Cortex Eucommiae(Eucommia Bark).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Yang Tonics,Herbs for Reinforcing Yang

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Yang Tonics,Herbs for Reinforcing Yang: also known as Yang-tonifying herb, or Yang-reinforcing herb, an agent or substance herb that tonifies Yang-Qi, used in treating Yang deficiency.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Yang Tonics,Herbs for tonifies Yang-Qi are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [15] kinds of common TCM herbs, [28] kinds of related plant species, [1] kind of related fungus species, are recorded in this category. These Yang Tonics, Herbs for tonifies Yang-Qi are briefly introduced separately:

 
Cortex Eucommiae(Eucommia Bark).

 Cortex Eucommiae Brief Introduction: The Herb Cortex Eucommiae is the dried stem-bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.(family Eucommiaceae), used to tonify the liver and kidney, strengthen the tendons and bones, and prevent miscarriages for the treatment of aching back and knees, impotence, frequent micturition, threatened abortion and nowadays for hypertension. The herb is commonly known as Cortex Eucommiae, Eucommia Bark, Dù Zhònɡ.

 ✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Eucommia Bark(Du Zhong) as the dry bark(cortex) of the Eucommiaceae family plant species (1). Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. It is a plant of the Eucommia genus, the Eucommiaceae family of the Eucommiales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (1).Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.: The Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., is a plant of the Eucommiaceae family and Eucommia genus, it is commonly known as Dù Zhònɡ. Deciduous tree, up to 20 meters high, diameter about 50 cm.

 The bark is gray-brown, rough, containing rubber, broken open most filaments. Twigs have brown hair, soon become alopecia, old branches have obvious lenticels. Bud ovoid, shiny outside, reddish-brown, scale 6-8, edges hairy.

 Leaves elliptic, oval or oblong, thin leathery, 6~15 cm long, 3.5~6.5 cm wide. Base rounded or broadly cuneate, apex acuminate; dark green above, initially with brown pilose, soon became alopecia, the old leaves slightly wrinkled, the following light green, the first brown hair, after the only hairy veins. 6~9 pairs of lateral veins, subtending above reticulate veins, slightly raised below, margin serrate, petiole 1~2 cm long, with grooves above, scattered loose hairs.

 Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Flowers grow at the base of branchlets, male inflorescence free; pedicel ca. 3 mm, glabrous; bracts obovate-spatulate, 6-8 mm long, top rounded, margin lashes, caducous; stamens ca. 1 cm, Glabrous, filaments ca. 1 mm, prominently spaced, sliver slender, degenerate pistils. Female flowers solitary, bracts obovate, pedicel 8 mm long, ovary glabrous, 1-chamber, flat and long, apex 2-lobed, ovary very short. Samara flattened, oblong, 3~3.5 cm long, 1~1.3 cm wide, apex 2-lobed, base cuneate, with thin wings around.

 Nut is located in the center, slightly raised, ovary 2~3 mm in length, with stalk joints at the joints. Seeds flat, linear, 1.4~1.5 cm long, 3 mm wide, round at both ends. Flowering in early spring, fruits mature after autumn.

 Trait identification:Bark flat plate-like, roll-like, or slightly inward-coiled on either side, size varying, 2~7 mm thick. The outer surface is light grayish brown or taupe, flat or rough, with obvious longitudinal wrinkles or irregular longitudinal fissure grooves, square, transverse fissure holes, sometimes with pale gray lichen spots. Inner surface dark purplish-brown or reddish-brown, smooth. Brittle, easy to break, broken face rough, with fine silver white and elastic rubber wire connected. Light smell, slightly bitter taste, chewing the gel-like residue. The herb which skin thick and big, coarse color scrape clean, inside surface color dark purple, cross-section silver-white rubber silk is better.

 Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Ecological environment:The Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., grows at the area with an altitude of 300~500 meters, in the low mountains, valleys or low slope of the woods, the choice of soil is not strict, can grow in the infertile laterite, or rocky cliffs. Geographical distribution: This species is native to China, and mainly distributed in China provinces Anhui, Gansu, Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Yunnan provinces, widely planted throughout China. It prefers a warm and humid climate and a sunny environment, which can withstand the cold. The plants can survive normally under the condition of -30℃, and can be cultivated in most areas of China. They are highly adaptable and have no strict selection of soil. The growth rate of Eucommia genus tree was relatively slow in the early stage, and the rapid growth stage appeared in 7~20 years. After 20 years, the growth rate decreased year by year. After 50 years, tree height growth basically stopped, and the plant wilted naturally. It grows more often in altitude 300~500 meters of low mountain, valley or slope of thin forest, the choice of soil is not strict, in barren red soil, or rock cliff can grow.

 Till today, there are up to 14 species of Eucommia have been found on Earth, and they were subsequently extinct in continent Asia and Europe. The Eucommia existing in China is the only remaining relict species of the Eucommiaceae family and Eucommia genus.

 1.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 1: Young tree bark smooth, adult bark shallow longitudinal split. Tree strong, compact crown, was wide conical, branch angle 35°~ 47° the trunk straight, cold, drought, -27 degrees C low temperature from frost damage. Buds are peached shape, germination of early, strong sprouting, 4-year-old stake can sprout 27 to 34. More dense leaves, internode length 3.4 cm. Leaves broadly oval; dark green, length 16.9 cm, width 7.6 cm, petiole length 1.5 cm. Male flowering early March to mid-April, male flower 6 to 10 clusters were born at the base of branches. 5-year-old tree up to 7.0 meter, DBH 10.4 cm, per hectare of 4.5 tons of hides and leaves, leaf yield 6.4 tons. Suitable for all producing areas to create fast-growing high yield forests.

 Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. 2.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 2: Young tree bark smooth, adult bark deep longitudinal split, lenticels not visible. The crown opening was round-shaped, the sub-edge angle of 43°~ 64° the trunk straight, drought-resistant, hi water. Bud long conical, sprouting in early March. Leaves dark green, bright, was broadly ovoid, length 17.4 cm, width 8.4 cm, petiole length 1.6 cm, leaf curl inward curl. Branch length 3.4 cm. Female flowers from April 1st to April 15th, 6-12 female flowers, single branches in the current year branches. Fruit oval, mid-September to mid-October mature, long 3.2 cm, width 1.2 cm, grafted seedlings 3 years results, 5-year-old tree up to 7.3 m, diameter 9.6 cm, 4.2 tons of hay per hectare, leaf yield 6.2 Ton, the production of 2.3 tons. Suitable for all producing areas to establish seed plantations, orchards, and fast-growing forests.

 3.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 3: Young tree bark smooth, adult bark shallow longitudinal split. Crown open, branch angle of 44°~ 82° the trunk straight, according to dry ability. Saline resistance, drought, leaves small, sparse, narrow oval, leaf length 16.2 cm; width 7.3 cm, petiole length 1.6 cm, internode length 3.3 cm. Bud long conical, sprouting in early March, the female flowering April 1 to April 15, 6 to 14 female flowers, single-born at the base of branches that year. Fruit oval, early September to early October mature, long 3.0 cm, width 1.1 cm. Grafted seedlings 3 years results, 5-year-old tree up to 7.6 meters; DBH 9.2 cm, 4.8 tons per hectare of hides and skins, leaf yield 5.9 tons, the production of 2.5 tons; suitable for all producing areas, especially in a drought, saline-alkali areas to create a fast-growing forest and seed garden.

 Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. 4.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 4: Young tree bark and adult bark are smooth, clear skin perforation is obvious, crown-shaped compact, oval, branching angle of 39°~ 53° the trunk straight, seedling by the top side buds easily sprouting branches, lateral buds grow strong, Crown easy to shape. Cold-resistant, drought, -27 degrees C low temperature from frost damage. Bud conical, early March sprouting, dense leaves, leaf length 17.1 cm, width 7.9 cm, petiole length 1.7 cm, internode length 2.8 cm. Female flowers from April 1st to April 15th, 6~14 female flowers, single-born at the base of the branches. Fruit oval, mid-September to l0 mid-maturity, fruit length 3.2 cm, width 1.2 cm. Grafted seedlings 3 years results, 5-year-old tree up to 7.4 meters, DBH 9.2 cm, per hectare of skin yield 5.0 tons, leaf yield 6.3 tons, 2.3 tons of production. Suitable for all producing areas, especially in the northern region to create the fast-growing forest.

 5.Eucommia Tree Hua Zhong No. 5: Young tree bark smooth, adult bark deep longitudinal split. The trunk straight, then dry ability, the crown was oval. Cold-resistant, drought. Branching angle of 37°~ 49° larger leaves, length 18.7 cm, width 7.3 cm, petiole length 1.7 cm, internode length 3.4 cm. Bud peach shape, germination in late February. Male flowering early March to mid-April, 6 to 11 clusters of male flowers were born at the base of branches. 5-year-old tree height 7.2 meters, DBH 9.5 cm, 5.3 tons of hay per hectare, leaf yield 6.5 tons. Suitable for producing areas to create the fast-growing forest.

 
 

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