Radix Polygoni Multiflori(Fleeceflower Root).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin: also known as Yin-tonifying herb, or Yin-nourishing herb, an agent or substance that tonifies the Yin of the heart, lung, stomach, liver, or kidney.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [16] kinds of common TCM herbs, [29] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are briefly introduced separately:

Radix Polygoni Multiflori(Fleeceflower Root).

 Radix Polygoni Multiflori Brief Introduction: The Herb Radix Polygoni Multiflori is the dried tuberous root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.(family Polygonaceae), used as a laxative for constipation and also as an antimalarial agent. The herb is commonly known as Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Fleeceflower Root, Hé Shǒu Wū.

 ✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fo-Ti(He Shou Wu)as the dry rhizome and root of the Polygonaceae family Fallopia Genus plant species (1). Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. It is a plant of the Fallopia Adans genus, the Polygonaceae family of the Polygonales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (1).Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: The Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., is a plant of the Polygonaceae family and Fallopia genus, it also known as "Fallopia multiflora(Thunb.) Haraldson", "Fo-Ti, Fleeceflower Root, Maltiflower Knotweed, Tuber Fleeceflower, Climbing Knotweed, Chinese knotweed, Flowery Knotweed, He-Shou-Wu", Hé Shǒu Wū, etc. The plant is a perennial vine. Roots slender ends into a hypertrophy root, the appearance of red-brown to dark brown. Stem base slightly woody, hollow. Leaves alternate; with long stems; stipules sheathing membranous, brown; leaf blade narrowly ovate or cordate, 4~8 cm long, 2.5~5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cordate, Dark green above, light green below, smooth and glabrous on both sides. Panicle. Petals pedunculate, base with membranous bracts; flowers small, green and white perianth, 5-lobed, varying in size, outside 3-winged; 8 dorsals, unequal, shorter than perianth; 1 pistil, Stigma 3 cracked, head-shaped. Achenes elliptic, 3-sided, black, shiny, outstrip persistent perianth, perianth apparently 3-winged. Its flowering period is from August to October, fruiting from September to November.

 Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Ecological environment: The Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., grows in the area of elevation of 200~3,000 meters valley shrubs, hillside forest, gutter rock, grassy slopes, curbs, hillsides, and shrubs. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in East China, central China, southern China, provinces Hebei, southern Gansu, Guizhou, Zhongtiaoshan mountain of Shanxi, southern Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan province, Yunnan and many other provinces.

 Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Fleece flower is produced in most parts of China. The root tuber is dug in spring and autumn, preferably from plants 3-4 years old, washed clean, sliced and dried in the sun, which is known as raw fleece-flower root. That prepared by steaming with the juice of black soybean (until getting brown) and drying (until getting black) in the sun is called prepared fleece-flower root.

 Fo-Ti is a plant native to China, where it continues to be widely grown. The unprocessed root is sometimes used. However, once it has been boiled in a special liquid made from black beans, it is considered a superior and rather different medicine according to traditional Chinese medicine. The unprocessed root is sometimes called white fo-ti and the processed root red fo-ti.

 Trait identification:Tuberous root spindle-shaped or tuberous, usually slightly curved. Length 5~15 cm, diameter 4~10 cm. Surface reddish-brown or reddish-brown, uneven, irregular longitudinal groove and dense wrinkles, and cross long lenticels and fine root marks. Hard and not easily broken. Cut off the face yellowish brown or reddish brown, pink, skin has a round shaped vascular bundle as a ring arrangement, forming a "cloud brocade pattern", the central part of the wood, some wood center. Light smell, taste light bitter and sweet puckery. The herb which weight big, qualitative firm, powder content sufficient is better.

Radix Polygoni Multiflori Preparata(Prepared Fleeceflower Root).

 Radix Polygoni Multiflori Preparata Brief Introduction: The Herb Radix Polygoni Multiflori Preparata is the fleece flower root processed with black bean juice, used to replenish liver and kidney Yin and nourish blood for the treatment of blood deficiency of the liver and essence deficiency of the kidney with dizziness, tinnitus, aching black and knees, and early graying of the hair. The herb is commonly known as Radix Polygoni Multiflori Preparata, Prepared Fleeceflower Root, Zhì Hé Shǒu Wū.

 ✵During the Tang Dynasty, Herbalist Lin Daoren wrote the book The Secret Recipes of the Immortals for Treating Wounds and Fractures (Xian Shou Li Shang Xu Duan Mi Fang, 846 A.D.). In that book, he described the processing of Ho-Shou-Wu to enhance its tonic properties (processed Ho-Shou-Wu is sometimes called Zhi Heshouwu to distinguish it from the unprocessed form, which may be designated Sheng Shouwu). The processing method is to stew or steam the Ho-Shou-Wu in black soybean juice for several hours (up to three days, depending on the devotion of the processor to this method) and then dry the roots. This is a technique that is still used today. The black soybean juice is prepared by boiling black soybeans in water for about 4 hours; the liquid that is left after the cooking is poured off and the beans are cooked again with less water for 3 hours; the resulting extract is combined with the former extract to make the juice. About 10 kg of black beans are used to process 100 kg of Ho-Shou-Wu roots. Black beans are traditionally attributed to the property of supplementing blood and essence, and prolonged cooking or steaming of the herb is associated with enhancing its enriching and warming nature. The alchemical version of this processing, which is similar to the recommended method for making processed Rehmannia, is to repeat the stewing or steaming 9 times. Thus, after preparing with the black soybean (overnight) and drying, it is again prepared with black soybean on the next day, and so on, until nine cycles have been completed. This repetition of processing was questioned by Chen Shiduo in his book New Compilation of Herbs (Qing Dynasty), in which he felt that the repeated processing would destroy the quality of the herb. Today, the single processing is relied upon.

 According to the English-Chinese Rare Chinese Materia Medica, raw ho-shou-wu, that is, the dried root that has not been prepared with soybeans is used to treat toxicosis (infections yielding abscess, swellings beneath the skin, sores, carbuncles, and eruptive diseases like rubella), inflammation, constipation, and hyperlipidemia. The soybean-prepared ho-shou-wu is used as a tonic for yin and blood, nourishing the hair, strengthening the bones and muscles, and used to treat pale complexion, dizziness, tinnitus, premature greying of hair, weakness of loins and knees, numbness of extremities, metrorrhagia, metrostaxis, profuse leukorrhea, weakness due to lingering diseases (e.g., malaria), and hyperlipemia. According to evaluations done with raw and processed ho-shou-wu, the processed version does have different properties and is the one with the most dramatic effects on preserving the immune system functions. Processed ho-shou-wu is currently the only one that is regularly exported from China. During the past thousand years in China, processed ho-shou-wu has been used to nourish the liver and kidney, promote the growth of hair (see the following section on alopecia), and treat premature greying of hair.

 The roots of ho-shou-wu are reddish-brown. The taste is starchy, astringent and slightly bitter. The highest quality roots are those that have a high density and firm quality. In Hong Kong, the highest quality roots are sliced very thin and packaged carefully to display the color, shape, and luster of the slices; the ordinary quality roots are sliced thicker and sold in bulk packages.

 Trait identification:This herb is an irregular crumpled piece, about 1 cm thick. Surface dark brown or tan, uneven. Qualitative hard, cross-section cutin appearance, tan or black. Light smell, taste light sweet and bitter.


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