Introduction of Chuan Lian Zi:Szechwan Chinaberry or Fructus Toosendan.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.

 
Fructus Toosendan(Szechwan Chinaberry).

Fructus Toosendan Pin Yin Name: Chuān Liàn Zǐ.
 English Name: Szechwan Chinaberry.
 Latin Name: Fructus Toosendan.
 Property and flavor: cold, bitter, mild toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Toosendan is the dried ripe fruit of Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc.(family Meliaceae), used to move Qi for relieving hypochondriac, epigastric and abdominal pain, and (2).to kill parasitic worms in cases of enterobiasis and scabies. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Toosendan, Szechwan Chinaberry, Szechwan Chinaberry Fruit, Chuān Liàn Zǐ.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Toosendan(Szechwan Chinaberry) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1).Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc. It is a plant of the Melia Linn. Genus, the Meliaceae family of the Rutales order. This commonly defined species is introduced as:

 Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc. (1).Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc.:
 Botanical description: The tree is commonly known as Chuān Liàn. Trees, it grows up to more than 10 meters high; Young branches are densely covered with brown stellate scales, none when old, dark red, lenticellate, leaf markings are conspicuous. 2 gyri feathery compound leaf length 35~45 cm, each feather has 4~5 pairs of lobules; With a long handle; Leaflets are opposite, shortly sessile or subsessile, membranous, elliptic-lanceolate, 4~10 cm long, 2~4.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate or subrounded, both surfaces are glabrous, entire or with inconspicuous obtuse teeth, lateral veins 12~14 pairs. Panicles clustered in leaf axils on top of branchlets, about 1/2 the length of a leaf, densely covered with grayish-brown stellate scales; Flowers are pedicellate, denser; Sepals are oblong to lanceolate, ca. 3 mm long, both surfaces are pilose, outer denser; Petals are mauve, spatulate, 9~13 mm long, sparsely pilose outside; Stamen tube is terete, purple, glabrous and veined, apex with 10 3-lobed teeth, anthers are oblong, glabrous, ca. 1.5 mm long, slightly protruding from the tube; Disk is subcupped; Ovary subglobose, glabrous, 6-8 locules, style subterete, glabrous, stigma inconspicuously 6-toothed, enclosed in a staminal tube. Drupes are large, elliptic, spherical, about 3 cm long, about 2.5 cm wide, the peel is thin, yellow when cooked; Nucleus are slightly harder, 6~8 cells. Its flowering period is from March to April, the fruiting period is from October to November.

 Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc. Ecological environment: The tree is often cultivated near the village or along the highway in the miscellaneous wood and thin forest or the flat dam and hilly area. It distributes in the northwest, southwest, the middle reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China. It prefers a warm and humid climate, like the sun, not resistant to shade, can grow at an area with an altitude below 1,000 meters above sea level. To choose sufficient sunshine, deep soil layer, loose fertile sandy soil for cultivation.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Melia toosendan prefers a warm and humid climate, like the sun, can not tolerate shade, it can grow in the area at an altitude below 1000 meters above sea level. Better to choose sufficient sunshine, a deep soil layer, loose and fertile sandy soil for cultivation.

 Melia toosendan Sieb.et Zucc. Characters of herbs: The drupes are round, 2~3.2 cm in diameter. The surface is golden yellow to brown, slightly shiny, wrinkled, or slightly concave, with a dark brown dot. The apex has the style remnant mark, the base is sunken, has the fruit stalk mark. Exocarp is leathery, often interstitial with flesh; Pulp is soft, pale yellow, water wetting viscous. The fruit core is spherical or ovoid, hard, two ends, 6~8 vertical school, inside 6~8, each room containing a black-brown oblong seed. The peculiar smell, sour taste, bitter. The herb which is big, full, golden skin, and yellow pulp is better.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb Fructus Toosendan can excite intestinal smooth muscle and has a choleretic effect(benefit the gallbladder). Its component toosendanin has an obvious killing effect on ascaris suum and leeches(bloodsucker). The oil of Fructus Toosendan has bactericidal effect in vitro. Besides, the herb has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and other effects.

 Medicinal efficacy: Soothe liver and discharge heat, remove dampness and heat, regulate Qi and relieve pain, kill parasites. It is indicated for liver depression forming fire(fire from the stagnation of liver-Qi), pyretic syncope and cardiodynia(heat syncope and heartache), epigastric distended pain, ache and pain in abdomen hypochondria and lateral thorax, colic pain(pain from hernia), tinea capitis(scald head), enterozoic abdominalgia(abdominal pain due to parasitic infestation), etc.

 Administration of Fructus Toosendan(Chuān Liàn Zǐ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Toosendan(Chuān Liàn Zǐ)
TCM Books: Internally:5~10 grams. Externally:proper amount, grinded into fine powder, apply smear(CP), Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, grinded into fine powder, apply stick(DCTM), Internally:water decoction,3~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder. Externally:proper amount, grinded into powder and apply smear. Better use fried herb for activating Qi circulation and relieve pain, better use raw herb for kill parasites.(CHMM).

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Chuan Lian Zi:Szechwan Chinaberry or Fructus Toosendan.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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