✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Yang Tonics,Herbs for Reinforcing Yang
Introduction: Yang Tonics,Herbs for Reinforcing Yang: also known as Yang-tonifying herb, or Yang-reinforcing herb, an agent or substance herb that tonifies Yang-Qi, used in treating Yang deficiency.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species,  kind of related fungus species, are recorded in this category. These Yang Tonics, Herbs for tonifies Yang-Qi are briefly introduced separately:
Herba Epimedii(Epimedium Herb).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Herba Epimedii is the dried aerial part of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., Epimedium sagittatum(Sieb.et Zucc.) Maxim., Epimedium koreanum Nakai., Epimedium pubescens Maxim., or Epimedium wushanense T.S. Ying(family Berberidaceae), used (1).to replenish kidney Yang for the treatment of impotence, sterility and frequent micturition, and (2).to strengthen the tendons and bones and dispel wind-damp for rheumatalgia, contracture, and numbness. The herb is commonly known as Herba Epimedii, Epimedium Herb, Herb of Shorthorned Epimedium, Herb of Sagittate Epimedium, Herb of Pubescent epimedium, Yín Yánɡ Huò.
✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Epimedii(Yin Yang Huo) as the stem and leaves of the Berberidaceae family plant species, including (1). Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., (2). Epimedium sagittatum., (3). Epimedium wushanense., (4). Epimedium pubesens Maxim., (5). Epimedium koreanum Nakai. They are plants of the Epimedium Linn. genus, the Berberidaceae family of the Ranales order. Although the herbal classics not defined the root as a useful part, the root of the Epimedium also could be used. These 5 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Epimedium brevicornum Maxim.: The Epimedium brevicornum Maxim., is commonly known as "Yín Yánɡ Huò"(literally it means Horny Goat Weed), or "Horny Goat Weed", is a plant of the Berberidaceae family and Epimedium L. genus, perennial herb, high 30~40 cm. Rhizomes, horizontal walk, diameter 3~5 mm, hard quality, most of the fibrous roots. Stems erect, angular, glabrous, usually without base leaves. 2 stem leaves, was born in the top of the stem; have long handle; back to three out of the compound leaves, 9 leaflets, broad egg Po or nearly circular, long 3~7 cm, wide 2.5~6 cm, apex acute or short acuminate, Basal deep heart-shaped, margin spines, green below, shiny, glabrous, pale, sparsely puberulous, with clear reticulate veins; terminal lobular basal lobes rounded, equal, lobes basally lobes neither Symmetrical, medial rounded, lateral acute. Panicles terminal, narrow, long 10~35 cm; inflorescences and pedicels glandular-hairy; pedicel base bracts ovate-lanceolate, membranous; flowers white 1.5~50 mm in diameter, flowers will be 5~20 mm long ; 4 outer sepals, narrowly ovate, dark green, 1~3 mm long, 4 inner sepals, lanceolate, white or yellowish, about 1 cm long, 2-4 mm wide, 4 petals, small, 2-3 mm long, 4 stamens, 3-4 mm long, anther ca. 2 mm; 1 pistil, style long. Fruit length 1 cm, apex beaked. 1-2 seeds, brown. Its flowering period is from May to June, the fruiting period is from June to August.
Ecological environment:The plant grows in the shady slopes or valleys. Distributed in China provinces Anhui, Gansu, Guangxi, Hebei, Hubei, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, and Sichuan, etc.
Trait identification:Stem slender cylindrical, ca. 20 cm long, yellowish green or yellowish, glossy. Stem leaves opposite, two times three compound leaves; Leaf blade ovoid, 3~8 cm long, 2~6 cm wide. Apex slightly acute, apex of lobules bases cordate, bilateral lobules smaller, slightly cordate, lateral larger, auricular, margin with yellow prickly serrate; Upper surface yellowish green, lower surface grayish green, main veins 7~9, base with sparse fine long hair, veinlets protruding on both sides, network veins obvious; Petiole 1~5 cm long. Leaf blade subleathery. No odor, slightly bitter taste.
(2).Epimedium sagittatum.: The Epimedium sagittatum., is commonly known as "Jiàn Yè Yín Yánɡ Huò"(literally it means Sword-leaf Epimedium), or "Arrow Leaf Epimedium Herb", it is a plant of the Berberidaceae family and Epimedium L. genus, perennial evergreen herb, high 25~50 cm. Rhizome stubby, slightly nodular, hard, brown skin, white cross-section. Stems with ribs, glabrous. Basal leaves 1~3 mm, one to three leaves compound; petiole thin, long 4~18 cm; cauline leaves 2, often born in stem top, and basal leaves isoforms; leaflet leathery, narrow egg to lanceolate, long 15~19 cm, 3~8 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, base of the heart-shaped, arrow-shaped, lobular base on both sides of the asymmetric heart-shaped, lobed, marginal fine hairy, below the beginning of hairless, Unilateral shorthair; terminal lobular basal lobes subrounded, equal, basal lobular asymmetric lobes, medial lobes smaller, larger lobes, lateral lobes, triangle, acute tip. Panicles entry students. Upright, inflorescences and pedicels usually glabrous, sometimes glandular-hairy; flowers white, ca. 6 mm in diameter, 20~60 flowers; pedicel ca. Icm; outer 4 sepals, oblong-ovate, 1.5~2 mm, with 4 purple inner sepals, ovate or ovate-triangular, ca. 4 mm, width 2 mm, apex acute, white; petals as long as inner sepals as long as brownish-yellow with short; stamens 4, about 5 mm long, arching defense, about 3 mm. Fruit is about 1 cm, beak. Seeds kidney-shaped oblong, about 4 mm, dark brown. Its flowering period is from February to March, fruiting from May to June.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in mountains, jungle, rock seams, creek next to or shade humid. It is distributed in China provinces from the center to the west to the northeast area including Anhui, Gansu, Hubei, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, etc.
Trait identification:Leaves triplicate, lobules ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 4~12 cm long, 2.5~5 cm wide. Apex thunglet, base of lobules on both sides obtuse, lateral arrow-shaped. Lower surface sparsely coarsely pubescent or subglabrous. Leaf blade leathery.
(3).Epimedium wushanense.: The Epimedium wushanense., is commonly known as "Wūshān Yín Yánɡ Huò"(Literally it means Wushan Mountain Epimedium Herb), it is a plant of the Berberidaceae family and Epimedium L. genus, perennial evergreen herb, high 50~80 cm. Rhizome nodular, hard, the surface was brown scales, surrounded by more fibrous roots. One back three leaves, base or stems, with long stems; 3 leaflets, leaflets with handles. Leaf-blade leathery, lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 9~23 cm long, 1.8~4.5 cm wide, apex acuminate or long acuminate, base cordate, margin ragged, base of terminal leaflets equally rounded Slices, lobes basally lobes of basal lobes oblique, medial lobes small, rounded, lateral lobes large, triangular, tip of Zhejiang, below the length of cotton wool or bare stem with 2 pairs of leaves. Panicle terminal, 15-30 cm long, dapper 50 cm, with numerous flowers, inflorescences glabrous; flowers sparsely glandular trichomes or glabrous; flowers yellowish, diameter 35 cm; 4 outer sepals, suborbicular, long 2~5 mm, 1.5~3 mm wide, inner sepals broadly elliptic, 3~15 mm long, 1.5~8 mm wide, apex obtuse; petals angular, yellowish, sometimes basally purple, 0.6~2 mm long; 2~4 mm; carpels obliquely cylindrical, with long styles, containing 10~12 ovules.fruit about 1.5 cm. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting in June.
Ecological environment:The plant grows in streams, valleys. It is distributed in China provinces Guangxi, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Sichuan, etc.
Trait identification:Leaves lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, 9~23 cm long, 1.8~4.5 cm wide. Apex acuminate or long acuminate, margin spiked, lateral lobules base lobes oblique, inner lobes small, rounded, outer lobes large, triangular, acuminate. The lower surface is woolly or bald.
(4).Epimedium pubesens Maxim.: The Epimedium pubesens Maxim., is commonly known as "Róu Máo Yín Yánɡ Huò"(Literally it means Soft-hair Epimedium), or "Flocculent Epimedium Herb", is a plant of the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family and Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, perennial herb, high 20~60 cm. Rhizome short rent, to the nodular, diameter 3~5 mm. Stems slightly ribbed, glabrous or petiolate with pilose. A leaf three back to the leaves, stems and leaves 2 opposite; leaflet leathery, ovate to lanceolate, long 3~20 cm wide 2~8 cm, apex short acuminate or acuminate, base deep or light heart-shaped, lobes Often round, with spines on the edges, shiny above, densely gray pilose or volute below, especially along veins and petioles. Panicles terminal or axillary, inflorescences and pedicels glandular-hairy; flowers white, diameter lcm; pedicel long 1~2 cm; 4 outer sepals, broadly ovate, 2~3 mm long, purplish, inner sepals lanceolate, Length 5~7 mm, width 1.5~3.5 mm, white, a few pulses; petals small, shorter than the inner calyx, about 2 mm, bundles; stamens 4 mm long, about 2 mm anthers. Fruit oblong, apex long beak. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from May to July.
Ecological environment:The plant grows on the hillside, under the forest grass, high moisture zone. It is distributed in China provinces Anhui, Hebei, Hubei, Gansu, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, etc.
Trait identification:Subleaf surface and petiole densely tomentose pilose.
(5).Epimedium koreanum Nakai.: The Epimedium koreanum Nakai., is commonly known as "Dōng Běi Yín Yánɡ Huò"(Literally it means North East Epimedium), it is a plant of the Berberidaceae family and Epimedium L. genus, perennial herb, high 20~40 cm. Rhizome horizontal walk, long and hard, students most fibrous roots. Stems erect, slightly ascending, ribbed, basally wrapped with 2~3 pieces of nearly national scales. Basal leaves usually absent, rarely 1~2, nearly as long as stem; cauline leaves 2, 3, 2, 1, grow on top of the stem with long stems, connected with stems and joints; 9 leaflets, Petiole shorter than one petiole. Small leaf blade ovate, flowering about 5 cm, width 3 cm, after anthesis increased, about 10 cm, width 7 cm, base deep heart-shaped, often skewed, apex acute, margin with hairy serrate, glabrous above, The following when the child was volts hair, wool gradually fall off. Racemes shorter than leaves, and stems and leaves on both sides of stems born, single or divided by the base, with long stems, joint, glabrous, basally with 2 small bracts, 4~6 terminal flowers; small Pedicle about 1 cm, flowers larger, diameter 2 cm; 8 sepals, ovate needle-shaped, length 3~4 mm, with lavender, outer 4, smaller, inner 4, larger, 6~9 mm long; 4 petals. Pale yellow or yellowish-white, suborbicular, 7~8 mm long, apex acute; 1 ovary, style elongate, stigma capitate. Fruit fusiform, ca. 6 mm (with style), 2-fissured, small flap loosen, large ones, 6~8 seeds inside. Its flowering period is in late April to mid-May, fruiting in May.
Ecological environment: The plant grows under a bright forest or shrubs, prefer to rich with hummus and more moist soil. It is distributed in China northeast provinces and other provinces.
Trait identification:Lobules larger, 4~10 cm long, 3.5~7 cm wide, apex long. The leaves are thinner.