Fructus Citri(Citron Fruit).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs regulating the flow of Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs regulating the flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 10 Introduction: The Herbs Regulating the Flow of Qi are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date March 19th, 2020, there are totally [18] kinds of common TCM herbs, [23] kinds of related plant species, [1] kind of related insect species, are recorded in this category. These herbs regulating the flow of Qi are briefly introduced separately:

Fructus Citri(Citron Fruit).

 Fructus Citri Brief Introduction: The herb Fructus Citri is the dried ripe fruit of Citrus medica L. or Citrus wilsonii Tanaka(family Rutaceae), used to soothe the liver, regulate Qi, and resolve phlegm for the treatment of gastric distension with pain and fullness sensation in the chest, as well as cough with profuse phlegm. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Citri, Citron Fruit, Xiānɡ Yuán.

 ✵Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Citri(Citron Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1). Citrus medica L., or (2). Citrus wilsonii Tanaka. They are plants of the Citrus L. genus, the Rutaceae family of the Rutales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Citrus medica L. (1).Citrus medica L.: The plant is commonly known as Jǔ Yuán. Small evergreen tree or shrub. Branches with short hard spines, shoots smooth, purplish red. Leaves are alternate; Stipitate, wingless, or slightly imperceptible, with no obvious joint between blades; Leaf blade is oblong or obovate-oblong, 8~15 cm long, 3.5~6.5 cm wide, the apex is obtuse or shortly acute, the base is broadly cuneate, margin serrate, with translucent oil gland points. Racemes, 3~10 peanuts in leaf axils; Hermaphroditic flowers or by pistil degenerated into male flowers, with a short stalk; Calyx is shallow cup-shaped, upper end 5-lobed; 5 petals, white on the inside, mauve on the outside; 30~60 stamens; 1 pistil, ovary 10~13 locules, ovule numerous in each locule, style is hypertrophy, persistent, stigma capitate. Orange fruit is oblong, ovate or subglobose, 10~25 cm long, apex papillary, rough or smooth, lemon yellow when ripe, aromatic, small flesh capsule; Seeds are ovoid, smooth surface. Its flowering period is in April and fruiting from October to November.

 Citrus medica L. Ecological environment: The plant grows in a high-temperature much-wet environment, it is to originate more in the southern area. In the broad-leaved forest of Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, there is citron in a semi-wild state. It distributes and produced in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Taiwan, and other areas of south China. It also distributes in several other countries in South Asia including Laos, Myanmar.

 Citrus medica L. Trait identification: The fruit is round or oblong, 3~10 cm in diameter, and 2~5 mm in thickness. The edge of the cross-section is slightly undulated, the pericarp is yellowish-green or light orange-yellow, scattered with concave oil points; Pericarp is 1.5~3.5 cm thick, yellow-white, rough, with irregular reticulate projections (vascular bundles). 11~16 petals, sometimes brown-red pinched vesicles remain. 1 or 2 seeds. The central axis is prominent, up to 1.2 cm wide. Quality, and the flexible. It is fragrant, slightly sweet, and bitter. The herb with pack yellow and white with thick fragrance is better.

 Citrus wilsonii Tanaka. (2).Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.: The plant is commonly known as Xiānɡ Yuán. Evergreen trees, it grows up to 9~11 meters tall. The entire plant is glabrous, with short spines. Leaves are alternate; Petiole with broad wings inverted cordate, about 1/3 or l/4 of the leaf blade; Leaf blade is leathery, elliptic or oblong, 5~12 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, the apex is short, obtuse or acuminate, slightly concave head, base obtuse, entire or undulate serrate, both surfaces are glabrous, with translucent oil gland points. Flowers are solitary or clustered, also into racemes, white flowers; 25~36 stamens; Ovary 10-11. Orange fruit is oblong, round or oblong, transverse diameter 5~9 cm, apex papillary protuberance, peel usually rough and wrinkled or smooth, orange-yellow when ripe, fragrant; Many seeds. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from October to November.

 Citrus wilsonii Tanaka.Citrus wilsonii Tanaka. Trait identification: The fruit is spherical or circular, 4~7 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish-green or yellowish-brown, relatively rough, dense depression small oil point, the top of the style residual mark and circle shape ring, the base of the stalk mark. It is hard, with obvious oil spots at the edge of cross-section, medium peel about 0.5 cm thick, 9~12 petals, brown or light brown, with yellow and white seeds. It smells good and tastes sour and bitter. The big herb, with thick skin, color black green, the strong fragrance is better.


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