomen, hard in the lower abdomen and form a mass.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl suffers from menses stopped, residue blood stasis pains and stabbing pain, the lower abdomen turn hard and form a mass..." [08].


 ✵The amenia of an unmarried girl with over-strained cough type, normally due to worry too much, sick in heart and deficiency of the spleen, etc, symptoms are menses stopped, worry much, poor appetite, cough, and fever, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl worries too much, mostly leads to strain and consumption hurt, menses stopped. It is a condition that the heart is hurt and could not support the spleen, as a result, no appetite(do not take food), ...cough and fever..." [08].


 ✵The amenia of an unmarried girl with bone-steaming type, normally due to Yin deficiency, etc, symptoms are menses stopped, hectic fever and bone steaming, dysphoria and fever in chest palms-soles, etc.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl suffers from menses stopped, bone steaming, dysphoria and fever in chest and palms-cores, the pulse is feeble..." [08].



Amenia of unmarried girl develops to consumption.
 
 ✵The amenia of unmarried girl develops to consumption, normally due to Qi and blood hurt from various reasons, worry and thinking hurt the heart, blood exhaustion, spleen deficiency, symptoms observed are amenia or menstruation stopped, absentminded, poor appetite or reduced appetite, cough, dried and withered of limbs(dryness and withered of the legs arms hands and feet), hair withered, dysfunction of tendons and bones.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "An unmarried girl or boy, worry in mind, lead to strain and consumption, ...girl will suffer from amenia or menstruation stoppage...no appetite, ...cough, ...dried and withered of limbs, much anger, hair withered at sideburns, dysfunction of tendons and bones. She will die in the condition five Zang-viscera all hurt." [06].



Amenia develops to regurgitating menstruation.
Amenia:menostasis,failure of menstruation 
 ✵ The amenia could develop to regurgitating menstruation too.
 The regurgitating menstruation, is also known as retrograde menstruation, is a syndrome that the menses not going downward, so it is understood as amenia, but bleeding from nose when the menstruation period comes, so it is also known as retrograde menstruation, or commonly known as nose bleeding or epistaxis during menstruation period.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 “A woman suffers from amenia whole life but bleeding from the nose, what is it? This is the condition of Ni Jing(retrograde menstruation). Mainly due to fire excessive in the lung meridian, heat in the blood collaterals, observe nose bleeding every month, from the up openings as menses, and no other health problems, only the woman could not give birth whole life." [05].



Amenia develops to Pian Jing(slanting menstruation).
 
 ✵The amenia could also develop to Pian Jing(slanting menstruation).
 The regurgitating menstruation, is also known as Pian Jing, an ancient syndrome name in TCM, is a syndrome that the menses not going down from its normal routine, so it is understood as amenia, but also not bleeding from nose when the menstruation period comes, so it is also not retrograde menstruation, it goes from other routines, so it is known as Pian Jing or slanting menstruation, literally "Pian Jing" means menses goes down from slanting ways.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 “A woman does not suffer from nose bleeding but suffers from amenia, what is it? This is the condition of Pian Jing(slanting menstruation)... Mainly due to depression, worry a lot, take too much spicy hot food, spleen and lung Qi are weak, a disorder in transporting function, not goes down from the regular routine, flowing into the large intestine, often see blood in defecation, the appearance looks similar to menses...this is treatable." [05].



Amenia develops to consumption.
 
 ✵The amenia could develop to consumption too, normally woman suffers from the extreme deficiency of blood and Qi.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 “A woman suffers from amenia and develops to consumption, how about it? It should differentiate with meridians and collaterals, differentiate the syndrome types whether it is deficient type or excess type, generate blood and regulate Qi.

 An unmarried girl age approaches to twenty years old, suffers from amenia(no menstruation) and develops to consumption, and cough, what is it? It is the condition worry and sorrow hurt the spleen..." [05].



Amenia develops to general edema.
 
 ✵The amenia develops to general edema is mainly due to residue blood from menses stopped, stagnant and stasis in Five Zang-viscera and flow into limbs, as general edema. Symptoms are general edema, distension or swelling in hands feet arms legs.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman suffers from menses stopped, as a result, there is residue blood, stagnant and accumulated in five Zang-viscera and flow into limbs(arms, legs, hands, feet), as general edema, should not be mistakenly identified as a syndrome of Water Qi(hydropneumothorax), ..." [08].



Amenia with enlarged abdomen as a drum.
 
 ✵The amenia with enlarged abdomen as a drum is mainly due to menses accumulation. Symptoms are menses stopped, abdomen enlarged and looks similar to a drum or pregnant.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A woman suffers from menses stopped for two months or three months(menses did not come for two months or three months), abdomen enlarged and looks similar to a drum, others think she is pregnant, one day suddenly flooding, there are abnormal things in the blood, shape like sons of frog(tadpoles), lost consciousness and do not know others, in case emaciation and thin it is incurable, in case physical constitution good, is savable..." [08].



Amenia of a sex worker.
 
 ✵The amenia of a sex worker, normally due to hurt during the menstruation period.
 ✵Ancient herbalists who hold a syndrome differentiation viewpoint with similar explain of pathogenic reasons, and the relevant representative work are introduced and quoted:

 "A sex worker suffers from amenia, how about it? It is mainly due to forced intercourse during menstruation period, blocking the blood collaterals, hardly to save three among ten cases, should better use recipes to nourish the blood, replenish blood, etc. In the condition of fever and cough, emaciation and develops to consumption, diarrhea, will be a case that is very difficult to save..." [05].



References:
  • 01.Amenia:an introduction of amenorrhea or menostasis.
  • 02.Kun Yuan Shi Bao(the Kun Essence is Guaranteed).By 薛轩(Xuē Xuān)[Song].
  • 03.Song Shi Nǚ Ke Cuo Yao(the Synopsis of Song's Gynaecology).By 宋林皋(Sòng Lín Gāo)[Ming].
  • 04.Nǚ Ke Cuo Yao(the Synopsis of Gynaecology).By 薛己(Xuē Jǐ)[Ming].
  • 05.Fù Kē Bǎi Biàn(the Differentiations in Hundred Syndromes of Gynaecology).By 庄履严(Zhuāng Lǚyán)[Ming].
  • 06.Nǚ Ke Bǎi Xiào Quán Shū(the Efficacious Complete Book of Gynaecology).By 龚居中(Gōng Jūzhōng)[Ming,1630].
  • 07.Huang Shi Nǚ Ke(the Synopsis of Huang's Gynaecology).By 黄彦荣(Huáng Yànróng)[Ming,1504].
  • 08.Ye Shi Nǚ Ke Zhèng Zhì(the Syndromes and Therapeutics of Ye's Gynaecology).By 叶桂(Yè Guì)[1817].
  • 09.Fù Kē Bèi Kǎo(the References of Gynaecology).By 何应豫(Hé Yīngyù)[1820].
  • 10.Fù Kē Liáng Fāng(the Effective Prescription of Gynecology).By 何梦瑶(Hé Mèngyáo)[1751].

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