Concha Ostreae(Oyster Shell).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Tranquilizers.

 TCM Herbs Icon12 Introduction: Herbs Tranquilizers: also known as tranquilizer or tranquilizing herbs, an agent or substance herbs that calms the mind and relieves mental tension.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 12 Introduction: The Herbs Tranquilizers are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [16] kinds of common TCM herbs, [10] kinds of related plant species, [4] kinds of related fungus species, [12] kinds of related animal species, [4] kinds of related minerals, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Tranquilizers are briefly introduced separately:

Concha Ostreae(Oyster Shell).

 Concha Ostreae Brief Introduction: The Herb Concha Ostreae is the shell of Ostrea gigas Thunb., Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse or Ostrea rivularis Gould(family Ostreidae), used (1).as a settling tranquilizer for the treatment of headache, dizziness, palpitation, and insomnia, and (2).to soften and disperse hard lumps in cases of scrofula. The herb is commonly known as Concha Ostreae, Oyster Shell, Mǔ Lì.

 ✵Common official herbal classics defined the herb Concha Ostreae(Mu Li) as the conch or shell of the Ostreidae family shellfish species (1). Ostrea gigas Thunberg., or (2). Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse., or (3). Ostrea rivularis Gould. Other famous herbal classics noted a 4th source of the Concha Ostreae as the concha or shell of (4). Ostrea denselamellosa Lischke. There are many types of oysters. According to statistics, there are more than 100 kinds of species found in the world, distributed in tropical and temperate regions, along the coast of China, oysters are widely distributed. In recent years, the cultivation of oysters has developed rapidly. These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Ostrea gigas Ostrea Shell Mussel Oyster Concha Ostreae Ostrea gigas Thunberg (1).Ostrea gigas Thunberg.: The Ostrea gigas Thunberg., is an animal of the Ostreidae family and Crassostrea genus, it is commonly known as "Ostrea gigas", or "Long Oyster", or "Chang Mu Li", a local name known as "Hao", "Bai Hao", "Hai Li Zi", etc. The Ostrea gigas shells are long and have relatively thin shells. The shell length is about 3 times the shell height. The right shell is relatively flat, the scales are thick, and the annular scales are corrugated and sparsely arranged. The ribs are not obvious. The left shell is deep and the scales are thick. The left shell has a small, fixed surface. The inner surface of the shell is white, and the inner surface of the shell has a large ligament groove. Closed shell marks.

 Ostrea gigas Thunberg. The mantle of the long oyster has two left and right mantle membranes; the larvae of the respiratory system are located in the iliac crest, one pair of left and right, a total of four, and the breathing is mainly done by cesium, and the mantle can also be used for air exchange; the digestive system includes lip, mouth, and esophagus. Gastric, digestive caeca, intestine, rectum, and anus; circulatory system is open, consisting of pericardial cavity, heart, accessory heart, blood vessels, and blood; kidney consists of renal tubules and renal perilymphatic duct, one on each side; During the breeding season, the visceral blocks of the oysters are filled with milky white substances. This is the gonads and is divided into three parts: the follicles, the genitals, and the reproductive ducts. The nervous system is composed of brains, visceral ganglia and their connecting nerves.

 Ostrea gigas Thunberg. Ecosystem: The Ostrea gigas Thunberg., inhabit the bottom of rocky reefs in the intertidal zone and shallow sea, and are fixed on the rocks with their left shells. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the coastal areas of China, mainly in Guangdong province, one of the main cultured species on the southern coast. The Ostrea gigas inhabits in mudflats and silty sea bottoms that are more than 10 meters deep from the intertidal zone to the low tide line. Individuals living in normal seawater are small; individuals living in low salinity seawater are large. It distributed along the sea of China's coastal areas, are the finest breeds in the estuaries and inner bays.

 Ostrea gigas Ostrea Shell Mussel Oyster Concha Ostreae Ostrea gigas Thunberg Shell of Ostrea gigas: elongated pieces, dorsal and ventral edges almost parallel, 10~50 cm long, 4~15 cm high. The right shell is relatively small, scales strong and thick, arranged in laminated or laminating striated order. The outer surface smooth or with several depressions. Pale purple, grayish-white or yellowish-brown; the inner surface porcelain white, without denticles at both sides of the umbo. The left shell with deep depression, scales bigger and rougher than those of the right shell, the attachment surface of the umbo is small. Texture hard, fracture laminated, white. Odorless, taste slightly salty.

 Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse. (2).Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse.: The Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse. is an animal of the Ostreidae family and Crassostrea genus, it is commonly known as "Ostrea talienwhanensis", or "Dalianwan Mu Li", shells are slightly triangular shape with large and medium shells. The two shells are of different sizes, and the left shell is larger than the right shell. The right shell is flat and the left shell is thick and concave. The right shell flake rises slightly, the relief is wavy, the scales at the top of the shell heal, the edges are loose, and the radiating ribs are not obvious. The left shell began with several thick radiating ribs starting from the top of the shell and the scales on the ribs were erected. The shell is grayish-yellow with purple stripes or spots. The inside of the shell is white and shiny. The hinge is small and has no teeth. The inner ligament slot is long and deep, triangular.

 Ecosystem: The Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse., inhabits the bottom of the high-salinity waters near the low-water line to a depth of about 20 meters. The foot is degraded and lives permanently on rocks and other objects. The left shell is fixed and the right shell can be opened and closed. Like live together in clusters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in the China area of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and mainly produced from the area nearby the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. This species inhabits in the water of the intertidal zone and on rocky reefs about 20 meters below the low tide line. The salinity adaptability is high and the breeding period is from June to August.

 Shell of Ostrea talienwhanensis: subtriangular, dorsal and ventral edges V-shaped. The outer surface of the right shell pale yellow, with loose concentric scales undulating up and down; the inner surface white. The concentric scales of the left shell strong and thick, with several distinct ribs radiated from the umbo, the inner surface concaved in shape of a box; hinge surface small.

 Ostrea rivularis Gould. (3).Ostrea rivularis Gould.: The Ostrea rivularis Gould., is an animal of the Ostreidae family and Crassostrea genus, it is commonly known as "Ostrea rivularis", or "Jin Jiang Mu Li", its local name is "Da Hao", etc. Shells are large and strong. It is generally round, long oval or triangular. The right shell is slightly flat, smaller than the left shell, with a thin, straight scale on the surface. Shell surface with gray, blue, purple or brown and other colors. The shell is thicker than the right shell, and the concentric scales are small and strong. The inside of the shell is white and the edges are grayish purple. Ligaments are long and broad, purple and black. The shell muscles are marked with large marks, usually ovoid or kidney-shaped, located in the dorsal part of the middle.

 Ostrea rivularis Gould. Ecosystem: The Ostrea rivularis Gould., inhabit the inner bay near the mouth of the estuary and the low tide line to the water depth of about 7 meters. The camp lived at a fixed temperature; the suitable temperature ranges from 10 to 33 degrees Celsius, the salt range is from 5 to 25, and the filter eats plankton. Geographical distribution: This species mainly inhabits in the inner bay near the mouth of rivers from south to north of China. Live near the low tide line and reach water depths of about 7 meters are close to the sea, and the salinity is 10%-25%. Omnivorous, feeding on tiny plankton. Breeding season May-September.

 Ostrea gigas Ostrea Shell Mussel Oyster Concha Ostreae Ostrea rivularis Gould Shell of Ostrea rivularis:rounded, oval or triangular. The outer surface of the right shell is slightly uneven, grey, purple, brown, yellow, etc; concentric scales in a ring, thin and fragile in the young and overlapped one another several years later. The inner surface is white, sometimes the edge is pale purple.

 Ostrea denselamellosa Lischke. (4).Ostrea denselamellosa Lischke.: The Ostrea denselamellosa Lischke. , is an animal of the Ostreidae family and Crassostrea genus, it is commonly known as "Ostrea denselamellosa", "Dense lamellosa Oyster", or "Slipper Oyster", or "Mi Ling Mu Li", shells large and thick, round or oval. The two shells are the same size. The left shell is very deep and the right shell is relatively flat. The scales on the top of the right shell were healed and were relatively smooth. The other scales were thin and brittle, tongue-shaped, closely arranged in imbricate; the number of ribs ejected from the top of the shell was not obvious, and the ear was or not present; the color of the shell was The flesh or gray is the base color, mixed with purple, brown, and blue; the inside of the shell is mixed with gray; the top side of the shell has a single row of small teeth; the back teeth are usually more than the ventral edge, and the muscle marks are heart-shaped. The back of the center, from the front dorsal oblique to the ventral angle, mostly flesh. The left shell surface is surrounded by dense concentric scales, the shell surface is purple, brownish or grayish-blue; the attachment surface is mostly the top of the left shell; the hinge surface of the shell surface is narrow, the ligament groove is short, and the groove length is slightly larger than the groove width, forming a triangle .

 Ostrea gigas Ostrea Shell Mussel Oyster Concha Ostreae Ostrea gigas ThunbergEcosystem:The Ostrea denselamellosa Lischke., appears in the subtidal zone to a depth of about 30 meters. It lives in a shallow sea with a depth of about 15 to 30 meters. It sometimes appears several meters below the low tide line. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in the South China Sea, Malaysia, etc.

 This species inhabits on rocky reefs with a water depth of about 15~30 m below the low tide line, or on the sandy bottom, sometimes seen several meters below the low tide line. The salinity fit for growth is 27%-34%, and the breeding season is from May to September. When the water temperature is 17~19 °C, spawning starts.

 The shells are round or oval, larger, the right shell is flatter, the shell top is smoother, and other parts have thin and crisp scales. The concentric scales of the left ventral rim are densely circumscribed with thick radiating ribs and grey mixed with purple, brown and cyan. Shell is white, slightly pearly luster. Closed shell muscles are marked and markedly visible. The section thickness is 0.3~12 mm, and the stratification is obvious.


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