Meridian System:A brief introduction.

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Meridian System:A brief introduction.

 Introduction:the theory of meridian is an important component part of traditional Chinese medical theory, according to which there exists within the human body a system of conduits through which Qi and blood circulates, and by which the internal viscera are connected with the superficial organs and tissues, and the body is made an organic whole.

 
Introduction of the Meridian System.

 Acupuncture Introduction: The basic terms from the theory of Meridian System are introduced:theory of meridians, meridian system,channels and collaterals, meridians, channels,collaterals, twelve meridians, regular meridians,three yin meridians of the hand, three yang meridians of the hand, three yang meridians of the foot,three yin meridians of the foot, six meridians, yang meridians,yin meridians, the three yin, the second yin,the first yin, the three yang, the second yang,the first yang, fourteen meridians, lung meridian of hand taiyin,large intestine meridian of hand yangming, stomach meridian of foot yangming, spleen meridian of foot taiyin,heart meridian of hand shaoyin, small intestine meridian of hand taiyang, bladder meridian of foot taiyang,kidney meridian of foot shaoyin, pericardium meridian of hand jueyin, triple energizer meridian of hand shaoyang,gallbladder meridian of foot shaoyang, liver meridian of foot jueyin, eight extra meridians,governor vessel, conception vessel, thoroughfare vessel,belt vessel, yin heel vessel, yang heel vessel,yin link vessel, yang link vessel, muscles along the twelve meridians,muscles along meridians, twelve divergent meridians, divergent meridians,twelve cutaneous regions, fifteen main collaterals, great collateral of the spleen,tertiary collateral, superficial collateral, thenar collateral,uterine collateral, uterine vessels, yin collateral,yang collateral.

 ✵theory of meridians: the theory of meridian is an important component part of traditional Chinese medical theory, according to which there exists within the human body a system of conduits through which Qi and blood circulates, and by which the internal viscera are connected with the superficial organs and tissues, and the body is made an organic whole.

 ✵meridian system,channels and collaterals: conduits through which qi and blood circulate and by which the internal organs are related to superficial organs and tissues, making the body an organic whole.

 ✵meridians, channels: cardinal conduits of qi and blood coursing vertically, composed of the twelve regular meridians and the eight extra meridians.

 ✵collaterals: the branches of the meridians, serving as the network linking the various aspects of the body, and consisting of the fifteen collaterals, superficial collaterals, and lesser collaterals.

 ✵twelve meridians: also known as the regular meridians.They are the lung meridian of hand taiyin(LU), the large intestine meridian of hand yangming(LI), the stomach meridian of foot yangming(ST), the spleen meridian of foot taiyin(SP), the heart meridian of hand shaoyin(HT), the small intestine meridian of hand taiyang(SI), the bladder meridian of foot taiyang(BL), the kidney meridian of foot shaoyin(KI), the pericardium meridian of hand jueyin(PC), the triple energizer meridian of hand shaoyang(TE), the gallbladder meridian of foot shaoyang(GB), and the liver meridian of foot jueyin(LR).They are the main passages of qi and blood.

 ✵regular meridians: another name of the twelve meridians.

 ✵three yin meridians of the hand: the meridians running through the anterior side of the upper limbs from the chest to the hands, namely, the lung meridian, the heart meridian, and the pericardium meridian.

 ✵three yang meridians of the hand: the meridians running through the posterior side of the upper limbs from the hands to the head, namely, the large intestine meridian, the small intestine meridian, and the triple energizer meridian.

 ✵three yang meridians of the foot: the meridians running from the head through the trunk downward to the feet, namely, the stomach meridian, the bladder meridian, and the gallbladder meridian.

 ✵three yin meridians of the foot: the meridians running through the inner side of the lower limbs from the feet to the abdomen and chest, namelu, the spleen meridian, the kidney meridian, and the liver meridian.

 ✵six meridians: a collective term for taiyang meridian, yangming meridian, shaoyang meridian, taiyin meridian, shaoyin meridian, and jueyin meridian, which, in conformity with the twelve meridians, may be subdivided into the six meridians of the hand and the six meridians of the foot.

 ✵yang meridians: a collective term for the three yang meridians of the hand and the foot, governor vessel, yang link vessel, and yang heel vessel.

 ✵yin meridians: a collective term for the three yin meridians of the hand and the foot, conception vessel, thoroughfare vessel, yin link vessel, and yin heel vessel.

 ✵the three yin: (1).the three yin:a collective name for the three yin meridians of both the hand and the foot, six in all, or (2).the third yin, taiyin meridian.

 ✵the second yin: shaoyin meridian.

 ✵the first yin: jueyin meridian.

 ✵the three yang: (1).the three yang:a collective name for the three yang meridians of both the hands and the feet, six in all;(2).the third yang:taiyang meridian.

 ✵the second yang: yangming meridian.

 ✵the first yang: shaoyang meridian.

 ✵fourteen meridians: the twelve meridians plus the governor and conception vessels.

 lung meridian of hand taiyin Icon ✵lung meridian of hand taiyin: lung meridian(LU), one of the twelve meridians, which begins internally in the middle energizer, descends to connect with the large intestine, then ascends to the lung and throat, courses laterally and exists superficially at zhongfu(LU1), and then descends along the lateral side of the arm and forearm, terminates at shaoshang(LU11), with 11 points on either side.

 large intestine meridian of hand yangming Icon ✵large intestine meridian of hand yangming: large intestine meridian(LI), one of the twelve meridians, which originates at shangyang(LI1) and ascends the dorsal surface of the hand and forearm, the lateral side of the arm, the dorsal side of the shoulder to jugu(LI16), where the meridian enters internally and travels posteriorly to dazhui(GV14), and then courses anteriorly to the supraclavicular fossa, where it descends past the diaphragm to connect with the large intestine.The superficial supraclavicular branch ascends the anterior lateral neck and the mandible, connects internally with the lower teeth, encircles the lips and terminates at the opposite yingxiang(LI20).There are 20 points on either side of the body.

 stomach meridian of foot yangming Icon ✵stomach meridian of foot yangming: stomach meridian(ST),one of the twelve meridians which originates internally at the lateral edge of the nose, ascends to the medial canthus of the eye, then continues to the first superficial point chenqi(ST1) at the inferior border of the orbit, descends to the upper gum, courses around the mouth, and travels up to touwei(ST8) at the hairline of the temple.From here it continues internally to terminate at shenting(GV24).The facial branch descends from daying(ST5), where it turns internally and descends past the diaphragm to connect with the stomach and spleen.The supraclavicular fossa branch descends along the midclavicular line to qichong(ST30) in the inguinal region, then anteriroly along the lateral margin of the femur to the patella, terminating at lidui(ST45) on the lateral side of the tip of the second toe.The gastric branch descends internally past the umbilicus and terminates at qichong(ST30).The tibial branch leaves zusanli(ST36) and descends along the fibula, terminating at the lateral side of the tip of the middle toe.The dorsal foot branch leaves chongyang(ST42) and descends to the medial side of the great toe at yinbai(SP1).There are 45 points on either side of the body.

 spleen meridian of foot taiyin Icon ✵spleen meridian of foot taiyin: spleen meridian(SP),one of the twelve meridians, which runs from yinbai(SP1) at the medial side of the great toe, ascends along the medial side of the foot and tibia and anteromedial side of the thigh to the lower abdomen.It then enters the abdomen, and connects with the spleen and stomach.The meridian ascends the abdomen at a distance of 4.0 cun lateral to the conception vessel, and terminates superficially at dabao(SP21) in the sixth intercostal space on the midaxillary line.The meridian continues internally past the supraclavicular fossa and terminates at the base of the tongue.The gastric branch leaves the stomach and ascends internally past the diaphragm, and connects with the heart.There are 21 points on either side of the body.

 heart meridian of hand shaoyin Icon ✵heart meridian of hand shaoyin: heart meridian(HT),one of the twelve meridians, which originates in the heart, descends internally past the diaphragm, and connects with the small intestine.The cardiac branch ascends internally paralateral to the esophagus, and terminates at the eye.The main branch leaves the heart, traverses the lung and emerges superficially in the midaxilla at jiquan(HT1) and descends along the ulnar side of the forearm medially, terminating at shaochong(HT9) on the radial side of the tip of the small finger, with 9 points on either side.

 small intestine meridian of hand taiyang Icon ✵small intestine meridian of hand taiyang: small intestine meridian(SI), one of the twelve meridians which originates at shaoze(SI1) at the ulnar side of the little finger, ascends the ulnar side of the forearm, the arm, over the scapula to dazhui(GV14) between the spinous processes of the 7th cervical and 1st thoracic vertebrae.The meridian then descends internally to the heart, and follows the esophagus past the diaphragm, to connect with the small intestine.The supraclavicular fossa branch ascends superficially along the lateral side of the neck, past the cheek to the lateral corner of the eye, and terminates at tinggong(SI19).The buccal branch leaves the main meridian at the cheek, and ascends to the medial canthus of the eye.There are 19 points on either side.

 bladder meridian of foot taiyang Icon ✵bladder meridian of foot taiyang: bladder meridian(BL), one of the twelve meridians which runs from jingming(BL1) at the medial canthgus of the eye, ascends the forehead to the vertex and then enters the brain, and exists at the nape of the neck, where it divides into two parallel branches:The first branch descends the back at a distance of 1.5 cun from the spine, and during its course it connects with the kidney and the urinary bladder,and continues along the posterior side of the thigh to the popliteal fold; the second branch descends the back at a distance of 3 cun from the spine, continues along the latero-posterior side of the thigh to the popliteal fold,where it meets the first branch.The meridian continues to descend along the posterior side of the calf to the lateral malleolus, terminating at zhiyin(BL67) on the lateral side of the tip of the little toe.There are 67 points on either side of the body.

 kidney meridian of foot shaoyin Icon ✵kidney meridian of foot shaoyin: kidney meridian(KI), one of the twelve meridians which begins on the plantar tip of the little toe and travels to yongquan(KI1) in the center of the sole, continues along the inner side of the lower limb to the symphysis pubis, turns internally to the kidney and urinary bladder, and back to the symphysis pubis, descending along the abdomen and chest up to shufu(KI27) in the depression between the first rib and the lower border of the clavicle, with 27 points on either side.

 pericardium meridian of hand jueyin Icon ✵pericardium meridian of hand jueyin: pericardium meridian(PC),one of the twelve meridians which originates in the center of the thorax, connects with the pericardium, and descends to the lower abdomen, linking all the three energizers.The thoracic branch exists superficially at tianchi(PC1) near the nipple, and descends along the midline of the anterior side of the arm to zhongchong(PC9) at the midpoint of the tip of the middle finger, with 9 points on either side.

 triple energizer meridian of hand shaoyang Icon ✵triple energizer meridian of hand shaoyang: triple energizer meridian(TE),one of the twelve meridians, which runs from guanchong(TE1) at the ulnar side of the ring finger, travels along the midline of the posterior side of the arm and through the regions of the shoulder, neck, ear and eye, and terminates at sizhukong(TE23) at the lateral canthus, with 23 points on either side.A branch extends from the supraclavicular fossa to the pericardium and down through the thorax and abdomen, linking the upper, middle and lower energizers.

 gallbladder meridian of foot shaoyang Icon ✵gallbladder meridian of foot shaoyang: gallbladder meridian(GB), one of the twelve meridians, which runs from tongziliao(GB1) at the lateral canthus of the eye, through the regions of the temple, ear, neck, shoulder, flank, and the outer side of the lower limb, terminating at zuqiaoyin(GB44) on the lateral side of the tip of the 4th toe, with 44 points on either side.The post-auricular branch travels into the ear and down to the supraclavicular fossa where it joins the original branch.It continues down into the chest, past the diaphragm, connecting with the gallbladder and liver, and travels down to the lower abdomen into the inguinal canal.The dorsal foot branch leaves the main meridian at zulinqi(GB41) and descends between the first and second metatarsals, terminating at the base of the big toe nail.

 liver meridian of foot jueyin Icon ✵liver meridian of foot jueyin: liver meridian(LR),one of the twelve meridians, which runs from dadun(LR1) on the big toe just behind the nail, through the inner side of the lower limb, external genitalia and abdomen, to qimen(LR14), a point about 2 cun below the nipple, with 14 points on either side.From qimen(LR14) the meridian enters the abdomen, travels the stomach para-laterally, to connect with the liver and gallbladder.From the liver, the meridian ascends past the diaphragm along the trachea, larynx, and sinus cavity, connecting with the eye, and then ascends to the vertex, where it meets the governor vessel.

 ✵eight extra meridians: governor vessel, conception vessel, thoroughfare vessel, belt vessel, yin heel vessel, yang heel vessel, yin link vessel, and yang link vessel.

 ✵governor vessel: GV, one of the eight extra meridians which begins at changqiang(GV1), a point at the back of the anus, sending one branch forward to huiyin(CV1).The main portion of the meridian ascends along the midline of the back to the top of the head, and then descends the midline of the face down to yinjiao(GV28),a point between the upper lip and the upper gum in the labia frenum, with 28 points.

 ✵conception vessel: CV,one of the eight extra meridians, which runs from huiyin(CV1), a point in the center of perineum, ascends the midline of the abdominal wall and chest to chengjiang(CV24), the midpoint of the mentolabial sulcus, with 24 points.The internal portion of this meridian ascends from chengjiang(CV24), encircling the mouth and traveling to the eyes.Another branch travels internally from the pelvic cavity, and ascends the spine to the throat.

 ✵thoroughfare vessel: TV,one of the eight extra meridians, which originates in the uterus or guanyuan(CV4), comes into confluence with the kidney meridian, and then runs upward along the two sides of the abdomen to the chest.

 ✵belt vessel: BV,one of the eight extra meridians which originates from the lower part of the hypochondria and goes round the waist.

 ✵yin heel vessel: YinHV, one of the eight extra meridians, which originates in the inner side of the heel, running upward along the inner side of the lower limb, through the front private parts, th abdomen, chest, neck and either side of the nose, and terminating in the eye.

 ✵yang heel vessel: YangHV,one of the eight extra meridians, which originates in the outer side of the heel, running upward along the outer ankle, the outer side of the lower limb, through the abdomen, chest, shoulder and cheek, terminating at the back of the neck.

 ✵yin link vessel: YinLV, one of the eight extra meridians, which originates in the upper part of the inner ankle, running upward along the inner side of the lower limb, through the abdomen, chest and throat, terminating at the back of the neck.

 ✵yang link vessel: YangLV, one of the eight extra meridians, which originates in the lower part of the outer ankle, running upward along the outer side of the lower limb, through the side of the trunk, the shoulder, neck and terminating at the top of the head.

 ✵muscles along the twelve meridians: the muscle systems distributed and nourished by the qi of the twelve meridians, also called muscles along meridians for short.

 ✵muscles along meridians: abbreviation for muscles along the twelve meridians.

 ✵twelve divergent meridians: the divergent passages of the regular meridians going deep into the body to strengthen the communication between the interior and exterior, and to serve as supplementary passages for the flow of Qi of the regular meridians, also called divergent meridians for short.

 ✵divergent meridians: abbreviation for the divergent passages of the regular meridians.

 ✵twelve cutaneous regions: the regions of the skin reflecting the functioning of the twelve regular meridians respectively.

 ✵fifteen main collaterals: each of the fourteen meridians has a main collateral-together with the great collateral of the spleen, there are fifteen in all-which communicate with the exterior and interior of the body.

 ✵great collateral of the spleen: the collateral that issues from dabao(SP21) and spreads over the thoracic and hypochondriac regions.

 ✵tertiary collateral: (1).subdivided small branch of the meridian;(2).capillary.

 ✵superficial collateral: collateral lying just beneath the skin.

 ✵thenar collateral: collateral on the thenar eminence, the congestion of which show disorder of the large intestinal meridian.

 ✵uterine collateral: vessels distributed on the uterus.

 ✵uterine vessels: vessels that connect with the uterus, chiefly the conception vessel and thoroughfare vessel, governing menstruation, conception and pregnancy.

 ✵yin collateral: (1).collateral or branch of the yin meridian of the hand or foot;(2).collateral going downward or deep.

 ✵yang collateral: (1).collateral or branch of yang meridian of hand or foot;(2).collateral or branch running upward or superficially.

 
References:
  • 1.Acupuncture and Moxibustion:A brief introduction.

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