Theory of Sense Organs and Structures:an introduction.
✵To help clients and TCM fans know better with the common knowledge of ancient TCM and syndrome differentiation, there comes the online knowledge database in classified categories.
✵The main content including: the introduction of the most famous and talented Ancient Herbalists and Distinguished Physicians, the most influential and Well-Known Ancient Works, common Diagnostic Methods, the introduction of Common Disease and Syndromes, etc.
✵The TCM Fundamental Theories are majorly composed of the Theory of Essence and Qi, Theory of Yin and Yang, Theory of Five-Elements, Correspondence between Human and the Universe, Theory of Zang-Fu Viscera, Theory of Sense Organs and Structures, Theory of Qi,Blood,Essence and Body Fluids, Causes of Disease Theory, Mechanism of Disease Theory, etc.
Theory of Sense Organs and Structures:Introduction.
Introduction:Theory of Sense Organs and Structures:the theory of sense organs is theory about five sense organs and seven orifices, and other orifices, the five sense organs is a collective term for the nose, eyes, ears, mouth and throat, the seven orifices is a collective term for the eyes, ears, nostrils and mouth.
Introduction of the Theory of Sense Organs and Structures.
Introduction: The basic concepts and terms for Theory of Sense Organs and Structures is introduced as:
✵Five sense organs: a collective term for the nose, eyes, ears, mouth and throat.
✵Orifice: outer opening in the body,e.g., nasal orifices.
✵Seven orifices: a collective term for the eyes, ears, nostrils and mouth.
✵Nine orifices: (1).a collective term for the eyes, ears, nostrils and mouth, plus the urethral orifice and anus,(2).eyes, ears, nostrils and mouth plus tongue and throat.
✵Upper origices: the orifices on the head.
✵Lower orifices: the urethral opening and anus.
✵Signal orifices: the body opening serving as window, through which pathological changes of the internal viscera can be detected. The nose, eyes, mouth(lips), tongue and ears are the specific body openings(or windows) of the lung, liver, spleen, heart and kidney, respectively.
✵Nose: that part of the face above the mouth, used for breathing, smelling, and assisting in vocalization, and taken as the "specific opening" of the lung.
✵Nasal orifice: the outer opening of the nasal cacity, taken as a specific opening related to the lung.
✵Nostrils: the external openings in the nose through which the breath passes, also known as the opening of the nasal cavity.
✵Ala nasi: expanded outer wall on each side of the nose.
✵Apex nasi: the tip of the nose.
✵Radix nasi: the root of the nose.
✵Passage of the nose: that part of the nose including vestibulum nasi and posterior naris.
✵Dorsum basi: that part of the nose formed by the junction of the lateral surfaces, also known as bridge of the nose.
✵Nasal septum: the dividing wall between the nasal cavities.
✵Bony nasal septum: the body part of the nasal septum.
✵Vibrissa: hair growing in the nasal cavity.
✵Mouth: the opening through which one takes in food, and regarded as the specific orifice for the spleen.
✵Lip: the fleshy margin of the mouth, also known as "flying door", the color of which reflects the condition of the spleen.
✵Flying door: the lip.
✵Tooth: hard bony structure rooted in the gum, used for biting, chewing, and assisting in vocalization.
✵Wisdom tooth: third molar tooth.
✵Gum: flesh at the base of the teeth, pertaining to the stomach meridian.
✵Tongue: movable viscera in the mouth, used in tasting and assisting in swallowing, mastication and vocalization.
✵Side of the tongue: also known as edge of the tongue.
✵Edge of the tongue: also known as border of the tongue, the outside boundary of the tongue, which may reflect the condition of the liver and gallbladder.
✵Apex of the tongue: also known as the tip of the tongue.
✵Tip of the tongue: the point or thin end of the tongue, which may reflect the condition of the heart and lung.
✵Pharynx: the passage between the mouth and the larynx and esophagus.
✵Opening of the pharynx: that part of the throat through which food passes from the mouth into the esophagus.
✵Retropharynx: the posterior pharyngeal wall.
✵Laryngopharynx: the throat, the potential cavity at the back of the root of the tongue, connected with the mouth, nose, and the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and through which many meridians run.
✵Uvula palatina: also known as palatine uvula, the small fleshy mass hanging from the soft palate above the root of the tongue, also known as small tongue, or uvula.
✵Uvula: pendent flashy mass, usually referring to uvula palatina.
✵Nasopharynx: upper part of the pharynx continuous with the nasal passages.
✵Tonsils: a pair of prominent masses that lie one on each side of the throat.
✵Throat pass: that part of the throat formed by the tonsils, uvula and back of the tongue.
✵Lung system: (1).a collective term for the lungs and their appendages, including the nose, larynx, trachea and bronchi,(2).the tract connecting the lung with the larynx,(3).the larynx and trachea.
✵Epiglottis: a thin lamella of cartilage that serves to cover the glottis during the act of swallowing.
✵Seven portals: the seven important doorways or openings along the alimentary tract-lips, teeth, epiglottis, cardia, pylorus, ileocecal conjunction, and anus.
✵House door: the teeth, one of the seven portals.
✵Inhalation door: the epiglottis, one of the seven portals.
✵Cardia: the orifice between the esophagus and the stomach, one of the seven portals.
✵Pylorus: the distal(duodenal) aperture of the stomach, one of the seven portals.
✵Ileocecal conjunction: the part of the intestines where the small and large intestines join, one of the seven portals.
✵Corporeal-soul opening: the anus, one of the seven portals. It is also called because the anus is the lower opening of the large intestine which is exterior-interiorly related to the lung- the Zang viscera that stores the corporeal soul.
✵Skin with hair: the body surface which is closely related to the lung in function.
✵Down: fine hair of the skin.
✵Striated layer: a collective term for the skin, sweat pores, subcutaneous tissues and muscles.
✵Muscular striae: a general term for the superficial layer of the human body under the skin.
✵Muscle: tissue that produces movement and strength.
✵Flesh: soft tissue between the skin and bones, consisting of muscle and fat.
✵Muscle boundary: the boundary between muscles and subcutaneous fat.
✵Sweat pore: the opening of the duct of the sweat gland on the surface of the skin, literally meaning "mysteriour residence", so named because the opening is too minute to be visible, also known as Qi portal, or devil's portal.
✵Diaphragm: musculo-membranous partition separating the chest and abdomen.
✵Tendon: also known as sinew, tough band or cord of tissue that joins muscle to bone.
✵Pleurodiaphragmatic interspace: also known as interior-exterior interspace, space between the interior and exterior of the body, a concept used in the diagnosis of febrile diseases.
✵Gaohuang: the infracardio-supradiaphragmatic space, the space between the heart and above the diaphragm, the innermost part of the body. A disease involving this part is said to be beyond cure.
✵Elixir fields: dantian, three regions of the body to which one's mind is focused:the lower elixir field is the region located on the upper 2/3 of the line joining the umbilicus and symphysis pubis, the middle elixir field is the xiphoid area, and the upper elixir field is the region between the eyerows.
✵House of intelligence: a euphemistic term for the head.
✵Confluence of all the yang meridians: the site where all the yang meridians meet, i.e. the head.
✵Vertex cranii: the top of the head, often abbreviated as vertex.
✵Vertex: an abbreviation of vertex cranii(top of the head).
✵Fontanel: the membrane-covered space remaining in the incompletely ossified skull of an infant.
✵Hairline: the edge of the scalp round the face and over the neck.
✵Anterior hairline: the edge of the scalp above the forehead.
✵Posterior hairline: the edge of the scalp above the neck.
✵Mid-frons: the middle of the forehead.
✵Ophryon: the mid-point between the eyebrows, inspection of which serves as a guide to diagnosing lung diseases.
✵Supra-ophryon area: the area above the mid-point between the eyebrows, inspection of which serves as a guide to diagnosing diseases of the throat.
✵Forehead: the part of the face above the eyebrows and below the hairline, also known as frons.
✵Forehead corner: the area where the corner of the forehead meets the hairline.
✵Anterior temple: the region lateral and posterior tgo the orbit, corresponding to the temporal side of the sphenoid bone.
✵Temporal region: also known as Tai Yang.
✵Sideburns: patches of hair growing on the face in front of the ears.
✵Supra-orbital ridge: the prominence of the frontal bone over the supra-orbital arch.
✵Center of the eyebrows: the midpoint between the eyebrows.
✵Eye: the viscus of sight, which is closely related functionally to all Zang-fu viscera and meridians, particularly the liver.
✵Orbit: the bony cavity beneath the frontal bone on each side, which encloses and protects the eye.
✵Lacrimal punctum: the opening of the lacrimal duct at the inner canthus of the eye.
✵Five orbiculi: a collective term for the eyelid, canthus, the white of the eye, the black of the eye and the pupil. A theory of ophthalmology holds that each of the Zang viscera is physio-pathologically related to one of the orbiculi respectively.
✵Flesh orbiculus: the eyelid, one of the five orbiculi, which is believed to be closely related to the spleen.
✵Blood orbiculus: the canthus, one of the five orbiculi, which is believed to be closely related to the heart.
✵Qi orbiculus: the white of the eye, one of the five orbiculi, which is believed to be closely related to the lung.
✵Wind orbiculus: the black of the eye, one of the five orbiculi, which is believed to be closely related to the liver.
✵Water orbiculus: the pupil, one of the five orbiculi, which is believed to be closely related to the kidney.
✵Eight regions of the eye: an ancient hypothesis of dividing the eye into eight regions, each of which is thought to be related to a particular internal viscera pathologically. This hypothesis is obsolete because of controversies on the location of the regions and their relationship to the internal viscera.
✵Palpebra: the eyelid.
✵Canthus of the eye: the corner of the eye formed by the meeting of the upper and lower eyelids.
✵Inner canthus of the eye: the medial corner of the eye, also known as the medial canthus.
✵Outer canthus of the eye: the lateral corner of the eye, also known as the lateral canthus.
✵Tarsal plate: the plate that forms the framework of the eyelid.
✵Palpebral margin: the edge of the free margin of the eyelid, from which the eyelashes rise. Also known as margin of the eyelid.
✵Upper eyelid: the superior of the paired movable folds that protect the anterior surface of the eyeball.
✵Margin of the upper eyelid: the edge of the free margin of the upper eyelid.
✵Lower eyelid: the inferior of the paired movable folds that protect the anterior surface of the eyeball.
✵Margin of the lower eyelid: the edge of the free margin of the lower eyelid.
✵Palpebral conjunctiva: the membrane that lines the inner side of the eyelid.
✵White of the eye: the white part of the eyeball, also known as white kernel.
✵Ocular system: the cord connecting the eye with the brain, including the ocular nerve and blood vessels associated with the eye.
✵Ear: the viscera of hearing, to which the kidney Qi flows to, and is known as the orifice of the kidney.
✵Auricle: the portion of the external ear not contained within the head, including the helix, anthelix and earlobe, also known as the auricula.
✵Helix: the incurved rim of the external ear.
✵Earlobe: the pendent part of the external ear.
✵Ear-hole: opening of the external ear.
✵External acoustic meatus: the auditory canal leading from the opening of the external ear to the eardrum, also known as external auditory meatus.
✵Eardrum: the tympanic membrane.
✵Tragus: the cartilaginous projection before the external meatus of the ear.
✵Malar eminence: the prominence of the cheekbone.
✵Bucca: the area of the cheek inferior and lateral to the malar eminence and anterior to the ear lobe.
✵Angel of the mandible: the angle formed at the junction of the posterior edge of the ramus and the lower edge of the mandible.
✵Mandibular arch: the curved structure of the lower jaw.
✵Lower cheek: the portion of the face between the corner of the mouth and the mandibular angle.
✵Philtrum: the middle vertical groove below the nose and above the upper lip.
✵Middle of the mental labial groove: also known as chengjiang.
✵Corner of the mouth: the part of the mouth where the upper and lower lips meet.
✵Mandible: the lower jaw with its surrounding soft parts.
✵Chin: the lower portion of the face below the lower lip, including the front part of the lower jaw.
✵Neck: the part of the body that connects the head to the shoulders.
✵Cervical vertebra: the vertebra of the neck.
✵Laryngeal prominence: the Adam's apple.
✵Occipital bone: the bone that forms the posterior part of the cranium.
✵Nape: the back part of the neck.
✵Shoulder: the part of the body by which the arm is connected to the trunk.
✵Scapula: the shoulder-blade.
✵Prominent muscle: (1).the paravertebral muscle,(2).the muscle below the iliac crest.
✵Arm: the upper limb from the shoulder to the hand, or the forearm, the part of the arm from the elbow to the wrist.
✵Inner arm: (1).the medial aspect of the forearm,(2).the medial aspect of the entire upper limb.
✵Outer arm: (1).the lateral aspect of the forearm,(2).the lateral aspect of the entire upper limb.
✵Humeral region: the region of the arm below the shoulder and above the elbow.or the anterior brachial muscle.
✵Humerus: the bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow.
✵Upper arm: the part of the arm from the shoulder to the elbow.
✵Supraclavicular fossa: the depression on either side of the neck behind the clavicled.
✵Suprasternal notch: the jugular notch of the sternum.
✵Area of the apex beat:
✵Thoracic center: the central part of the chest, between the two nipples.
✵Xiphoid process: the pointed process of cartilage, connected with the lower part of the body of the sternum.
✵Pectoral muscle: the muscle on the ventral wall of the chest.
✵Costal region: the upper part of the side of the human body from the armpit to the twelfth rib.
✵Hypochondrium: also known as hypochondriac region, either of the superolateral regions of the abdomen, lateral to the epigastric region, overlying the costal cartilages of the 11th and 12th ribs.
✵Abdomen: the part of the body below the chest and diaphragm.
✵Upper abdomen: the part of the abdomen above the umbilicus.
✵Lower abdomen: the part of the abdomen below the umbilicus.
✵Umbilicus: the navel.
✵Pubic bone: the anterior inferior part of the hip bone on either side, articulating with its fellow in the anterior midline at the pubic symphysis.
✵Pubic symphysis: the joint formed by the union of the bodies of the pubic bones.
✵Perineum: the area between the anus and the posterior part of the external genitalia.
✵Pubes margin: the border of the region where the pubic hair grows.
✵Path of Qi: (1).the femoral artery at the groin,(2).the path through which Qi circulates.
✵Front private parts: the external genitalia including the external orifice of the urethra.
✵Back private part: the anus.
✵Two private parts: the front and back private parts,i.e., the external genitalia including the external urethral orifice and anus.
✵Vaginal orifice(of a parturient): the external opening of the vagina during childbirth.
✵Vaginal orifice: the external opening of the vagina.
✵Orifice of the uterine cervix: the opening through which the fetus passes out of the uterus during delivery.
✵External urethral orifice(of the female):
✵Scrotum: the external pouch that contains the testes, also known as Shen Nang.
✵Testis: also known as testicle, male sex organ in which sperm-bearing fluid is produced.
✵Penis: the cylindrical organ with which a male copulates and urinates.
✵Penis and testes: male genitals.
✵Zongjing: confluent tendon, or penis.
✵Male urinary meatus: the external orifice of the male urethra.
✵Anus: the opening through which waste matter from the alimentary tract passes out of the body, also known as the corporeal-soul opening.
✵Lumbus: the loin, the part of the back between the thorax and the pelvis.
✵Essence chamber: the part of the body where the essence is stored in the male and to which the uterus is linked in female, also known as life gate.
✵Union bone: (1).sacrococcygeal joint,(2).pubis of the female.
✵Thigh: the part of the leg between the knee and the hip.
✵Knee: the joint between the thigh and the lower part of the leg.
✵House of tendons: the knee where yanglingquan, the influential point of tendons, is located.
✵Kneecap: patella, a thick flat movable bone that forms the anterior point of the knee.
✵Post-patellar fossa: the popliteal fossa.
✵Popliteal fossa: the depression in the posterior region of the knee.
✵Shin: (1).the part of the lower limb between the knee and the ankle.(2).the anterior aspect of the leg.
✵Calf: the fleshy back part of the leg below the knee.
✵Internal malleolus: medial malleolus, the process of the tibia that projects on the medial side of its lower extremity at the ankle.
✵External malleolus: lateral malleolus, the expanded projection of the fibula on the lateral side of the leg at the ankle.
✵Heel: the back part of the human foot below the ankle and behind the arch.
✵Skeleton: the bones of the body collectively, forming the framework supporting the human body.