Mechanism of Disease Theory:an introduction.

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Mechanism of Disease Theory:Introduction.

 Mechanism of Disease Theory:Introduction. Introduction:Mechanism of Disease Theory:the mechanism of disease or pathogenesis is the mechanism of the origination, development and outcome of a disease.

 
Introduction of the Mechanism of Disease Theory.

 Mechanism of Disease Theory Introduction: The Mechanism of Disease Theory are introduced as, the common concepts are introduced:mechanism of disease, pathogenesis, nineteen guiding rules of pathogenesis, state of disease, struggle between normal and pathogenic Qi, exuberance and decline of pathogenic or normal Qi, insufficiency of the normal and excessiveness of the pathogenic, Yang insufficiency with Yin preponderance, Yin preponderance with Yang insufficiency, Yang exuberance, Yin preponderance, Yin deficiency with exuberant Yang, Yin deficiency with up-flaming fire, repelling of Yin or Yang, exuberant Yang repelling Yin, repelled Yin, excessive Yin repelling Yang, repelled Yang, Yin-Yang dual deficiency, Yin collapse, Yang collapse, Yin prostration, Yang prostration, upward floating of asthenic Yang, insecurity of superficial Qi, upper attack of warm pathogen, attack of warm pathogen to the lung, adverse transmission to the pericardium, water flooding due to yang deficiency, disharmony between nutrient and defense, weak defense with strong nutrient, strong defense with weak nutrient, dual disease of defense and Qi, dual disease of defense and nutrient, blazing of both Qi and nutrient, blazing of both Qi and blood, heat pathogen obstructing the lung, heat compelling the large intestine, heat into the pericardium, heat into the blood system, heat toxin in the blood system, heat into the blood chamber, heat pathogen accumulating in the interior, heat accumulating in the lower energizer, exuberant heat consuming fluid, heat scorching kidney Yin, heat damaging muscles and tendons, stagnant heat, insidious heat, insidious heat in the interior, stagnant heat in blood system, extreme heat producing wind, exuberant heat stirring up wind, blood deficiency producing wind, conjoint invasion of wind and damp, mutual stirring-up of wind and fire, damp stagnating in superficies, damp shading the head, damp pathogen disturbing the spleen, stagnant damp transforming into heat, damp-heat accumulating in the interior, damp-heat pouring downward, spilling of damp-toxin, dryness damaging lung Qi, dryness damaging body fluid, fluid consumption with intestinal dryness, dryness Qi transforming into cold, dryness Qi transforming into heat, flaring up of asthenic fire, fire damaging blood vessels, interlocking of cold and heat, cold pathogen fettering the exterior, generation of cold from the interior, transformation into heat, transformation into fire, transformation of stomach-heat into fire, transformation into wind, transformation into dryness, disorder of Qi movement, disturbance of Qi movement, depression and stagnation of Qi movement, Qi depression, transformation of depressed Qi into fire, disturbance of Qi transformation, reversed flow of Qi, sinking of Qi, disturbance in ascending and descending, sinking, penetration, disharmony of liver Qi, contraining of liver Qi, transverse drive of liver Qi, liver Qi invading the stomach, liver Qi invading the spleen, upward drive of liver Qi, transformation of liver Yang into fire, unsteadiness of heart Qi, insecurity of heart Qi, insufficiency of heart blood, stasis of heart blood, insufficiency of heart Yin, insufficiency of heart Yang, over-consumption of heart nutrient, heat damaging the mind, phlegm clouding the pericardium, phlegm misting the heart, impaired nourishment of the heart, mind failing to keep to its abode, exuberance of heart fire, flaring-up of heart fire, internal flaming of heart fire, phlegm-fire agitating the heart, shifting of heart fire to the small intestine, spleen failing to transport and transform, spleen failing to control blood, spleen Qi failing to ascend, stomach Qi disharmony, stomach Qi failing to descend, upward reversal of stomach Qi, insufficiency of middle Qi, devitalized Yang in the middle, dysfunction of lung Qi, obstruction of lung Qi, lung failing to distribute fluid, failure of lung in purifying, upward reversal of lung Qi, phlegm-turbidity obstructing the lung, wind-cold fettering the lung, injury to the lung vessels by heat, dysfunction of the large intestine in transmission, excess-heat of the large intestine, insufficiency of kidney essence, dysfunction in essence-storing, frenetic stirring of ministerial fire, decline of kidney Yang, dysfunction of the bladder, blockage of bladder Qi, disturbance in Qi activity, congealing cold and stagnating Qi, Qi stagnation and blood stasis, blood stasis due to Qi stagnation, insufficient Qi failing to control blood, Qi deficiency and blood stasis, Qi deficiency with abdominal distention, disharmony of Qi and blood, prostration of blood with Qi collapse, bleeding following sinking of Qi, escape of blood from vessels, frenetic movement of blood due to heat, damage to the thoroughfare and conception vessels, insecurity of the thoroughfare and conception vessels, dysfunction of meridians, disturbance of meridian Qi.

 ✵Mechanism of disease: or pathogenesis, the mechanism of the origination, development and outcome of a disease.

 ✵Pathogenesis: the mechanism of disease.

 ✵Nineteen guiding rules of pathogenesis: the general rules of the origination and development of diseases as summarized in the Canon of Medicine.

 ✵State of disease: an ancient term referring comprehensively to clinical manifestations, cause of disease and pathogenesis.

 ✵Struggle between normal and pathogenic Qi: basic pathogenesis in which any disease process is considered as the process of struggle between normal and pathogenic Qi and the rise and decline of either of them.

 ✵Exuberance and decline of pathogenic or normal Qi: the key factor that determines the process and prognosis of a patient, namely, rise of normal Qi with decline of pathogenic Qi leading to improvement and cure, while exuberance of pathogenic Qi with decline of normal Qi results in deterioration and even death.

 ✵Insufficiency of the normal and excessiveness of the pathogenic: a pathological condition in which healthy Qi is undermined while pathogenic factors are prevailing, denoting that the patient is in an unfavorable state with lowered resistance.

 ✵Yang insufficiency with Yin preponderance: excessive Yin resulting from insufficient Yang of the spleen and kidney which fails to warm up all other internal viscera, usually manifested as intolerance of cold, cold limbs, diarrhea and edema.

 ✵Yin preponderance with Yang insufficiency: decline of Yang resulting from endogenous excessive cold, usually manifested as intolerance of cold, cold limbs, and diarrhea.

 ✵Yang exuberance: any pathological state characterized by preponderance of Yang with excessive functional activity, increased metabolism, enhanced bodily reactivity, and surplus of heat, occurring typically in excess-heat syndromes.

 ✵Yin preponderance: any pathological state characterized by preponderance of Yin with decreased function, insufficient heat production, and accumulation of disease products, occurring typically in excess-cold syndromes.

 ✵Yin deficiency with exuberant Yang: deficiency of vital essence, blood or body fluid may lead to a breakdown of the equilibrium between Yin and Yang, resulting in exuberance of the latter, with such symptoms as headache, dizziness, malar flush, heat sensation in the chest, palms and soles, afternoon fever, night sweats, hemoptysis, irritability, insomnia, increased libido, or nocturnal emission.

 ✵Yin deficiency with up-flaming fire: exuberance of fire due to deficiency of Yin, often causing such symptoms as flushed cheeks, irritability, sore throat or increased libido.

 ✵Repelling of Yin or Yang: a special form of pathological change in which extremely excessive Yin in the interior forces asthenic Yang to spread outward or extremely exuberant Yang in the interior keeps insufficient Yin on the outside, forming pseudo-heat or pseudo-cold phenomena.

 ✵Exuberant Yang repelling Yin: a pathological condition in which extremely exuberant Yang trapped in the interior keeps insufficient Yin in the exterior, usually referring to high fever with pseudo-cold symptoms.

 ✵Repelled Yin: an abbreviation of exuberant Yang repelling Yin.

 ✵Excessive Yin repelling Yang: a pathological condition in which extremely excessive Yin entrenched in the exterior forces the asthenic Yang to float on the body surface, usually referring to intense endogenous cold with pseudo-heat symptoms.

 ✵Repelled Yang: an abbreviation of exuberant Yin repelling Yang.

 ✵Yin-Yang dual deficiency: deficiency of both Yin and Yang, usually denoting a serious stage of a disease.

 ✵Yin collapse: a pathological change caused by a sudden massive loss of fluid leading to collapse.

 ✵Yang collapse: a pathological change where yang Qi is suddenly exhausted, resulting in abrupt failure of bodily functions, usually manifested by dripping sweat, cold clammy skin, and hardly perceptible pulse.

 ✵Yin prostration: a prostration state of essence and fluid of the internal viscera, especially of the liver and kidney, leading to sudden deterioration of eyesight, usually occurring at the late stage of a febrile disease, malnutrition, or postpartum weakness.

 ✵Yang prostration: (1).a prostration state due to excessive consumption of Yang with such symptoms as profuse sweating, hallucination, illusion or other psychic disorders,(2).prostration of the male during or after sexual intercourse.

 ✵Upward floating of asthenic Yang: one of the pathogenetic mechanisms to explain endogenous cold with superficial pseudo-heat manifestations.Also known as upward floating of desolate Yang.

 ✵Insecurity of superficial Qi: lowered superficial resistance, which makes one susceptible to exogenous pathogenic factors, especially cold, and liable to perspire spontaneously.Also known as insecurity of defensive Qi.

 ✵Upper attack of warm pathogen: the mechanism of the onset of most acute febrile diseases starting from the upper respiratory tract.

 ✵Attack of warm pathogen to the lung: the mechanism of the initial stage of an acute febrile disease that the warm pathogen invades the lung and the superficial defensive system, causing fever, cough, sore throat, thirst, and rapid floating pulse.

 ✵Adverse transmission to the pericardium: the mechanism of impairment of consciousness or coma occurring soon after the onset of an acute febrile disease, when a warm pathogen is transmitted directly to the pericardium instead of to the Qi system.

 ✵Water flooding due to yang deficiency: a mechanism of generalized edema, when Yang deficiency of the spleen and kidney leads to retention of water in the body.

 ✵Disharmony between nutrient and defense: the mechanism that explains certain forms of abnormal sweating, particularly spontaneous sweating in an exterior syndrome, as the defense system regulates the excretion of sweat while the nutrient system provides fluid for the formation of sweat.

 ✵Weak defense with strong nutrient: the mechanism of spontaneous sweating without fever.

 ✵Strong defense with weak nutrient: the mechanism of sweating that occurs only during fever.

 ✵Dual disease of defense and Qi: pathological change that causes high fever, thirst and irritability together with intolerance of cold and wind, and general pains in the case of an acute febrile disease.

 ✵Dual disease of defense and nutrient: pathological change that causes high fever and delirium together with chills, headache and general aching in the case of an acute febrile disease.

 ✵Blazing of both Qi and nutrient: intense heat in both Qi and nutrient systems that causes high fever, thirst, mental irritability, delirium and barely visible skin eruption in the case of an acute febrile disease.

 ✵Blazing of both Qi and blood: intense heat in both the Qi and blood systems that causes high fever, delirium, hemoptysis, epistaxis, skin eruptions, and even convulsions in the case of an acute febrile disease.

 Mechanism of Disease Theory ✵Heat pathogen obstructing the lung: a pathological change that causes fever, cough, thick, yellowish or blood-stained sputum, dyspnea, chest pain, reddened tip of the tongue with dry yellow coating, and full and rapid pulse.

 ✵Heat compelling the large intestine: a pathological change that causes acute diarrhea with abdominal pain, burning sensation in the anus, scanty dark urine, and dry yellow tongue coating.

 ✵Heat into the pericardium: a pathological change that causes high fever with delirium or even coma in the case of an acute febrile disease.

 ✵Heat into the blood system: a pathological change that causes fever, restlessness, delirium, skin eruption and bleeding(hematemesis, epistaxis or hematochezia) in the late and severest stage of an acute febrile disease.

 ✵Heat toxin in the blood system: (1).penetration of heat into the blood system in the case of an epidemic febrile disease, causing high fever, delirium, skin eruption, or hematuria,(2).common mechanism of acute pyogenic infections marked by recurrent local inflammation or boil formation.

 ✵Heat into the blood chamber: a pathological change with penetration of heat into the uterus, usually causing abdominal pain, menstrual disturbances, alternate fever and chills, and delirium at night.

 ✵Heat pathogen accumulating in the interior: a general term referring to accumulation of heat pathogen in internal viscera.

 ✵Heat accumulating in the lower energizer: accumulation of heat in the intestines and bladder that causes lower abdominal distention and pain, constipation, dark urine or even hematuria, and sometimes tenderness in the lower abdomen accompanied by restlessness.

 ✵Exuberant heat consuming fluid: consumption of body fluid by excess of heat, causing fluid consumption syndrome.

 ✵Heat scorching kidney Yin: a pathological change with consumption of kidney Yin by heat, that causes low fever, heat sensation in palms and soles, dry mouth, impairment of hearing, dry and deep red tongue without coating, and thready and rapid pulse, occurring at the later stage of an acute febrile disease.

 ✵Heat damaging muscles and tendons: a pathological change that leads to cramps, flaccidity or paralysis of limbs in cases of high fever or prolonged fever.

 ✵Stagnant heat: (1).heat and phlegm dampness accumulating in the interior of the body which causes fever,(2).heat produced by stagnated blood.

 ✵Insidious heat: pathological change occurring in the case of a febrile disease with the heat pathogen hidden deeply in the interior.

 ✵Insidious heat in the interior: a pathological change that usually causes dry throat, foul breath, reddened tongue, constipation and scanty dark urine.

 ✵Stagnant heat in blood system: (1).heat accumulated in the blood system with deep penetration into internal viscera including the heart, liver and kidney,(2).heat produced by stagnated blood.

 ✵Extreme heat producing wind: pathological mechanism referring to the occurence of convulsions and opisthotonus in a case of high fever.

 ✵Exuberant heat stirring up wind: same as extreme heat producing wind.

 ✵Blood deficiency producing wind: pathological mechanism referring to dizziness, twitching or tremor resulting from persistent anemia or profuse bleeding.

 ✵Conjoint invasion of wind and damp: a pathological change resulting in muscle aches and joint pain, usually occurring in wind-damp affection.

 ✵Mutual stirring-up of wind and fire: a pathological change that causes hyperexia and convulsions in the most advanced stage of an acute febrile disease.

 ✵Damp stagnating in superficies: stagnation of damp in the superficial portion of the body, usually impeding the circulation of Qi and blood and causing a sensation of heaviness and aching of the limbs.

 ✵Damp shading the head: a pathological change that causes dizziness and heaviness sensation as if the head were bound tight.

 ✵Damp pathogen disturbing the spleen: a pathological change that results in anorexia, epigastric distension, lassitude and heaviness of the limbs.

 ✵Stagnant damp transforming into heat: a pathological change that causes heat symptoms together with damp syndrome.

 ✵Damp-heat accumulating in the interior: a general term for the accumulation of damp-heat in the internal viscera, especially in the stomach, spleen, liver and gallbladder, causing persistent fever, heaviness of the body, lassitude, loss of appetite, abdominal distension or jaundice.

 ✵Damp-heat pouring downward: a pathological change that causes mucous and bloody discharge with dysentery stool, turbid urine in urinary infections, morbid leukorrhea in pelvic infections, etc.

 ✵Spilling of damp-toxin: a pathological change characterized by flow of damp-toxin into muscles and skin, causing ulcers or festering sores on the shanks.

 ✵Dryness damaging lung Qi: a pathological change that may lead to dry cough, hemoptysis, diabetes melitus, and even flaccidity of limbs due to inadequate distribution of body fluid to the muscles and tendons.

 ✵Dryness damaging body fluid: a pathological change that may result in upward adverse flow of stomach Qi when the stomach is involved, constipation when the intestinal fluid is impaired, and diabetes when kidney fluid is consumes.

 ✵Fluid consumption with intestinal dryness: one of the mechanisms for constipation.

 ✵Dryness Qi transforming into cold: a pathological process often occurring in patients with a Yang-insufficient or Yin-exuberant constitution.

 ✵Dryness Qi transforming into heat: a pathological process often occurring in patients with a Yin-insufficient or Yang-exuberant constitution.

 ✵Flaring up of asthenic fire: a pathological change occurring in kidney Yin deficiency, causing dry and sore throat, dizziness, restlessness, red eyes or oral ulcers.

 ✵Fire damaging blood vessels: a pathological change that causes hemoptysis, hematemesis, and epistaxis.

 ✵Interlocking of cold and heat: a pathological change that causes complicated heat and cold conditions such as heat in the upper part with cold in the lower part of the body or cold in the exterior and heat in the interior of the body.

 ✵Cold pathogen fettering the exterior: a pathological process that causes chills, general aching, headache, absence of sweating, and floating tense pulse.

 ✵Generation of cold from the interior: a pathological process where an interior-cold syndrome results from Yang deficiency of an internal viscera.

 ✵Transformation into heat: transformation of pathogenic factors such as wind, cold or dryness into heat, resulting in intolerance of heat, thirst, irritability, reddened tongue with yellow coating, and rapid pulse.

 ✵Transformation into fire: transformation of intense heat into fire, producing such symptoms as persistent thirst, blood-shot eyes, flushed face, parched lips, dry and sore throat, hemoptysis, epistaxis, hematuria, and even impairment of consciousness or raving madness.

 ✵Transformation of stomach-heat into fire: a pathological change that usually causes ulceration of the mouth in addition to the symptoms of stomach heat.

 ✵Transformation into wind: occurence of wind symptoms such as dizziness, convulsions or tremors in the course of a febrile disease.

 ✵Transformation into dryness: a pathological process in which pathogenic heat or loss of blood gives rise to impairment of body fluid, manifested by thirst, dry throat and lips, constipation and dry cough.

 ✵Disorder of Qi movement: a general term for disordered activity of Qi in ascending, descending, exiting and entering that may cause various pathological changes such as stagnation of Qi, reversed flow of Qi, sinking of Qi, blockage of Qi, and collapse of Qi.

 ✵Disturbance of Qi movement: a general term for disorder of Qi, referring to dysfunction of the internal viscera at large, especially functional derangement in sending things up or down, as manifested by hiccups, stuffy feeling in the chest, abdominal distension, or diarrhea.

 ✵Depression and stagnation of Qi movement:  depressed and stagnant flow of Qi occurring in a certain part of the body or in an internal viscera, which usually causes local distention and pain and may lead to further pathological changes such as blood stasis or formation of phlegm and retained fluid.

 ✵Qi depression: a abbreviation of depression and stagnation of Qi movement.

 ✵Transformation of depressed Qi into fire: a pathological change of long-standing depression of Qi that transforms into fire and leads to such symptoms as emotional depression, irritability, irascibility, distention and burning pain in the chest, and reddened tongue with yellow coating.

 ✵Disturbance of Qi transformation: a general term for dysfunction of internal viscera, particularly referring to that of the triple energizer in water metabolism.

 ✵Reversed flow of Qi: dysfunction of Qi in descending that leads to upward disturbance of Qi with such manifestations as cough, asthma, hiccups, belching, nausea, vomiting and regurgitation.

 ✵Sinking of Qi: a pathological change of Qi marked by failure in its lifting or holding function, often leading to visceroptosis.

 ✵Disturbance in ascending and descending: a general term referring to disturbance of ascending and descending movement of visceral Qi,e.g., dysfunction of the spleen in sending up food essence and water, which causes diarrhea and abdominal distention, and dysfunction of the stomach in sending down food contents, giving rise to nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation.

 ✵Sinking: another expression for sinking of Qi, usually due to deficiency of spleen Qi, resulting in prolapse of viscera.

 ✵Penetration: a term referring to penetration of pathogenic factors into the interior of the body.

 ✵Disharmony of liver Qi: a pathological change of the liver in its smoothing and discharging function, causing irritability, hypochondriac, mammary or lower abdominal distention and pain, and irregular menstruation.

 ✵Contraining of liver Qi: a pathological change that causes functional disturbance of the liver, manifested by irritability, irascibility, stuffy feeling in the chest, hypochondriac and lower abdominal distension and pain, and in women distending pain of the breast and menstrual complaints.

 ✵Transverse drive of liver Qi: a pathological change in which hyperactive liver Qi runs transversely, impairing the spleen and stomach.

 ✵Liver Qi invading the stomach: a pathological change in which the hyperactive Qi running transversely impairs the stomach function and results in epigastric distention and pain, frequent sighing, belching, acid regurgitation, or nausea and vomiting.

 ✵Liver Qi invading the spleen: a pathological change in which hyperactive Qi running transversely impairs the spleen function and results in hypochondriac, epigastric and abdominal distention and pain, anorexia and diarrhea.

 ✵Upward drive of liver Qi: a pathological change in which the hyperactive liver Qi running upward, attacks the upper portion of the body, and causes dizziness, headache, tinnitus, deafness, pain and distension of the chest and hypochondrium, and even hematemesis.

 ✵Transformation of liver Yang into fire: a pathological change in which hyperactive liver Yang is transformed into fire, and causes such symptoms as dizziness, flushing of the face, bitterness in the mouth, irritability and irascibility.Also known as insufficiency of heart Qi.

 ✵Unsteadiness of heart Qi: a pathological change of heart Qi marked by uneasiness, palpitation, susceptibility to fright, vexation, and insomnia.

 ✵Insecurity of heart Qi: a pathological change of heart Qi marked by floating of the mind, susceptibility to freight,forgetfulness, spontaneous sweating, or sweating upon mild exertion.

 ✵Insufficiency of heart blood: a pathological change of the heart that causes abstraction, insomnia, dream-disturbed sleep, palpitation, and thready weak pulse, also known as heart blood deficiency.

 ✵Stasis of heart blood: a pathological change of the heart in which the blood flow in the heart vessels is impeded, causing a feeling of suffocation and precordial pain.

 ✵Insufficiency of heart Yin: a pathological change of the heart in which deficiency of Yin fails to check Yang and results in relative preponderance of heart Yang with such manifestations as mental unsteadiness, insomnia, night sweats, and feverish sensation in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, also known as heart Yin deficiency.

 ✵Insufficiency of heart Yang: a pathological change referring to diminution of the heart function in controlling blood and vessels and in governing the mental activities associated with deficiency of Yang Qi that causes cold manifestations, also known as heart Yang deficiency.

 ✵Over-consumption of heart nutrient: a pathological change in which the nutrient in the heart blood is excessively consumed by heat, causing emaciation, night fever, and vexation.

 ✵Heat damaging the mind: a pathological change marked by damage to the mental activity by heat, same as heat into the pericardium.

 ✵Phlegm clouding the pericardium: a pathological change marked by mental confusion caused by phlegm.

 ✵Phlegm misting the heart: a pathological change of the heart that causes mental derangement or even coma accompanied by phlegmatic sounds in the throat.

 ✵Impaired nourishment of the heart: a pathological change that may lead to palpitation, dysphoria, insomnia and amnesia.

 ✵Mind failing to keep to its abode: a pathological change that may result in insomnia and mental derangement.

 ✵Exuberance of heart fire: a pathological change that may cause insomnia, dysphoria, or even impairment of consciousness and delirium.

 ✵Flaring-up of heart fire: a pathological change in which fire flares upward along the heart meridian, causing oral or lingual erosion.

 ✵Internal flaming of heart fire: a pathological change in which intense heat disturbs the mental activity, causing vexation, insomnia, throbbing palpitation, restlessness, or even mania. Also known as internal deflagration of heart fire.

 ✵Phlegm-fire agitating the heart: agitation of the heart by phlegm-fire that causes mental derangement or mania.

 ✵Shifting of heart fire to the small intestine: a pathological change characterized by transmission of pathological fire of the heart to the small intestine, resulting in ardor urinae, urodynia, hematuria,etc.

 ✵Spleen failing to transport and transform: dysfunction of the spleen in transporting and transforming nutrients and water, resulting in dyspepsia, diarrhea, emaciation, lassitude and even edema of the limbs, also known as dysfunction of the spleen in transportation.

 ✵Spleen failing to control blood: a pathological change of the spleen that usually results in chronic hemorrhage.

 ✵Spleen Qi failing to ascend: dysfunction of the spleen in sending up nutrients, usually due to spleen Qi deficiency, retention of dampness or stagnation of food.

 ✵Stomach Qi disharmony: general term referring to various functional disorders of the stomach, called also stomach disharmony.

 ✵Stomach Qi failing to descend: dysfunction of the stomach in sending down its contents, causing such symptoms as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, belching, and stuffiness over the epigastric region. Also known as stomach failing to send downward harmoniously.

 ✵Upward reversal of stomach Qi: a pathological change of the stomach function that causes belching, hiccups, recurgitation, and vomiting.

 ✵Insufficiency of middle Qi: deficiency of Qi in the middle energizer, leading to general weakness and diminished transporting and transforming function of the spleen and stomach.

 ✵Devitalized Yang in the middle: weakened Yang in the middle energizer(the spleen and stomach), resulting in dyspepsia,vomiting, diarrhea, cold limbs, and sallow face, often seen in cases of chronic dyspepsia and chronic dysentery.

 ✵Dysfunction of lung Qi: disturbance of the functional activities of the lung, especially referring to its function in maintaining water metabolism, giving rise to oliguria and edema together with respiratory symptoms.

 ✵Obstruction of lung Qi: impediment of the functional activities of the lung, usually leading to nasal obstruction, sneezing and cough.

 ✵Lung failing to distribute fluid: failure of the lung to distribute essence and fluid, leading to production of sputum and causing cough and asthma.

 ✵Failure of lung in purifying: one of the common mechanisms of lung diseases that gives rise to cough, dyspnea, expectoration of sputum, fullness in the chest, etc.

 ✵Upward reversal of lung Qi: one of the common mechanisms of lung diseases that causes cough, dyspnea and asthma.

 ✵Phlegm-turbidity obstructing the lung: a pathological change that impairs the lung's functional activities, causing cough with profuse expectoration or dyspnea with full sensation in the chest associated with white greasy tongue coating and slippery pulse.

 ✵Wind-cold fettering the lung: a pathological change often occurring in colds and at the initial stage of acute febrile diseases in which wind-cold attacks the superficies of the body as well as the lung, causing such symptoms as congested nose with sneezing and watery discharge, headache, aversion to cold, mild fever, and floating pulse.

 ✵Injury to the lung vessels by heat: a pathological change characterized by pathogenic heat that injures the lung vessels and causes bloody sputum or hemoptysis.

 ✵Dysfunction of the large intestine in transmission: a pathological change that may cause diarrhea or constipation.

 ✵Excess-heat of the large intestine: a pathological change of the large intestine meridian in which excessive heat in the meridian causes fever, flushed face, cough, dyspnea, and fullness in the abdomen.

 ✵Insufficiency of kidney essence: a pathological change of the kidney due to congenital weakness, old age, and malnutrition or after protracted illness, causing retarded growth and development in children, delayed sexual development in adolescents, and hypogonadism and impotence in adults, as well as impaired mentality, weak legs and slow reflexes.

 ✵Dysfunction in essence-storing: failure of the kidney to install essence and control urination and defecation, causing spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, incontinence of urine, frequent urination at night, and diarrhea before dawn.

 ✵Frenetic stirring of ministerial fire: hyperactivity of ministerial fire of the liver and kidney, usually due to deficiency of Yin and resulting in dizziness, headache, tinnitus and irritability if the liver is chiefly involved, and feverish feeling in the chest, palms of the hands and soles of the feet, aching in the loins, and hyperaphrodisia if the kidney is chiefly involved.

 ✵Decline of kidney Yang: also known as decline of the fire of life gate, a pathological change of the kidney that causes chronic diarrhea, especially diarrhea before dawn, chills in the back, edema of the legs, lowered sexual ability, and frequent micturition at night.

 ✵Dysfunction of the bladder: disordered function of the bladder in storing and discharging urine that may cause frequency and urgency of urination, dribbling of urine, anuria or enuresis and incontinence of urine.

 ✵Blockage of bladder Qi: a pathological change of the urinary bladder that often caused dysuria.

 ✵Disturbance in Qi activity: (1).in a broad sense, denoting metabolic disorders of all sorts of vital essence and energy,(2).in a narrow sense, denoting disturbance in urine excretion due to dysfunction of the kidney and the urinary bladder-one of the causes of edema and difficulty in urination.

 ✵Congealing cold and stagnating Qi: Qi stagnation caused by cold with a congealing effect which impedes the flow of Qi, often manifested clinically by spasms and pains.

 ✵Qi stagnation and blood stasis: coexistence of the two pathological states which exert an influence on each other, as stagnant Qi makes the blood flow sluggish while stagnant blood impedes the flow of Qi.

 ✵Blood stasis due to Qi stagnation: a pathological change in which a long-standing or severe stagnation of Qi leads to blood stasis, often manifested,e.g.,by aggravation of local pain originally caused by Qi stagnation, and change of the distending and scurrying character of the pain into a stabbing and fixed one with tenderness, or even accompanied by mass formation.

 ✵Insufficient Qi failing to control blood: a pathological change of Qi deficiency in which Qi is unable to keep the blood flowing within the vessels, thus resulting in bleeding.

 ✵Qi deficiency and blood stasis: coexistence of Qi deficiency and blood stasis.Blood stasis due to Qi deficiency:a pathological change of Qi deficiency in which Qi is insufficient to drive the blood flow, thus forming blood stasis.

 ✵Qi deficiency with abdominal distention: a pathological change of Qi deficiency in which Qi is insufficient for normal transportation in the middle energizer, thus causing abdominal distension.

 ✵Disharmony of Qi and blood: mechanism of disease marked by a lack of normal coordination between Qi and blood, e.g.,Qi in insufficiency leading to blood stasis instead of promoting blood flow.

 ✵Prostration of blood with Qi collapse: a pathological change in which massive loss of blood leads to collapse, marked by pale complexion, cold extremities, profuse sweating, thready and barely perceptible pulse, called as Qi collapse following sinking of Qi.

 ✵Bleeding following sinking of Qi: a pathological change that incessant bleeding such as uterine bleeding or bleeding per rectum occurs following sinking of Qi.

 ✵Escape of blood from vessels: basic mechanism of various hemorrhages.also known as blood failing to circulate in vessels.

 ✵Frenetic movement of blood due to heat: one of the mechanisms of bleeding.

 ✵Damage to the thoroughfare and conception vessels: a pathological change in cases of gynecological diseases, usually caused by infection, intemperance in sexual life or frequent pregnancy, resulting in dysmenorrhea, pain in the lower abdomen and loins, uterine bleeding, or abortion.

 ✵Insecurity of the thoroughfare and conception vessels: a pathological change in cases of gynecological diseases, usually causing uterine bleeding or abortion.

 ✵Dysfunction of meridians: a pathological change of meridians that causes impeded circulation of Qi and blood.

 ✵Disturbance of meridian Qi: a pathological change of meridians in which the adverse flow of meridian Qi leads to disordered circulation of Qi and blood.

 
Mechanism of Disease Theory:the basics.

 Mechanism of Disease Theory   The Basics: The basics for the Mechanism of Disease Theory are briefly as:

 ✵Wind moves swifly and is changeable. When wind prevails, involuntary movements occur. Wind is the chief of many diseases.

 ✵Cold, as a yin pathogen, is likely to damage Yang Qi. cold is congealing and tends to cause stagnation. Cold is characterized by contraction.

 ✵Dampness is characterized by heaviness and stickiness. Dampness is viscous and tends to stagnate. When dampness prevails, Yang is debilitated. When dampness prevails, diarrhea occurs.

 ✵When dryness prevails, desiccation occurs.

 ✵Fire is characterized by flaring up. Qi in excess will turn into fire.

 ✵Excessive Joy injures the heart. Joy makes heart Qi relax. anger injures the liver. Anger makes liver Qi rise. Worry injures the lung. Worry makes

 ✵Qi stagnate. Sadness makes lung Qi disperse. Anxiety injures the spleen. Anxiety makes spleen Qi stagnate. Fear injures the kidney. Fear makes kidney Qi descend. Fright makes Qi disturbed. Cold makes Qi compact. Heat makes Qi dispersed. Strain makes Qi consumed.

 ✵All wind with vertigo and shaking is ascribed to the liver.

 ✵All cold with contraction is ascribed to the kidney.

 ✵All Qi rushing and oppression is ascribed to the lung.

 ✵All dampness with swelling and fullness is ascribed to the spleen.

 ✵All fever with impaired consciousness and convulsion is ascribed to fire.

 ✵All painful and itching sores are ascribed to the heart.

 ✵All cold extremities, constipation and diarrhea are ascribed to the lower part.

 ✵All atrophy, dyspnea and vomiting are ascribed to the upper part.

 ✵All trismus with shivering chills and delirium is ascribed to fire.

 ✵All spasms and neck ridigity are ascribed to dampness.

 ✵All disorders with upward perversion are ascribed to fire.

 ✵All abdominal distension and fullness is ascribed to heat.

 ✵All states of agitation and mania are ascribed to fire.

 ✵All sudden muscular spasm and rigidity is ascribed to wind.

 ✵All abdominal distension like a drum with borborymi is ascribed to heat.

 ✵All illnesses with swelling and aching of the instep and mental strain are ascribed to fire.

 ✵All cramps, rigidity, and turbid urine are ascribed to heat.

 ✵All thin, clear and watery discharge is ascribed to cold.

 ✵All acid eructation and spouting diarrhea with urgency for evacuation are ascribed to heat.

 ✵Excess syndromes occur when the pathogenic factors are in abundance.

 ✵Deficiency syndromes occur when the patient's essential Qi is severely damaged.

 ✵Preponderance of Yin gives rise to cold syndrome.

 ✵Exuberance of Yang gives rise to heat syndrome.

 ✵Deficiency of Yang brings on external cold. Deficiency of Yin brings on internal heat. Deficiency of Qi brings on cold.

 ✵Exuberant heat brings on swelling.

 ✵Longstanding heat injures Yin.

 ✵Fierce wind produces involuntary movement.

 ✵Extreme cold leads to heat.

 ✵Extreme heat leads to cold.

 ✵Vigorous fire consumes Qi.

 
References:
  • 1.Mechanism of Disease Theory:an introduction.

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