Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Immature Orange Fruit).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Regulating the Flow of Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs Regulating the Flow of Qi: also known as Qi-regulating herbs, an agent or substance that regulates the activity of Qi to treat Qi stagnation or adverse Qi flow, also known as Qi-moving herbs.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 10 Introduction: The Herbs Regulating the Flow of Qi are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date March 19th, 2020, there are Totally [18] kinds of common TCM herbs, [23] kinds of related plant species, [1] kind of related insect species, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Regulating the Flow of Qi are briefly introduced separately:

 
Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Immature Orange Fruit).

 Fructus Aurantii Immaturus Brief Introduction: The Herb Fructus Aurantii Immaturus is the dried small immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. and its cultivated varieties or Citrus sinensis Osbeck with a diameter under 2.5 cm(family Rutaceae), used for treating dyspepsia, constipation and abdominal distension due to food stagnation, and served in large doses for treating visceroptosis. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Aurantii Immaturus, Immature Orange Fruit, Zhǐ Shí.

 ✵The herb Immature Orange Fruit is the dried small immature fruit of (1). Citrus aurantium L. and its cultivated varieties or (2). Citrus sinensis Osbeck with a diameter under 2.5 cm, they are plants of the Citrus genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. Actually the small immature fruit of other species are also in use:(3). Poncirus trifoliata, and (4). Citrus medica Linn. The 2nd species is introduced in the above section titled "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)". The other 3 species are introduced as:

 Citrus aurantium L. (1).Citrus aurantium L.: The Citrus aurantium L., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Citrus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Citrus aurantium L", "Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange", or "Suan Cheng", or "Suan Cheng Zhi Shi". Small trees, dense branches and leaves, thorns, long branches of thorns up to 8 cm. Leaves dark green, rather thick, obovate, base narrowly pointed, 1~3 cm long, 0.6~1.5 cm wide, or few winged leaves of individual species.

 acemes with few flowers, sometimes accompanied by axillary solitary flowers, with a unisexual tendency, namely stamen development, pistil degeneration; Flower buds elliptic or suborbicular; Calyx 5 or 4 lobed, sometimes thickened after anthesis, glabrous or individual species covered; Flower size is different, flower diameter is 2~3.5 cm; 20~25 stamens, usually with multiple strands at base.

 Citrus aurantium L. Fruit round or oblate, slightly thick to very thick, hard to peel, orange yellow to vermilion, uneven cell size, uneven, solid or half full, gourd 10~13, fruit sour, sometimes bitter or both specific smell; Seeds numerous and large, often ribbed, cotyledon milky white, single or multiple embryo. Flowering period: April to May; fruiting period: September to December.

 Ecological environment: The Citrus aurantium L., grows and cultivated along hills, low mountains and rivers and lakes. Native to tropical Asia, this tree is now grown throughout the tropics and subtropics. Orchards of bitter orange are found along the Mediterranean coast.

 Herb Character identification: the lime weight fruit was semispherical, spherical or ovoid, with a diameter of 0.5~2.5 cm. The outer surface is dark green or dark brown green, with granular protuberances and wrinkles. There were distinct stylopodium impressions on the top, disk residues or fruiting pedicle scars on the base. The cut surface is smooth and slightly convex, gray-white, 3~7 mm thick, with 1-2 row sag oil spots scattered around the edges, 7~12 flaps of flesh capsule, and a tan bursa in the center, showing wheel-pattern. Qualitative hard. Smells fresh and aromatic, taste bitter and slightly sour.

 Trait identification: Fruit semispherical, spherical or ovoid, 0.5~2.5 cm in diameter. Outer surface black-green or dark-brow-green, with granular processes and wrinkles. There are distinct stigma basal marks at the top, disk residue or fruiting stalk exfoliation marks at the base. The cut surface is smooth and slightly raised, grayish-white, 3~7 mm thick, with 1-2 lines of concave oil points scattered at the edge, 7~12 petals of the pulp capsule, with a tan capsule in the center, which is like wheel grain. Qualitative hard. It is fresh, bitter and slightly sour.

 Poncirus trifoliata. (3).Poncirus trifoliata.: The Poncirus trifoliata., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Citrus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf", "Zhi Ke", "Gou Ju, Chou Ju". Deciduous shrubs or small trees. Stems glabrous; Branches are numerous, and the branchlets are flattened. Stem branches with large axillary thorns, 1~5 cm long, with a flattened base. Leaves alternate, three compound leaves; Petiole length 1~3 cm, width 2~5 mm; Terminal lobule obovate or elliptic, 1.5~6 cm long, 0.7~3 cm wide, apex slightly concave or rounded, base cuneate, margin not clearly serrate. Lateral lobules small, elliptic-ovate, base slightly oblique, pubescent on main veins, with translucent oil gland dots when young.

 Poncirus trifoliata. Flowers white, with short stalks, solitary or in pairs biennial branches axils, often first leaves open, aromatic; 5 sepals, ovate-triangular, 5~6 mm long; 5 petals, obovate-spatulate, 1.5~3 cm long and 0.5~1.5 cm wide; 8~20 stamens or more, of varying length; 1 pistil, ovary subglobose, densely pubescent, 6-8 locules, each with several ovules, style stout short, stigma capitate.

 Citrus globose, 2~5 cm in diameter, orange when ripe, densely pubescent, with many oil glands, aromatic, short stalks, persistent on branches. The seeds are many. Flowering period: from April to May; fruiting period: from July to October.

 Poncirus trifoliata. Herb Character identification: round or cut in half, with a diameter of 0.8~1.2 cm. The outer surface is green and brown, densely brownish-green hairy, and the bases are all disk shaped. The cross-section is white with greenish brown edges, with small sunken spots and yellow-white flesh capsules; Taste bitter.

 Ecological environment: The Poncirus trifoliata., grows and cultivated along the road and in gardens, as grass hedgerows. Prefers bright light, like warm and humid climate, bear 20~28 Deg C low temperature, can flourish. They prefer slightly acidic soil and are not resistant to alkali. Growth rate is moderate. Strong branching, resistant to pruning. The main root is shallow, many fibrous root.

 Citrus medica L. (4).Citrus medica Linn.: The Citrus medica L., is a plant of the Rutaceae family and Citrus L. genus, it is commonly known as "Citron Fruit", "Xiang Yuan, Gou Yuan". Evergreen trees, 9~11 meters tall. Whole plant glabrous, with short spines. Leaves alternate; Petiole with obcordate broad wing, about 1/3-l/4 long leaf; Leaf blade leathery, elliptic or oblong, 5~12 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, apex short and obtuse or acuminate, slightly concave, base obtuse, entire or undulate serrate, both surfaces glabrous, with translucent oil gland dots.

 Citrus medica L. Flowers solitary or clustered, also having racemes, white flowers; 25~36 stamens; Ovary 10~11. Citrus oblong, round or oblong, transverse diameter 5~9 cm, apex papillae, often rough and wrinkled or smooth, ripe orange yellow, aromatic; The seeds are many. Flowering period: from April to May, fruit maturity: from October to November.

 Citrus medica L. Herb Character identification:Spherical or round, 4~7 cm in diameter. The surface is gray-green or yellow-brown, coarser, with dense depressions with small oil dots, with style remnants and circular ring veins on the top. Hard, with obvious oil spots on the edge of cross-section, medium pericarp about 0.5 cm thick, flesh capsule 9~12, brown or light brown, with yellow-white seeds between. The aroma is sour and bitter. Large, thick skin, black and green color, strong aroma is preferred. According to ancient herbal classics, the fruit of the Citrus medica L was used as the botanical origin of the herb Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Zhǐ Shí) in ancient epoch Tang and Song dynasties, but until the Ming dynasty, it was classified as an adulterant.

 
 
Fructus Aurantii(Orange Fruit).

 Fructus Aurantii Brief Introduction: The Herb Fructus Aurantii is the dried immature fruit of Citrus aurantium L. and its cultivated varieties with a diameter between 3~5 cm(family Rutaceae), used in the same way as immature orange fruit, with a milder effect. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Aurantii, Orange Fruit, Bitter Orange, Zhǐ Ké.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Aurantii(Orange Fruit) as the dried immature fruit of the species (1).Citrus aurantium L. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Aurantii(Orange Fruit) as the dried immature fruit of the species (2).Citrus sinensis (L.)Osbeck. They are plants of the Citrus L. genus, the Rutaceae family of the Sapindales order. These 2 commonly used species were introduced in the above entries "Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae(Dried Tangerine Peel)" and "Fructus Aurantii Immaturus(Immature Orange Fruit)".

 
 

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