Ramulus Taxilli(Mulberry Mistletoe).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin: also known as Yin-tonifying herb, or Yin-nourishing herb, an agent or substance that tonifies the Yin of the heart, lung, stomach, liver, or kidney.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [16] kinds of common TCM herbs, [29] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are briefly introduced separately:

 
Ramulus Taxilli(Mulberry Mistletoe).

 Ramulus Taxilli Brief Introduction: The Herb Ramulus Taxilli is the dried leaf-bearing stem and branch of Taxillus chinensis(DC.) Danser(family Loranthaceae), used (1).to replenish liver and kidney Yin, strengthen the sinews and bones and dispel wind-damp for the treatment of arthralgia with aching back and limbs, and (2).to nourish the blood and prevent miscarriage for the treatment of menorrhagia and threatened abortion. The herb is commonly known as Ramulus Taxilli, Mulberry Mistletoe, Sānɡ Jì Shēnɡ.

 ✵Common official herbal classics defined the herb Ramulus Taxilli(Mulberry Mistletoe) as the dried leaf-bearing stem and branch of the species (1). Taxillus chinensis(DC.) Danser. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Ramulus Taxilli(Mulberry Mistletoe) as the dried leaf-bearing stem and branch of the species (1). Taxillus chinensis(DC.)Danser., (2). Taxillus sutchuenensis(Lecomte)Danser., (3). Scurrula parasitica L., (4). Taxillus nigrans (Hance) Danser. They are plants of the Loranthaceae family of the Santalales order. The officially defined species and other commonly used species are introduced as:

 Taxillus chinensis DC.Danser. (1).Taxillus chinensis (DC.)Danser.: It is commonly known as Sāng Jì Shēng. A plant of the Taxillus Van Tiegh genus, the Loranthaceae family of the Santalales order. Shrubs, 0.5~1 meter high; Branchlets, leaves densely covered with brown or reddish-brown stellate hairs, sometimes with scattered overlapping stellate hairs, branchlets black, glabrous, with scattered lenticels. Leaves subopposite or alternate, leathery, ovate, long ovate or elliptic, 5~8 cm long, 3~4.5 cm wide, apex obtuse, base subrounded, glabrous above, tomentose below; Lateral veins 4~5 pairs, evident above leaves; Petiole 6~12 mm long, glabrous.

  Taxillus chinensis DC.Danser. 1~3 racemes, grow in axillary or leaf axils of deciduous branchlets, with 2~5 flowers, densely umbellate, inflorescence and flowers densely covered with brown stellate hairs, total pedicels and inflorescence axis 1~3 mm long. Pedicels 2~3 mm long; Bracts ovate-triangular, ca. 1 mm long; Flowers red, receptacle elliptic, 2~3 mm long; Epicalyx annular, 4-dentate; Corolla buds tubular, 2.2~2.8 cm long, slightly curved, lower half swollen, apically elliptic, 4 lobes, lanceolate, 6~9 mm long, reflexed, hairs sparse after flowering; Filaments ca. 2 mm, flowers ca. 3-4 mm, cells often with transverse septum; Style linear, stigma conical.

 Taxillus chinensis DC.Danser. Fruit elliptic, 6~7 mm long, 3~4 mm in diameter, both ends obtuse, yellowish-green, pericarp granular, sparsely hairy. It is flowering from June to August.

 Ecological environment: Produced in Gansu, Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Shanxi, Taiwan, Yunnan. It grows in plain or low mountain evergreen broad-leaved forest at an altitude of 20~400 meters, parasitic on mulberry, peach, plum, longan, litchi, star fruit, oil tea, oil tong, rubber, banyan, kapok, Masson pine or yew, and other plants.

 Taxillus chinensis DC.Danser. Trait identification:Stem branches cylindrical with leaves, branched, 30~40 cm long, coarsely branched 0. 5~1 cm, twigs or shoot diameter 2~3 mm. Rough surface, the top of the young branch is rust-colored plush, reddish-brown or taupe, with most round point shape, yellow-brown or grayish-yellow lenticels and longitudinal fine wrinkles, rough branch surface reddish-brown or taupe, with protruding branch marks and leaf marks. The quality is firm and brittle, easy to break, the section is not flat, the skin part is thin, deep brown, easy and wood part from; Wood broad, a few stems of the majority, reddish-brown; Pith ray is apparent, radial shape; Pith small shape, slightly dark color. Leaves easy to shed, only a few residual stems, leaves often curled, broken, complete ovoid to long ovoid, 3~6 cm long, 2.5~4 cm wide, apex obtuse round, base round form a wide cuneate, tawny or tawny, entire, side veins 3-4 pairs, slightly obvious, young leaves rust-color villi, near leather and brittle, easy to break; Petiole length 0.5~1 cm. Flowers and fruit often fall off; Buds tubular, slightly curved, apically ovoid, rust-colored tomentose; Berry long-shaped, reddish-brown, dense nodules. Light smell, taste light, slightly astringent to branch thin, tender quality. Reddish-brown, leaves are preferred.

 Taxillus sutchuenensis Lecomte Danser. (2).Taxillus sutchuenensis(Lecomte)Danser.: It is commonly known as Sì Chuān Jì Shēng. A plant of the loranthus genus, the Loranthaceae family of the Santalales order. Shrubs, 0.5~1 meter high; Young shoots, leaves densely covered with brown or reddish-brown stellate fuzz; Branchlets black, glabrous. Leaves leathery, subopposite or alternate, ovate, long ovate or elliptic, 5~8 cm long, 3~4.5 cm wide, apex obtuse, base rounded, underside densely covered with hairs; Petiole 6~12 mm long, glabrous. Racemes, 1~3 mm long, with 2~5 flowers, densely umbellate, densely hairy; Pedicels 2~3 mm long; Bracts ovate triangular; Flower red, receptacle oblong, 2~3 mm long; Epicalyx with 4 teeth; Corolla buds slightly curved, 2.2~2.8 cm long, lower half swollen, apex narrowly oblong, acute, lobes lanceolate; Filaments ca. 2 mm, anthers 3~ 4 mm; Style linear, stigma conical. Fruit oblong, yellow-green, 6~7 mm long, 3~4 mm in diameter, rind granular and sparsely hairy. Its flowering period is from June to August.

 Ecological environment: It grows in the broad-leaved forest of 1,500~2,500 meters above sea level, parasitic on pear, plum, oil tea, lacquer, walnut, birch, and Fagaceae plants. It is distributed in China's southwest to southeast provinces, Yiliang, Weixi, Kunming of Yunnan province.

 Trait identification:Stem with leaves cylindrical, branched, 30~50 cm long, coarsely branched ca. 1 cm in diameter, twigs and shoot 2~3 mm. Rough surface, dark brown or taupe, longitudinal fine wrinkles, cracks, and dotted tawny lenticels; Branchlets and shoot tips densely covered with russet or reddish-brown tomentose. Hard, easy to break, section uneven, skin thin, brown, easy and wood part from; The wood part is broad, several occupy stem big part, yellow-brown or yellow-white; Obvious myeloid rays; The pith is slightly darker. Leaves mostly deciduous, leaves mostly broken or curled, complete leaves long elliptic, long ovate or ovate, 5~8 cm long, 3~4.5 cm wide, apex obtuse, base circle forming a wide cuneate, tawny or tawny, entire, side veins 3~4 pairs, slightly obvious, young leaves rust-colored villi, nearly leathery and brittle, easily broken; Petiole length 0.5~1 cm. Flowers and fruit often fall off; Buds tubular, slightly curved, apically ovoid, rust-colored tomentose; Berry long~shaped, reddish-brown, dense nodules. Light smell, taste light, slightly astringent. The herb which branches thin, tender in quality, reddish-brown, many leaves are better.

 Scurrula parasitica L. (3).Scurrula parasitica L.: It is commonly known as Hóng Huā Jì Shēng. A plant of the Scurrula L. genus, the Loranthaceae family of the Santalales order. Shrubs, 0.5~1 meter high. Young shoots and leaves are densely covered with rust-colored stellate hairs, and later the hairs are completely shed and become glabrous. Branchlets grayish brown, lenticellate. Leaves opposite or subopposite, thickly papery; Petiole length 5~6 mm; Leaf blade ovate to long ovate, 5~8 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, apex obtuse, base broadly cuneate; Lateral veins 5~6 pairs, evident on both sides. Racemes, 1~3 axillary or axillary of deciduous branchlets, each covered with brown hairs, peduncle and raceme 2-3 mm long, flowered 3-5(-6) flowers, red, dense; Pedicels 2~3 mm long; Bracts triangular; Flower receptacle gyro shape, 2-2.5 mm long; Epicalyx annular, entire; Corolla buds tubular, 2~2.5 cm long, slightly curved, lower half swollen, apically elliptic, apically 4-lobed when flowering, lobes lanceolate, 5~8 mm long, reflexed; Style linear, stigma capitate. Berry pear-shaped, ca. 10 mm long, ca. 3 mm in diameter, lower half abruptly stipitate, reddish-yellow, peel smooth. Its flowering and fruiting period is from October to January of the following year.

 Scurrula parasitica L. Ecological environment: They are parasitic on peach trees, pear trees, apricot trees, pomegranates, Pu-erh tea, Castanea SPP. Distributed in southwest and Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Taiwan, and other areas.

 Trait identification:Stem branches with leaves cylindrical, much-branched, 3~5 cm long, ca. 1 cm in diameter, twigs and tips 2~3 mm in diameter. Rough surface, old branch reddish-brown or dark brown; Branchlets and shoot tips ochre red, some young branchlets have brown stellate hair; The surface has many dots and tawny or taupe transverse lenticels, as well as irregular, thick and dense longitudinal lines. The quality is firm and brittle, easy to break, the cross-section is uneven, the skin part is thin, ochre brown, easy to be separated from the wood part, the wood part is broad, light yellow or earthy yellow, with a radiating texture, the pulp part is dark yellow. Leaves opposite or subopposite, easily detached; The blade is more broken, curled; Complete ovate to long ovate, 5~8 cm long, 2~4 cm wide, tawny or tawny, lateral veins prominent, both sides smooth and glabrous, entire, thick papery and crisp, some young leaves with brown stellate hair; Petiole about 5 mm long, some have not fallen off flower, flower bud tube shape, tip long round, sharp, when open, apex 4-lobed, lobes reflexed, 4 stamens and style visible; Fruit pear-shaped, obtuse at the top, tapering at the lower half as long sessile. The smell is fragrant, the taste is slight acerbity but bitter.

 Taxillus nigrans Hance Danser. (4).Taxillus nigrans (Hance) Danser.: It is commonly known as Máo Yè Dùn Guǒ Jì Shēng.A plant of the Taxillus Van Tiegh genus, the Loranthaceae family of the Santalales order. Twigs, leaves, inflorescences, and flowers are densely covered with stellate and stellate hairs of grayish-yellow, yellowish-brown or brown; Branchlets grayish brown or dark black, glabrous, with scattered lenticels. Leaves opposite or alternate, leathery, oblong, oblong or oblong-ovate, 6~11 cm long, 3~5 cm wide, apex obtuse or acute, base cuneate to rounded, glabrous above, dark or tawny when dry, tomentose below; Lateral veins 4~5 pairs, slightly convex above leaves; Petiole 5-8 mm long, tomentose. Racemes, 1~5 clustered in leaf axils or deciduous branchlets, with 2~5 flowers, densely arranged in an umbel, total pedicels and inflorescence axis 2~4 mm. Pedicels 1~1.5 mm long; Bracts triangular, ca. 1 mm long; Bonus yellow, receptacle ovoid, ca. 2 mm long; Epicalyx annular, entire, slightly indented; Corolla buds tubular, 1.2~1.8 cm long, slightly curved or suberect, coronal tube slightly inflated, apically ovoid, 4 lobes, spatulate, 4~6 mm long, slightly spreading or reflexed; Filaments 1.5~3 mm long, anthers about 1.5 mm long; Style linear, stigma capitate. Fruit elliptic, ca. 7 mm long, ca. 4 mm in diameter, both ends obtuse, yellowish, rind scabrous, with sparsely stellate hairs. Pedicels 3~5 mm long; Pedicel 2~3 mm long.

 Ecological environment: It grows parasitic in broadleaf forests of mountain, hill or valley basin at an altitude of 300~1,300 meters, and parasitizes camphor, mulberry, camellia oleagina, quercus, and willow. The parasitism of obtuse fruiting is distributed in Guizhou, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan.

 
 

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