✵To help clients and TCM fans know better with the common knowledge of ancient TCM and syndrome differentiation, there comes the online knowledge database in classified categories.
✵The main content including: the introduction of the most famous and talented Ancient Herbalists and Distinguished Physicians, the most influential and Well-Known Ancient Works, common Diagnostic Methods, the introduction of Common Disease and Syndromes, etc.
✵The TCM Fundamental Theories are majorly composed of the Theory of Essence and Qi, Theory of Yin and Yang, Theory of Five-Elements, Correspondence between Human and the Universe, Theory of Zang-Fu Viscera, Theory of Sense Organs and Structures, Theory of Qi,Blood,Essence and Body Fluids, Causes of Disease Theory, Mechanism of Disease Theory, etc.
Theory of Zang-Fu Viscera:Introduction.
Introduction:Theory of Zang-Fu Viscera:the Zang-fu viscera is a collective term for all internal viscera, including Zang-viscera, Fu-viscera and extra Fu-viscera.The theory of Zang-Fu viscera is a theory about the Zang-viscera and Fu-viscera.
✵Theory of Zang-Fu Viscera: the Zang-fu viscera is a collective term for all internal viscera, including Zang-viscera, Fu-viscera and extra Fu-viscera.The theory of Zang-Fu viscera is a theory about the Zang-viscera and Fu-viscera.
✵Zang-Fu Viscera: the Zang-fu viscera is a collective term for all internal viscera, including Zang-viscera, Fu-viscera and extra Fu-viscera.
✵Zang viscera: the internal viscera that produce, transform and store essential Qi. Also known as Zang-viscera.
✵Fu viscera: the internal viscera that receive, contain and transmit food and drink. Also known as Fu-viscera.
✵Five Zang-viscera: a collective term for the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney.
✵Six Fu-viscera: a collective term for the gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, urinary bladder, and triple energizer, all related to food digestion and fluid transmission.
✵Yang Zang-viscera: the Zang viscera of Yang nature, referring to the heart and the liver, distinguished for their preponderant Yang quality, also known as male viscera.
✵Yin Zang-viscera: the Zang viscera of Yin nature, referring to the spleen, the lung and the kidney, distinguished for their preponderant Yin quality, also known as female viscera.
✵Heart: a Zang viscus that controls blood circulation and mental activities.
✵Heart Qi: Qi of the heart, which propels the blood through the vessels and also serves as the motive force of mental activities.
✵Heart blood: the part of the blood that nourishes the heart and serves as the material basis of mental activities.
✵Heart Yin: the Yin-fluid of the heart, closely related to heart blood physiologically and pathologically.
✵Heart Yang: the Yang-Qi of the heart, closely related to heart Qi physiologically and pathologically.
✵Liver: a Zang viscus that stores blood, smoothes the flow of Qi, and is closely related to the functions of the tendons and eyes.
✵Liver Qi: (1).the visceral Qi that serves as the motive force of the liver's activities,(2).an abbreviation for liver Qi stagnation.
✵Liver blood: the blood that is stored in the liver and nourishes the liver system, including the liver itself, liver meridians, eyes, tendons and nails.
✵Liver Yin: the blood and fluid of the liver that coordinates with liver Yang.
✵Liver Yang: Yang-Qi of the liver, referring chiefly to the flourishing and Qi-smoothing function of the liver.
✵Spleen: one of the Zang viscus, which shares with the stomach the function of digesting food, transports and distributes nutrients and water, reinforces Qi, keeps the blood flowing within the vessels, and is closely related to the limbs and muscles.
✵Spleen Qi: Qi of the spleen that serves as the motive force of the transportation, distribution and ascension of nutrients and water, and keeps the blood flowing within the blood vessels.
✵Spleen Yang: the Yang aspect of the spleen, which referring to the promotion of the spleen functions including transportation, distribution, ascension and warming.
✵Spleen Yin: (1).Yin-fluid(including blood and fluis) of the spleen,(2).the Yin aspect of the spleen, in contrast to spleen Yang,(3).a term referring to the spleen itself as the stomach pertaining to Yang.
✵Lung: a Zang viscus that controls respiration, dominates Qi, regulates fluid circulation, and is closely related to the functions of the nose and skin surface.
✵Lung Qi: motive force of the various functions of the lung.
✵Lung Yin: Yin-fluid that moistens the lung, coordinating with lung Qi.
✵Lung fluid: the fluid that moistens the lung, synonymous with lung Yin.
✵Lung Yang: the Yang aspect of the lung, referring to the warming, moving, ascending and diffusing functions of the lung.
✵Kidney: a Zang viscus that installs vital essence, takes charges of the growth, development, reproduction, and urinary functions, and also has a direct effect on the conditions of the bone and marrow, activities of the brain, hearing, and inspiratory function of the respiratory system.
✵Kidney Yin: the Yin aspect of the kidney, which has a moistening and nourishing effect on all the viscera, also known as kidney water(Shen Shui), genuine water(Zhen Shui), original Yin(Yuan Yin), or genuine Yin(Zhen Yin).
✵Kidney Yang: the Yang aspect of the kidney, which warms and activates all the viscera, also known as original Yang(Yuan Yang), genuine Yang(Zhen Yang),genuine fire(Zhen Huo).
✵Pericardium: the sac that surrounds the heart and protects the latter against the attack of exogenous pathogenic factors.
✵Life gate: also known as vital gate, the house of water and fire as the root of life, closely related to the kidney both physiologically and pathologically.The genuine fire in the life gate,i.e. life gate fire, refers to kidney fire, and the genuine water in the life gate refers to kidney Yin.
✵Gallbladder: a Fu viscus that connected with the liver, stores and discharges bile.
✵Stomach: a Fu viscus that receives and preliminarily digests food, and expels the chyme into the small intestine.
✵Stomach cavity: the space or potential space within the stomach extending from the cardia to the pylorus.
✵Upper stomach cavity: the upper part of the stomach cavity, including the cardia.
✵Middle stomach cavity: the middle part of the stomach cavity.
✵Lower stomach cavity: the lower part of the stomach cavity, including the pylorus.
✵Stomach Qi: (1).referring to the function of food intake and preliminary digestion,(2).referring to the material basis of the normal pulse.
✵Stomach Yang: the Yang aspect of the stomach, referring to its warming and digestive functions.
✵Stomach Yin: the Yin aspect of the stomach, referring to (1).the stomach fluid,(2).the body fluid as a whole.
✵Stomach fluid: fluid produced by the stomach, a part of stomach Yin.
✵Large intestine: a Fu viscus that has the function of passing the waste in the alimentary tract.
✵Small intestine: a Fu viscus that receiving food content from the stomach, further digests it, absorbs the useful and excretes the waste.
✵Bladder: a Fu viscus that stores and discharges urine.
✵Triple energizer: a collective term for the three portion of the body cavity, through which Qi and fluids are transmitted.
✵Upper energizer: the upper portion of the body cavity,i.e.,the portion above the diaphragm housing the heart and lung.
✵Middle energizer: the middle portion of the body cavity,i.e., the portion between the diaphragm and the umbilicus housing the spleen and stomach.
✵Lower energizer: the lower portion of the body cavity,i.e., the portion below the umbilicus cavity housing the kidney, bladder, small and large intestines, and including the liver owing to its patho-physiologic relation to the kidney.
✵Viscera containing visible substances: also known as Xing viscus, a groupd of viscera including the stomach, small and large intestines, and bladder.
✵Extraordinary viscera: a collective term for the brain, marrow, bones, blood vessels, gallbladder and uterus. They are so called because their physiological properties are different from both ordinary Zang and Fu viscera.
✵Brain: one of the extraordinary viscus contained within the craniun where the marrow converges, also known as sea of marrow.
✵Marrow: an extraordinary viscus including bone marrow and spinal marrow, both of which are noushed by kidney essence.
✵Bone: one of the extraordinary viscus forming the framework of the body, closely related to the kidney function and nourished by the marrow. also known as house of marrow.
✵Blood vessel: the conduit through which Qi and blood pass.Pulse:beating of the artery as felt at the wrist.
✵House of blood: a euphemistic name for blood vessels.
✵Uterus: also known as womb,a viscus in the female for carrying and nourishing offspring during development before birth, also known as offspring's viscus, or viscus for fetus.
✵Four seas: also known as four reserviors, the sea(reservoir) of marrow(the brain), the sea(reservoir) of blood(the conception vessel), the sea(reservoir) of Qi(the pectoral region) and the sea(reservoir) of water and grain(the stomach).
✵Sea of Qi: also known as reservoir of Qi, the central part of the chest or the pectoral region as the upper one and the region just below the umbilicus as the lower one.
✵Sea of blood: also known as reservoir of blood, is the conception vessel, or the liver.
✵Reservoir of water and grain: a euphemistic term for the stomach.
✵Blood chamber: a term referring to (1).the uterus,(2).the liver,(3).the conception vessel.
✵Visceral manifestation: the outward manifestation of internal viscera through which physiological functions as well as pathological changes can be detected and the state of health judged.
✵Transmissive-transformative Fu viscera: Fu viscera that have the function of transmitting and transforming food and water,i.e., the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, triple energizer, and bladder.
✵Intolerance of the five Zang viscera: the heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney are intolerant of heat, cold, wind, dampness and dryness, respectively.
✵Charges of the five Zang viscera: the heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney are in charge of the vessels, skin, tendons, muscles and bones, respectively.
✵Storage of the five Zang viscera: the heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney store the mind, spirit, mood, idea and memory, respectively.
✵Accessibility of the five sapors(flavors): the sour, bitter, sweet, pungent and salty flavors are accessible to the liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney, respectively.
✵Five emotions: (1).joy, anger, anxiety, grief, and fear assigned to the heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney respectively,(2).various emotional changes.
✵Connection between the Zang and Fu viscera: the interrelation and mutual influence between the Zang and Fu viscera, which are connected by the corresponding meridians.
✵Qi of Zang viscera: the functional activities of the Zang viscera.
✵Coordination of the heart and kidney: mutual helping and checking relationship between the heart and the kidney, also known as coordination of water and fire.
✵Coordination of water and fire: an expression synonymous with coordination of the heart and the kidney, for the heart corresponds to fire and the kidney to water.
✵Fu viscera with refined juice: the gallbladder that contains bile.
✵Viscera in charge of transmission: the large intestine that conveys the waste.
✵Fire of the life gate: a synonym for kidney Yang.
✵Inborn fire: another name for genuine fire(Zhen Huo) or kidney Yang(Shen Yang)
✵Residence of the kidney: the loin or lumbar region where the kidneys are situated.
✵Ministerial fire: (1).a kind of physiological fire originating in the kidney and attached to the liver, gallbladder and triple energizer, which, in cooperation with the king fire(or monarch fire) from the heart warms the viscera and promotes their activities,(2).the part of fire controlled by the kidney that promotes sexual potency.
✵Activity of the triple energizer: distribution, dissemination and excretion of fluid and movement of Qi that depend on the normal functioning of the triple energizer.
✵Fu viscera for water communication: a euphemism for the triple energizer.
Theory of Zang-Fu Viscera:the basics.
The Basics: The basics for the Theory of Zang-Fu Viscera are briefly as:
✵The five Zang viscera are solid, installing but not discharging.
✵The six Fu viscera are hollow, discharging but not installing.
✵The Zang viscera provide the Fu viscera with Qi. The Fu viscera supply the Zang viscera with nutrients. The five Zang viscera install but do not discharge the essential Qi. The six Fu viscera transmit but do not store food contents.
✵The pericardium and triple energizer are interior-exteriorly related.
✵The triple energizer is an viscera that controls water communication.
✵The heart pertains to fire. The heart controls blood circulation. The heart is in charge of mental activities. The heart is manifested in the complexion. The heart opens into the tongue(The condition of the heart is often reflected in the tongue).The tongue signifies the heart. The heart houses the mind. Joy is related to the heart. The heart is intolerant to the heat. The heart is functionally connected with the small intestine. The heart and small intestine are interior-exteriorly related. The small intestine receives food contents(from the stomach). The small intestine digests food, and separates the clear(useful) from the turbid(waste).
✵The liver pertains to wood. The liver stores blood. The liver ensures the free movement of Qi. The liver is predisposed to flourishing growth. The liver governs the tendons. The liver is manifested in the nails.(Lustrous nails signify a sound liver). The nails are the odds and ends of the tendons(The nail reflects the condition of the liver which supplies the tendon with blood and nutrients).The liver opens into the eyes.(Normal eyesight depends upon proper functioning of the liver).The liver governs the eyes. The liver houses the ethereal soul(Patients with liver disease often complain of dreadful dreams and restlessness). Irritability is a chief symptom of liver disease. Anger is related to the liver. The liver is intolerant of wind. The liver is a viscus of wind and wood(It is also said because the liver smoothes the flow of Qi and blood, like tree branching out freely and, if diseased, it gives rise to symptoms of wind such as vertigo, tremor or even convulsions).
✵The liver is a sea of blood. Hair is the odds and ends of blood.
✵The liver is a viscus of the temperament:It is also said because a patient with a liver disease is apt to become exicited, fiery, and hard to be put under control or restraint.
✵The liver is a male viscus:it is also said because the liver is preponderantly of an active and effective position, in contrast to the spleen and the lung(e.g., it checks the function of the spleen, and its fire can make the lung suffer).
✵The liver is substantially Yin but functionally Yang:it is also said because the liver stores the blood(Yin factor) and, on the other hand, its physiological functions and pathological manifestations(e.g., normal and abnormal motility) are of yang nature.
✵The liver and the kidney have a common source:it is said because(1).the liver and the kidney store, respectively, the blood and the vital essence that have a common source,(2).the essence of the liver and the kidney can reinforce each other, and deficiency of one will result in deficiency of the other.
✵The liver communicates with the gallbladder. The liver and gallbladder are interior-exteriorly related.The gallbladder has the power of making decisions. The gallbladder is analogous to a mediator.
✵The spleen pertains to earth. The spleen is in charge of transportation and transformation. The spleen stores nutrients. The spleen Qi keeps ascending. The spleen sends clarity upward. The spleen keeps the blood within the vessels.
✵The spleen nourishes the flesh:one with a healthy spleen usually has a full figure, while a diseased spleen makes one lose flesh.
✵The spleen nourishes the limbs:the strength of the limbs depends upon the nourishment guaranteed by the normal functioning of the spleen. A diseased spleen usually caused weakness of the limbs.
✵The spleen is manifested in the lips:red and lustrous lips signify normal functioning of the spleen.
✵The spleen opens into the mouth.
✵The spleen stores idea:excessive scrupulosities may impair the spleen, bringing on such symptoms as anorexia.Pensiveness(or worry) is related to the spleen.
✵The spleen is intolerant of dampness:dampness is apt to impair the transporting and transforming function of the spleen, leading to diarrhea, lassitude, edema, etc.
✵The spleen is the source of production and transformation: this is because the spleen has the functions of digestion, assimilation, transportation and distribution of nutrients.
✵The spleen determines the acquired constitution.The spleen and stomach provide the material basis of the acquired constitution. The spleen and stomach are "barn" viscus. They store and supply nutrients for the body. The spleen is connected to the stomach. The spleen and stomach are interior-exteriorly related.
✵The stomach governs the food intake. The stomach serves as the reservior of water and grains(food). The stopmach digests food into chyme. The stomach sends chyme downward. Stomach Qi goes downward.
✵The lung pertains to metal. The lung governs Qi and performs respiration. The lung is the governor of Qi. The lung has a diffusing and disseminating function. The lung has a cleansing and down-bringing function.
✵The lung faces all blood vessels:all the blood must pass through the lung.
✵The lung controls the movement of water. The lung regulates the water course. The lung is the upper source of water.
✵The lung is interrelated with the skin and body hair. The lung controls the skin and body hair. The lung is in charge of the body surface.
✵The lung controls the voice. The lung opens into the nose. The lung is the canopy of the viscera. The lung is a delicate viscus. The lung houses the corporeal soul. Sadness is related to the lung. Grief is related to the lung.
✵The lung is intolerant of cold. The lung and the large intestine are interior-exteriorly related. The lung is functionally connected to the large intestine.
✵The large intestine governs conveyance of waste.
✵The kidney pertains to water. The kidney is the root of Qi. The kidney controls the reception of Qi(the kidney promotes inspiration). The kidney is in charge of reproduction.
✵The kidney is the foundation of the inborn constitution:it is so said because the function of the kidney is related to growth, development and reproduction.
✵The lumbus is the seat of the kidney. The kidney houses the will(or memory). Fear is related to the kidney.
✵The kidney stored essence. The kidney governs water. The kidney regulates excretion and retention(of water).
✵The kidney is an viscus of water:it is so said because the kidney corresponds to water according to the five elements theory, and regulates water metabolism in the body.
✵The kidney supplies the bones with marrow, and the bone marrow is full if the kidney is in good condition.
✵The kidney governs the bones. The teeth are the odds and ends of bones.
✵The kidney controls the fire of the life gate. The kidney controls the two private parts(the urethra and anus). The kidney is intolerant of dryness.
✵The kidney opens into the uro-genital orifice and the anus.
✵The kidney and the bladder are interior-exteriorly related. The kidney is connected to the bladder.
✵The kidney is manifested in the half of the head: the function of the kidney is reflected in the thickness and glossiness of the hair of the head.
✵The kidney opens into the ears. Kidney Qi reaches the ears.
✵The six Fu viscera function well when they are unobstructed.
✵The bladder serves as a reservoir. The bladder is in charge of storing fluid.
✵The triple energizer is an unsubstantial name without particular shape.The upper energizer works like a sprayer(to spread nutrients and Qi throughout the body). The middle energizer works like a fermentation tub(to digest food). The lower energizer works like a gutter(to drain off waste and surplus water). The triple energizer is the source of both nutritive and defensive Qi. The upper energizer is in charge of reception. The middle energizer is in charge of transformation. The lower energizer is in charge of excretion.
✵The brain is the seat of mentality. If one's sea of marrow is in surplus, one will be nimble and vigorous, and able to endure unusually hard work. If one's sea of marrow is insufficient, vertigo and tinnitus will occur.