Herba Dendrobii(Dendrobium).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin: also known as Yin-tonifying herb, or Yin-nourishing herb, an agent or substance that tonifies the Yin of the heart, lung, stomach, liver, or kidney.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [16] kinds of common TCM herbs, [29] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Yin Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Yin are briefly introduced separately:

Herba Dendrobii(Dendrobium).

 Herba Dendrobii Brief Introduction: The Herb Herba Dendrobii is the fresh or dried stem of Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe., Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall., Dendrobium fimbriatum var.oculatum Hook., Dendrobium candidum Wall.ex Lindl., or Dendrobium nobile Lindl.(family Orchidaceae), used to replenish stomach Yin, clear heat, and promote fluid production for treating chronic febrile diseases with thirst and dry mouth, deficiency of stomach Yin with epigastric distress and pain, and also for improving vision in cases of cataracts. The herb is commonly known as Herba Dendrobii, Dendrobium, Shí Hú.

 ✵The common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Dendrobii(Dendrobium) as the fresh or dried stem of plant species (1).Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe., (2).Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook. var. oculatum Hook., (3).Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall., (4).Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl., (5).Dendrobium nobile Lindl. They are plants of the Dendrobium Sw. genus, the Orchidaceae family of the Asparagales order. These 5 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe (1).Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe.:  It is commonly known as Huán Cǎo Shí Hú, Měi Huā Shí Hú. The herb is commonly known as "Herba Dendrobii Loddigesii". Perennial epiphytic herbs. Stem cylindrical, 10~45 cm tall, 2~7 mm in diameter, slightly tapering at the base. Leaves papery, oblong-lanceolate or lingual, 4~6 cm long, 1.2~1.8 cm wide, apex acute and slightly hooked; Sessile; Leaf-sheath loosely embraced the stem, sheath mouth open. Flowers solitary, pale rose; Bracts small; Sepals ovoid oblong, 1.7~1.9 cm long, ca. 6 mm wide, apex obtuse, lateral sepals longer than middle sepals, but narrower, apex acute; Calyx capsule short, obtuse; Petals elliptic, wider, as long as middle sepal, apex obtuse, margin more or less toothed; Lower sepal subcircular, labial disk sunken, pubescent, 3 lines from base to apex, margin fringed; The pistil column is short. Its flowering period is from April to May.

 Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe Ecological environment:It grows attached to trees or undergrowth rocks. It prefers to grow in warm, moist, half Yin half Yang environment, with annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm, air humidity more than 80%, January average temperature is higher than 8℃ in the subtropical mountain forest growth is better, the requirements of soil fertilizer is not very strict, wild in loose and thick bark or tree trunk growth, some also grow in the cracks in the stone. Distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan.

 Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe Trait identification:Stem slender cylindrical, often curved, coiled or bundled, 11~40 cm long, 1~3 mm in diameter, internodes 0.4~2.3 cm long. The surface is golden yellow, shiny, with fine longitudinal lines. Flexible and firm, relatively flat section. No smell, taste more bitter, sticky.

 Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook. (2).Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook.:  It is commonly known as Mǎ Biān Shí Hú. Perennial epiphytic herbs. Stem erect, subcylindrical, sometimes spindle-shaped above the base, tapering upward, usually about 60 cm high, 2~20 mm thick, surfacing grooved. Leaves two-row, nearly horizontal, oblong or elliptic, 8~15.5 cm long, 2~3.6 cm wide, apex acute. Anthesis leafless; Racemes pendulous, ca. 15 cm long, often with 6~12 flowers; Inflorescence axis relatively fine, slightly "zigzag" shape; Involucral bracts sheathed, membranous, ca. 5 mm long; Flower bracts small, ca. 3 mm long; Flowers yellow; Sepals oblong, as long as sepals, mucronate, upper surface of labial disk densely pubescent, a reniform purple plaque near base, margin with multiple tasseled, it is flowering from April to May.

 Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook. Ecological environment:It grows attached to trees or valley rocks. It is distributed in Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan.

 Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.var.oculatum Hook. Trait identification:Stem slender, conical, with a few upper branches, 30~150 cm long, 2~8 mm in diameter, internodes 2~4.5 cm long. The surface is brownish yellow color, has 8~9 longitudinal furrows. Quality loose, cross-section fiber. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste. The herbs are usually cut into 1.5~3 cm sections with a pale cut surface.

 Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. (3).Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall.: It is commonly known as Huáng Cǎo Shí Hú, Shù Huā Shí Hú.Perennial epiphytic grass. Stem cylindrical, 50~200 cm high, 5~15 mm thick. Upper part slightly curved, internode length 3~4 cm. Leaves thinly papery, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate; Leaf-sheath membranous, often with scales shape after dry spots; The mouth of the scabbard opens in a cup shape. Anthesis leafless; Inflorescences subsessile, 2~6 flowered; Flower bracts small, membranous; Flowers yellow, slightly fleshy; Sepals oblong, 1.5~1.8 long, ca. 1 cm wide, apex obtuse; Lateral sepals subsickle, slightly longer than central sepals; Calyx capsule short conical; Petals obovate-oblong, significantly wider than sepals, often dentate near apex margin; Lower sepal transverse oblong, both surfaces densely tomentose, upper lip disk mask 2 blood purple circular plaques, 2 pleats from base to near middle, margin with short tassel. Its flowering period is from May to September.

 Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. Ecological environment:It grows cling to trees and rocks. Dendrobium bundendrobium is distributed in Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Xizang.

 Dendrobium chrysanthum Wall. Trait identification:Stem slender cylindrical, middle and upper irregularly curved, 23~120 cm long, 2~5 mm in diameter, internodes 2~3.5 cm long. The surface is golden yellow or brown, with longitudinal lines, light and solid, easy to break, slightly fibrous section. Light smell, taste light bitter, chewing sticky.

 Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. (4).Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl.:: It is commonly known as Tiě Pí Shí Hú.Herbs perennial, epiphytic, stems tufted, cylindrical, up to 35 cm, 2~4 mm thick. Upper stem nodes sometimes root, grow new plants, dried bluish gray. Leaves papery, oblong-lanceolate, 4~7 cm long, 1~1.5 cm wide, apex slightly hooked, margin and midrib lilac; Leaf-sheaths purplish, opening, often leaving a ring gap with the leaves. Racemes often at the upper end of leafless stems, 2~4 cm long, recursively curved, often with 3 flowers; Pedicels ca. 1 cm in total; Bracts dry membranous, pale, 5~7 mm long; Tepals yellow-green, about 1.8 cm long; Sepals and petals similar, oblong-lanceolate, ca. 4 mm wide, apex acute, lateral sepal falcate triangular, base ca. 1 cm wide, apex acute; Calyx sac conspicuous; Labellum ovate-lanceolate, reflexed, slightly shorter than sepals, undivided or indistinctly 3-lobed, basally margin internally lobed and with 1 corpus callosum, apex acute, margin undulate; Labial disk is papillary, with purplish-red spots.

 Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. Ecological environment: It grows on trees, and distributed in Guangxi, Yunnan and Guizhou.

 Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl. Trait identification: Leaf-sheath often shorter than internodes, leaving ring gap, taste light or slightly bitter.

 Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (5).Dendrobium nobile Lindl.: It is commonly known as Jīn Chāi Shí Hú. Perennial epiphytic herbs. Stems tufted, erect, 30~50 cm tall. 1~1.3 cm in diameter, yellow-green, multi-node, internode length 2.5~3.5 cm. Leaves subleathery, often 3~5 stems; Leaf blade oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 6~12 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, apex 2-lobed, veins parallel, usually 9, sheath clasped between nodes, 1.5~2.7 cm long. Without a petiole. Racemes arising from stem nodes, usually with 2~3 flowers; Bracts ovate, small, membranous, flowers large, pendulous, 6~8 cm in diameter; Calyx and petals white, terminal reddish; 3 sepals, sepals free, lateral sepals obtusely on staminal foot, oblong, 3.5~4.5 cm long, 1.2~1.5 cm wide. Petals ovate-oblong or elliptic, several as long as sepals, 2.1~2.5 cm wide, lower sepal subovate, anterior to stamen foot, 4~4.5 cm long, 3~3.5 cm wide, apex rounded, base with short claws, lower half ascending to enclose stamen, both surfaces covered with fuff, near base with a dark purple spot in the center. The height of the litmus column is 6~7 mm, and the length of the foot is about 12 mm. Stamens conical, anthers 2-locule, 4 anthers, waxy. Capsule. Its flowering period is from May to June.

 Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Ecological environment: It grows on mountain rocks or tree trunks in forests. It is distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Guizhou, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan and other areas of China.

 Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Trait identification:Stem middle and lower flat cylindrical, slightly upward "Z" curved, 18~42 cm long, central diameter 0.4~1 cm, internode length 1.5~6 cm. Surface golden yellow or greenish-yellow, shiny, with deep longitudinal groove and longitudinal lines, nodes slightly enlarged, brown, often residual grayish-brown leaf sheath. Light and brittle, relatively loose section. Slight smell, bitter taste.


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