✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Tranquilizers.
Introduction: Herbs Tranquilizers: also known as tranquilizer or tranquilizing herbs, an agent or substance herbs that calms the mind and relieves mental tension.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species,  kinds of related fungus species,  kinds of related animal species,  kinds of related minerals, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Tranquilizers are briefly introduced separately:
Ganoderma Lucidium(Lucid Ganoderma).
Brief Introduction: The Herb Ganoderma Lucidium is the dried fructifications of the fungus, Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst.(family Polyporaceae), used (1).as a tranquilizer for treating dizziness and insomnia, and (2).as a tonic for treating weakness or debility. The herb is commonly known as Ganoderma Lucidium, Lucid Ganoderma, Ganoderma, Fairy Grass, Línɡ Zhī.
✵The Lingzhi mushroom or Reishi mushroom defined today, is a species complex that encompasses several fungal species of the genus Ganoderma and other genera, most commonly the closely related species special veneration in China, where it has been used as a medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used medicinally. In China today, the mushrooms which could be classified into the Lingzhi mushroom are commonly known covered 4 genera, they are genus (1). Ganoderma Karst, (2). Amauroderma, (3). Haddowia and (4). Humphreya.
The herbal values of the Ganoderma fungus were recorded in herbal classics, and there are three species among the Ganoderma genus were suggested by official herbal classics with values for the therapeutical purpose, they are known as the species: (1). Ganoderma lucidum, also known as LingZhi(Línɡ Zhī) or Chi Zhi(Chì Zhī), literally Chì Zhī means "Red Lingzhi Mushroom", (2). Ganoderma sinense, also known as Zǐ Zhī, literally Zǐ Zhī means "Purple Lingzhi Mushroom", and (3). Ganoderma tsugae, also known as Sōng Zhī, literally Sōng Zhī means "Pine Tree Lingzhi Mushroom".
The Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Ganoderma Lucidum(Ling Zhi) as the sporocarp(fruiting body) of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family fungus species (1). Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst., or (2). Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang. They are fungus of the Ganoderma Karst.genus, the Polyporaceae family of the Polyporales order. These 3 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.ex Fr.)Karst.: The Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.ex Fr.)Karst. is a fungus of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family and Ganoderma genus, it is commonly known as "Ganoderma Lucidum", "Red Ganoderma", or "Chì Zhī", literally Chì Zhī means "Red Lingzhi Mushroom", fruiting body annual, handle, plug quality. Cover a semicircle or kidney-shaped, diameter 10~20 cm, cover the meat thickness 1.5~2 cm, cover table brown or reddish-brown, cover gradually pale yellow, concentric ring pattern, slightly wrinkled or smooth, with lacquer Glossy, blunt edges. Milky white bacteria, near the tube light brown. Tube up to 1 cm, 4~5 per 1 mm. Nozzle nearly round, early white, yellow or brown later. Stipe cylindrical, lateral or biased, even in Health. Length 10~19 cm, crude 1.5~4 cm, and cap color similar. Husk mycelium was rod-like, the top dilated. Mycelium three body type, reproductive mycelium transparent, thin-walled; skeleton mycelia brown, thick, almost solid; entangled mycelium colorless, thick-walled bending, are branched. Spore oval, double-wall, top truncation, transparent outer wall, inner wall light brown, small spines, the size of (9-11) μm × (6-7) μm, the fruiting body ripe in the fall, or ripe in winter at South and Southwest of China.
Ecological environment: The Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.ex Fr.)Karst., grows in the sunny Fagaceae and Pinaceae pine rhizosphere or dead stumps. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in China provinces, and mainly in the south area of the Yangtze River.
Ganoderma Lucidum is a mushroom, a higher-order organism of the world of fungus. It belongs to the Polypore group. Umbrella-shaped, with a semicircular, reniform (kidney-shaped) or suborbicular (almost round) pileus 10~18 cm wide and 1~2 cm thick. Epicutis is hard, dull yellowish-brown to dull reddish-brown, lustrous, marked with annular (ring-like) ridges and radial wrinkles; margin thin and truncate (squared as if cut off), often slightly involute (with margin rolling inwards). Gills on the underside of pileus white to light brown, consisting of innumerable tubules. Stipe lateral (borne on or at the side); 7~15 cm long, 1~3.5 cm in diameter; dull reddish-brown to dull purplish-brown; lustrous. Numerous minute, dull yellowish-brown spores in tubules. Odor: slightly fragrant; taste: bitter-astringent.
Lingzhi is a hard, polypore and mildly bitter mushroom. Polypores are conspicuous mushrooms that grow off the sides of trees. The actual mushroom organism, or mycelium, is a network of the threadlike filaments that originates from spores. The mycelium spreads throughout the nutrient base or substrate, amassing nutrients as it grows. They live in soil, logs, and other organic trash. As long as nutrients are available, the mycelium can be considered perennial and will live for many years. At least once a year, mushrooms emerge from the mycelial network. As the reproductive organ of the fungus, mushrooms are the means by which spores are created and spread.
Unlike green plants, which produce many of their nutrients by photosynthesis, mushrooms primarily get their nutrients from dead organic matter or soil. Mushrooms and their mycelium are nature's original recyclers. Without them, the planet's surface would be piled high with dead, decaying material.
Mushrooms rise out of the mycelium when the right nutrients are amassed and the right environmental conditions are present. Mushrooms release spores at maturity. The wind spreads them and when they land in the right spot, the cycle starts over again.
"Polypores, commonly known as bracket or shelf fungi, are conspicuous mushrooms that grow off the sides of trees. On a walk through the forest one can commonly see many such bracket mushrooms."
"What is not readily visible to us, however, is the actual mushroom organism, or mycelium. Just as an apple is the fruit of an apple tree, so too is a mushroom the fruit body of a mycelial "tree". Mycelium is a network of threadlike filaments that originates from spores. The mycelium spreads throughout the nutrient base or substrate, amassing nutrients as it grows. As long as environmental conditions are right, the mycelium will continue to grow and propagate until it exhausts the available nutrients."
"As long as nutrients are available, the mycelium can be considered perennial and will live for many years. At least once a year, mushrooms emerge from the mycelial network. As the reproductive organ of the fungus, mushrooms are the means by which spores are created and spread."
Trait identification: Fruiting body umbrella-shaped, cap (cap) hard corky, semicircular or renal, 12 -- 20 cm wide, 2 cm thick, shell hard and firm, yellow at first, gradually reddish-brown, shiny, with ring ribbed and radial wrinkles, margin thin and flatted, often slightly incurved. Mushroom flesh nearly white to light brown; The underlying surface of the cap is white to light brown and is composed of numerous fine tubular holes (tubules) in which basidium and spores are present. Stalk lateral, up to 19 cm long, roughly 4 cm thick, reddish-brown to the purplish-brown surface, paint-like luster. Slight smell, mild taste.
(2).Ganoderma sinense Zhao,Xu et Zhang.: The Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang., is a fungus of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family and Ganoderma genus, it is commonly known as "Ganoderma sinense", or "Purple Ganoderma", "Purple Lingzhi Mushroom", or "Zǐ Zhī", literally Zǐ Zhī means "Purple Lingzhi Mushroom", it is different from the Ganoderma lucidum: the cap of the Ganoderma sinense Zhao is mostly purple-black to near brownish brown; Bacillus was uniform brown, dark brown to chestnut brown; spore apical umbilical prominent wall prominent small spines, spores Larger, size (9.5-13.8) μm × (6.9-8.5) μm. Capsular cap plug, mostly semicircular to kidney-shaped, a few near-circular, large individuals up to 20 cm in length and width, the general individual 4.7 × 4 cm, small individuals 2 × 1.4 cm, black surface, with paint-like luster, with Ring concentric ribs and radial ribs. Bacteria rust-brown. Tube mouth and bacteria with the same color tube, nozzle round, 5 per mm. Stipe lateralis, up to 15 cm long, about 2 cm in diameter, black, shiny. Spores broadly ovoid, 10 ~ 12.5 × 7 ~ 8.5um, tiny inner wall warts.
Ecological environment: The Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang., grows in broad-leaved trees or Pinaceae stumps, cause white decay of wood, it is a special species of China. Geographical distribution:This species mainly distributed in China provinces of the hot and humid south of the Yangtze River zone, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River between the north of Nanling mountains and south of the Qinling mountains, south area of the Nanling mountain in Guangdong and Guangxi province, and southern Taiwan province and Hainan province, Hong Kong SAR. It also distributed to the area of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan province and the southeastern part of Tibet province. And also distributed to the area at the north of the Qinling Mountains to the Hinggan Mountains.
Trait identification: The fruiting body of Ganoderma sinense Zhao is similar to that of Ganoderma lucidum. The flesh and the tubules beneath the cap are rust-brown.
(3).Ganoderma tsugae.: The Ganoderma tsugae Murr., is a fungus of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family and Ganoderma genus, it is commonly known as "Woody Ganoderma", or "Mu LingZhi", Sōng Zhī, or "Song Shan LingZhi", or "Pine Tree Reishi", literally Sōng Zhī means "Pine Tree Lingzhi Mushroom". Sporocarp(fruiting body) with stalked, capped kidney-shaped or fan-shaped 5~9 × 7~13.5 cm, 1~4 cm thick, corky, reddish surface, shiny skin, no annulus, or inconspicuous annulus, the edge of a ribbed. Shank lateral, 2~10 cm long, 1~4 cm thick, the same color or cap and slightly darker. Bacteria white, proximal tube slightly light brown, 0.5~1.5 cm thick. Tube length 0.5~1.5 cm, cinnamon color, nozzle white, gradient and the same color tube, 4~6 per mm. Spore brown, ovate, inner wall with obvious spines, 9~13.5 * 6~8 microns.
Ecological environment: The Ganoderma tsugae Murr., mainly grown in the altitude of 700~1,400 meters red pine broad-leaved mixed forest, coniferous mixed forest fir, larch, red pine, spruce's cutting root, rotten wood, larch trunk base, is an extremely rare precious herb, mainly distributed in the cold temperate area of China. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and other provinces. This species functions enhance immunity, inhibit tumor, liver detoxification, protect the cardiovascular system, soothe the nerves brain, regulate digestive system function, moistening the lungs and relieve asthma, anti-aging, beauty effects.
Modern studies have shown that Ganoderma tsugae or Pine Tree Reishi rich in nutrients, containing essential amino acids, nucleosides, trace elements, vitamins, and bioactive polysaccharides, triterpenoids, alkaloids, also a good source of essential fibers for maintaining the health of human. Studies have shown that it has effects on hepatitis, arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, neurasthenia and other diseases, and has a significant effect on the three major lethal human diseases of coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke.
The polysaccharides are mainly composed of the monosaccharide polymers and β-D-glucan and other components with physiological activity, with effects anti-tumor, enhance immunity, anti-virus, scavenging free radicals, anti-aging, anti-thrombosis, anti-clotting effect.
The triterpenoids are another active constituents isolated, experiments confirmed that Ganoderma triterpenoids with a rapid increase in immunity, manifested in the promotion of lymphocyte proliferation, increased the phagocytic capacity of macrophages, NK cells, T cells and Lethal, and directly and indirectly kill tumor cells. Triterpenoids also have other effects on liver detoxification, anti-oxidation, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and herpes virus, inhibition of liver tumor cells and so on, is the main basic substance of the detoxification efficacy.
The alkaloids show effects coronary blood flow to improve, reduce myocardial oxygen consumption, enhance myocardial and body anti-hypoxia capacity and lower cholesterol, have a significant effect for coronary heart disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatitis, muscle weakness.
The nucleosides are indispensable and important substances that makeup DNA and RNA. They are extremely important material bases for biological inheritance and information transmission. The nucleotide composition adenosine, uridine, adenine, uracil, and other active constituents are the main basic substance of the anti-mutation function.
The amino acids constitute the basic unit of protein, is an essential nutrient component of organisms, especially essential amino acids, the human body cannot be synthesized from in vitro intake, Ganoderma tsugae or Pine Tree Reishi fruiting body contains 18 kinds of amino acids, including essential amino acids, especially the low levels of methionine in edible fungi, the average content of it is much higher than other edible fungi.
Studies have shown that the Ganoderma tsugae fruiting body contains Mn, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn, Se, Ge and other trace elements, which beneficial to human selenium, germanium, zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium and other trace elements High content, it is reported that Ganoderma tsugae also contains boron, can be said that the Ganoderma tsugae is a treasure house of trace elements. Trace elements are the body's normal physiological function to maintain an important substance, while trace elements and other active substances have synergies, of which organic germanium is an anti-cancer substance, and Ganoderma tsugae polysaccharides synergy in the inhibition of tumor can significantly increase the anti-tumor effect of the polysaccharide.
The Ganoderma tsugae also contains a lot of vitamins, including vitamin C, vitamin E and carotene content is high, with significant anti-oxidation, anti-aging activity.