Introduction of Chen Pi:Dried Tangerine Peel or Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.

 
Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel).

Dried Tangerine Peel Pin Yin Name: Chén Pí.
 English Name: Dried Tangerine Peel.
 Latin Name: Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae is the dried ripe pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties(family Rutaceae), used to regulate Qi, invigorate the spleen, dry dampness, and resolve phlegm in the treatment of Qi stagnation in the spleen and stomach, and cough with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae, Dried Tangerine Peel, Chén Pí.

 Botanical source: The herb Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel) is the dried ripe pericarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. The species Citrus sinensis(L.) Osbeck. is the cultivated varieties.

 Citrus reticulata Blanco. (1).Citrus reticulata Blanco.:
 Botanical description: The Citrus reticulata Blanco., is a tree of the Rutaceae family and Citrus genus, it is commonly known as "Orange trees", or "Ju", and its cultivated species, more branched, branches spread or slightly droop, and there are fewer stings.

 Leaves: Single-leaf compound leaves. The wings are usually narrow, or only traces and leaves are lanceolate. Oval or broad oval, large variation in size. The top often has a notch, and the midvein is branched from the base to the notch near the notch. At least the upper half of the leaf margin usually has blunt or round teeth, rarely entire.

 Citrus reticulata Blanco. Flower: Flowers are solitary or 2~3 clustered, 3~5 irregular leaves, petals are usually less than 1.5 cm long, 20~25 stamens, slender style, stigma capitate. Citrus flowers are mixed flowers. After germination, they have branches, leaves, and flowers. They have single flowers and inflorescences. Single flower species are red-orange and mandarin orange, and sweet orange, lemon, grapefruit, etc, and grapefruit is mainly inflorescence. Citrus usually requires pollination and fertilization before the fruiting, but Wenzhou oranges, navel oranges and other unskilled can also fruit, this is an unisexual result, also known as parthenocarpy.

 Citrus reticulata Blanco. Fruit: Fruit shape, is usually oblate to nearly spherical, the skin is very thin and smooth, or thick and rough, light yellow, scarlet or dark red, easy or slightly peelable, the orange network is much or less, was netted, easy to separate, usually tender, the center column is large and often empty. Rare and full, floating sac 7~14 flap. Rarer. The peel is thin or slightly thick, tender, or rather tough, the flesh is sour or sweet, or has a distinctive odor, more or fewer seeds. Usually ovoid, narrowly pointed at the top, rounded at the base, cotyledons are dark green, light green or nearly milky white, multi embryonic, rarely with single embryos. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from October to December.

 Growth characteristics: The tree Citrus reticulata Blanco slightly tolerant shade, prefers to a warm and humid climate, not resistant to cold, freezing damage occurs when the temperature is below -8℃, suitable for growing in deep and fertile neutral to slightly acidic sandy loam.

 Pharmacological actions: The water decoction of the herb Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae has an inhibitory effect on rabbit, mouse, and dog intestines and isolated uterus in vitro. The water decoction of the herb can enhance the contractility of the heart in small doses, increase the output of the heart, and have an inhibitory effect in large doses. The water decoction of Fresh Tangerine Peel has the effect of dilating trachea and expectorant. The component Methyl hesperidin has an anti-ulcer effect. The volatile oil of the tangerine peel has a choleretic effect and could dissolve calculus. The component hesperidin has the same effect as vitamin P, can reduce capillary permeability, prevent microvascular bleeding, anti-thrombosis. Phosphinylidyne hesperidin can reduce serum cholesterol and relieve atherosclerosis of the aorta. Besides, the herb also has an antibacterial, antiviral, anti-oxidation, and anti-mutation effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Regulating Qi-flowing for strengthening the spleen, regulating Qi-flowing to calm the adverse-rising energy, regulate the middle energizer and stimulate one's appetite, removing dampness to reduce phlegm. It is indicated for chest distention fullness, full and tightness in the chest and diaphragm, poor appetite with vomiting and diarrhea, no appetite, retention of dampness due to stagnation of Qi in the spleen and stomach, vomiting, difficulty in urination and defecation, obstruction and block of lung Qi, cough with much phlegm. It is also indicated for the onset of acute mastitis.

 Administration of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Chén Pí): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Chén Pí)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams,or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).


 Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. (2).Citrus sinensis(L.) Osbeck.:
 Botanical description: The Citrus sinensis(L.) Osbeck., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Citrus genus, it is commonly known as "Fragrant Citrus", or "Tian Cheng", evergreen small trees, it grows up to 3~8 meters high. The crown is round, with many branches, glabrous, barbed or without thorns, and the skills are angular. Leaves are alternate, single compound leaves; petiole length 0.6~2 cm, the leaf blade is narrow, width 2~3 mm, apex related nodes; leaf blade is thicker, elliptic or ovoid, 6~12 cm long, 2.3~5.5 cm wide, apex short-tip or acuminate, dimpled, base broadly cuneate or rounded, undulating green, or inconspicuous wavy serrations, translucent glands. Flowers 1 to several clustered. Leaves axils, white, stipitate; calyx 3~5-lobed, lobes triangular; 5 petals, tongue-shaped, ca. 1.5 cm, width 7 mm, reflexed outward; 19~28 stamens, filaments connective Synthetic 5~12 bundles, 1 pistil, ovary subglobose, 10~13 cells, stigma capitate, styles thin, not falling. Citrus fruits are oblate or nearly spherical, 6~9 cm in diameter, orange or orange-red, thicker skin, not easy to peel, 8~13 crops, juice yellow, sweet. Seed wedge-shaped oval, smooth surface. Its flowering period is in April, fruit ripening from November to December.

 Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. Flower: flower color is white, rarely with abaxial purple, racemes with a few flowers, or axillary flowers; 5~3 calyx lobed, petal length is 1.2~1.5 cm; 20~25 stamens; style stout, stigma increased.

  Fruit: fruit is spherical, oblate or oval, orange-orange to orange-red color, difficult or slightly peel, 9~12 petals, the fruit is heart or semi-concrete, pulp color is light yellow, orange or purple, sweet or slightly acidic; seedless or none, the seed coat is slightly ribbed, cotyledons are milky white, multiple embryos.

 Characters of herbs: Solid skin dark brown, relatively smooth, with small granular processes. The cut surface is white, 2~4 mm thick, 8~11 petals, sour and bitter. The skin surface is green-brown, flesh thick, white, flesh small, solid quality, the strong aroma is better.
 
Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride(Green Tangerine Peel).

 Green Tangerine Peel Brief Introduction: The Herb Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride is the dried green unripe exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties(family Rutaceae), used to regulate Qi, soothe the liver, and remove stagnation for the treatment of liver Qi stagnation and food retention.

 ✵The herb Green Tangerine Peel is the dried green unripe exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. And the plants are introduced in the above section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)".

 Pharmacological actions: The water decoction of the herb Green Tangerine Peel can inhibit the smooth muscle of the intestine and gallbladder, and has a choleretic effect. The water decocting and alcohol deposition saps of Green Tangerine Peel has a significant effect of increasing blood pressure and could excite the respiratory center. The injection of the green tangerine peel has an obvious positive effect on myocardial excitability, contractility, conductivity, and automatism. The volatile oil of green tangerine peel has a mild stimulating effect on the gastrointestinal tract, and can promote the secretion of digestive juice and eliminate intestinal gas accumulation. The limonene in the volatile oil has an expectorant and antiasthmatic effect. Besides, the herb also has certain protective and therapeutic effects on experimental shock caused by blood loss, trauma, blood transfusion, and other different reasons.

 Medicinal efficacy: Soothing the liver and relieving stagnant Qi, promote digestion and remove stagnated food, resolving stasis, and eliminate phlegm. It is indicated for fullness and pain in chest and hypochondrium, distending pain in hypochondrium due to liver stagnation and Qi stagnation, epigastric pain due to food retention and qi stagnation, abdominal pain due to food retention, hernia, hernia and pain, food retention, breast distending pain, mammary swelling, mammillary nucleus, acute mastitis, abdominal mass and accumulation due to qi stagnation and blood stasis, chronic malaria and mass.

 Administration of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride(Qīng Pí): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride(Qīng Pí)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction,1~3 qian(about 3~9 grams),or prepared to pill, powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams,or prepare to pill,powder(CHMM).

 
Semen Citri Reticulatae(Tangerine Seed).

 Tangerine Seed Brief Introduction: The Herb Semen Citri Reticulatae is the dried ripe seed of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties(family Rutaceae), used to regulate Qi, dissipate nodulation, and alleviate pain for the treatment of hernial pain, nodules in the breast, and swelling and pain of the testis.

 ✵The herb Tangerine Seed is the dried ripe seed of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. And the plants are introduced in the above section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)".
 
Exocarpium Citri Rubrum(Red Tangerine Peel).

 Red Tangerine Peel Brief Introduction: The Herb Exocarpium Citri Rubrum is the dried exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties(family Rutaceae), used in the same way as dried tangerine peel, with stronger action.

 ✵The herb Red Tangerine Peel is the dried exocarp of Citrus reticulata Blanco and its cultivated varieties, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. And the plants are introduced in the above section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)".
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Chen Pi:Dried Tangerine Peel or Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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