Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae(Twoteethed Achyranthes Root).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin: also known as Yin-tonifying herb, or Yin-nourishing herb, an agent or substance that tonifies the Yin of the heart, lung, stomach, liver, or kidney.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [16] kinds of common TCM herbs, [29] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are briefly introduced separately:

Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae(Twoteethed Achyranthes Root).

 Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae Brief Introduction: The Herb Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae is the dried root of Achyranthes bidentata Bl.(family Amaranthaceae), used (1).to nourish the liver and kidney and to strengthen the sinews and bones for the treatment of aching back and knees, and asthenia of the lower limbs, (2).to activate blood flow for treating amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and irregular menstruation, as well as traumatic injuries, and (3).to direct fire or blood downward in the treatment of headache and dizziness due to up-rising of liver Yang, epistaxis and hemoptysis due to up-flaming of fire. The herb is commonly known as Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae, Twoteethed Achyranthes Root, Niú Xī.

 ✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Ox-Knee Root(Niu Xi) as the root of the plant species (1). Achyranthes bidentata Blume. It is a plant of the Achyranthes L. genus, the Amaranthaceae family of the Centrospermae order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume. (1).Achyranthes bidentata Blume.: The Achyranthes bidentata Blume., is a plant of the Amaranthaceae family and Achyranthes genus, it is commonly known as "Niú Xī", or "Huai Niu Xi", "Dui Jie Cao", perennial, 70~120 cm tall; root cylindrical, 5~10 mm in diameter, khaki-colored; stems angulate or quadrangular, green or purplish, adnate to white or pubescent, or subglabrous, branched Opposite. Leaf-blade elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, few oblanceolate, 4.5~12 cm long, 2~7.5 cm wide, apical at the tip, 5~10 mm long, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, adnate or spreading on both surfaces Feels; petiole 5~30 mm long, pilose. Spikes terminal and axillary, 3~5 cm long, reflexed after anthesis; total pedicel 1~2 cm long, white pilose; flowers numerous, densely conical, 5 mm long; sepals broadly ovate, long 2~3 mm, apically long acuminate; bracts spiny, 2.5~3 mm long, apically curved, with 1 ovoid membranous lobe on both sides of base, ca. 1 mm; tepals lanceolate, ca. 3~5 mm, bright, apically acute, with 1 midvein; stamens 2~2.5 mm long; staminodes apically rounded, slightly serrated serrulate. Umbrella oblong, 2~2.5 mm long, yellow-brown, smooth. The seed is oblong and is 1 mm long, yellow-brown. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from September to October.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume. Its roots are elongated and cylindrical, some are slightly curved, and the upper end is slightly thicker and the lower end is thin, with a diameter of 0.4~1 cm. The surface is grayish-yellow or light brown, slightly distorted, with fine longitudinal wrinkles, long lenticels, and sparse fine lines. Hard and brittle and easy to break, soft after the damp. The section is flat, yellow-brown, slightly keratinous and oily. The central vascular bundle is large, yellowish-white, and its periphery is dotted with most punctate vascular bundles, arranged in 2~4 rounds. Odour slightly, slightly sweet and slightly bitter. The quality of root length, meat fat, skin fineness and the color yellow and white are excellent.

 Achyranthes bidentata Blume. Ecological environment:The Achyranthes bidentata Blume., grows in the hillside forest, 200~1,750 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces from south to north except the northeast area. The authentic area of this herb is the Huaiqing area(Wenxian county, Wuzhi county, Boai county, Qingyang county) of Henan province of China. This species also widely distributed in other areas including Siberia, Southeast Asia, etc.

 The root of Achyranthes bidentata Blume., a perennial plant, of the family Amaranthaceae. Native to East Asia, the plant is grown in forest edges, the sides of streams and shrubberies in China and Java.

 The perennial plant grows to about 0.40~0.75 meter. It is in flower from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.

 In China, the plant is mainly produced in the provinces Guizhou, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan, etc. The root is harvested from 1 or 2-year-old plants in the autumn or winter and usually dried in the sun and ground into a powder, used in decoctions or after being fried with wine.

 Trait identification:Slender and cylindrical, sometimes slightly curved; thicker at the top end and tapering towards the bottom; 15~90 cm long; 0.4~1 cm in diameter. Outer surface greyish-yellow or pale brown, marked with twisted, fine longitudinal wrinkles, lalongate (transversely elongated) lenticels, and sparse rootlet scars. Hard and brittle; breaks easily softens when moistened. When broken, surface even; yellowish-brown; slightly cuticular oily and soft; medial xylem at the center of surface relatively large and yellowish-white; under magnification, 2~4 rings of numerous punctiform (dot-like) vascular bundles scattered around xylem. Odor: faint; taste: slightly sweet and a little bitter-astringent.


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