Rhizoma Curcumae Longae(Turmeric).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 10 Introduction: The Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [30] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, [5] kinds of related animal species, [6] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are briefly introduced separately:

 
Rhizoma Curcumae Longae(Turmeric).

 Rhizoma Curcumae Longae Brief Introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is the steamed and dried rhizome of Curcuma longa L.(family Zingiberaceae), used to activate blood, move Qi, unblock meridians and relieve pain in cases of rheumatalgia, dysmenorrhea, epigastric, abdominal and costal pains, and traumatic injuries. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, Turmeric, Jiānɡ Huánɡ.

 ✵Common official classics defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, or Turmeric as the dried rhizome of the Curcuma L genus, the Zingiberaceae family, Zingiberales order plant species (1). Curcuma longa L. Other common herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, or Turmeric as the rhizome of the Zingiberaceae family plant species (1). Curcuma longa L., or (2). Curcuma aromatica Salisb. Officially the botanical source of the Rhizoma Curcumae Longae should be the dried rhizome of the species (1). Curcuma longa L. This commonly used species and the related species are introduced as:

 Curcuma longa L. (1).Curcuma longa L.: The Curcuma longa L., is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family and Curcuma genus, it is commonly known as "Curcuma longa", or "Jiang Huang", perennial herb, 1~1.5 meters tall. The rhizomes are well-developed and clustered, and the branches are elliptical or cylindrical, orange-yellow and very fragrant; the roots are thick and the ends are enlarged into roots. Ye Jisheng, 5-7 sheets, 2 columns; petiole length 20~45 cm; leaf blade oblong or narrowly elliptic, 20~50 cm long, 5~15 cm wide, apex acuminate, base cuneate, decurrent to the petiole, yellow-green above, Below light green, hairless. Calyx extracted from leaf sheaths, peduncle length 12~20 cm, spikes cylindrical, length 12~18 cm; bracts without flowers pink or reddish-purple, oblong, 4~6 cm in length, width 1~ 1.5 cm, sepals with flowers in middle and lower part with tender green or greenish-white, ovate to suborbicular, 3~4 cm long; calyx simple green-white, with 3 teeth; corolla tube funnel-shaped, ca. 1.5 cm, pale yellow, throat Close densely pilose, 3 lobes; 1 fertile stamens, filaments short and flat, anthers oblong, base spur; ovary subordinate, externally villous, style slender, base with 2 club-shaped glands, stigma slightly inflated, slightly lip-shaped. It is flowering in August.

 Curcuma longa L. Ecosystem: The Curcuma longa L., grows wild or cultivated in plains, meadows or bushes in the mountains. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Taiwan, Yunnan, and other provinces.

 A perennial plant with roots or tubers oblong, palmate, and deep orange inside; root-leaves about 2 feet (60.96 cm) long, lanceolate, long, petioled, tapering at each end, smooth, of a uniform green; petioles sheathing spike, erect, central, oblong, green; flowers dull yellow, three or five together surrounded by bracteoles. It is propagated by cuttings from the root, which when dry is in curved cylindrical or oblong tubers 2 or 3 inches (5.08~7.62 centimeters) in length, and an inch in diameter, pointed or tapering at one end, yellowish externally, with transverse, parallel rings internally deep orange or reddish-brown, marked with shining points, dense, solid, short, granular fracture, forming a lemon yellow powder. It has a peculiarly fragrant odor and a bitterish, slightly acrid taste, like ginger, exciting warmth in the mouth and coloring the saliva yellow. This plant yields its properties to water or alcohol.

 As a culinary herb, the stimulating taste of Turmeric adds zip to foods. As a healthful herbal tonic, it is said to provide warming, soothing benefits to the joints, liver, and stomach. Women also appreciate its calming benefits during periods of monthly discomfort.

 Geographical distribution or Habitat: Cambodia, China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Malaysia. It is extensively cultivated in China, Thailand and throughout the tropics, including tropical regions of africa.

 Ethno-botanical information: Traditional use as antiflatulence and for the treatment of peptic ulcers, treatment of insect bite, treatment of wounds.

 The root-tuber of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (aromatic turmeric), Curcuma longa L. (common turmeric), Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang (Kwangsi turmeric) or Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Rosc. (zedoary turmeric), a perennial plant, of the family Zingiberaceae.

 Curcuma grows on forest margins, in clearings, or on riverbanks and is adapted to withstand drought. It loses its leafy parts and survives the dry season as underground rhizomes. Some Curcuma species also produce tuberous roots, which act as an additional store of food and water.

 Fruits ripen below ground. The leafy shoots maybe three to five meters tall, so that the leaves are high in the air. Curcuma has brightly colored flowers and slender flower tubes full of nectar. They are pollinated by butterflies. Flowers are short-lived, often lasting only a few hours.

 In China, Curcuma is mainly produced in the provinces Zhejiang, Sichuan, etc. Harvested after the stem leaves wither in winter, the root-tuber is picked up, fine roots removed from it, then is steamed or boiled until the core shows, dried, sliced or mashed for use when raw or after being parched with alum water.

 Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (2).Curcuma aromatica Salisb.: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., is a plant of the Zingiberaceae family and Curcuma genus, it is commonly known as "Curcuma aromatica", or "Yu Jin", plant height is about 1 meter; roots are fleshy, hypertrophic, oval or oblong, yellow, aromatic; root enlargement is spindle-like. Ye Jisheng, blade oblong, 30~60 cm long, 10~20 cm wide, tip with fine tail, base attenuate, leaf surface glabrous, leaf blade abaxially pubescent; petiole ca. as long as leaf blade.

 Curcuma aromatica Salisb. The calyx is extracted from the rhizomes alone and leaves or leaves at the same time with the leaves. The spikes are cylindrical, about 15 cm long and about 8 cm in diameter. The bracts with flowers are pale green, ovate, 4~5 cm long. The upper non-flowered sepals are narrow, oblong, white and reddish-tinged, often with small tips and coats on their tips; calyxes puberulous, 0.8~1.5 cm long, 3-lobed apically; corolla tube funnel-shaped, 2.3~2.5 cm long, coats throat, lobes oblong, 1.5 cm long, white with pink, rear one larger, apically pointed, coats; lateral staminodes yellowish, obovate Annulus oblong, ca. 1.5 cm; yellow, yellow, obovate, 2.5 cm long, apically 2-lobed; ovary villous. Flowering season: April-June.

 Ecosystem: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., grows wild or cultivated in the forest or woods. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China from the southeast to the southwestern provinces; it also distributes throughout Southeast Asia.

 Growth habits: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., prefer to warm and humid climate, plenty of sunshine, abundant rainfall, fear of frost and cold, afraid of drought water. It should be cultivated in sandy loam where the soil is deep, loose in the upper layer and tight in the lower layer. Avoid continuous cropping, cultivation and high stalk crop interplanting. Better cultivated in fertile, moist sunny slopes or fields, it is cultivated in multiple lines.

 Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling. Definitions and Differences: Official herbal classics defined the herb Curcuma aromatica as the dried tuberous root of the species Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, or Curcuma longa L., or Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., or Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., etc.

  Another herb, Curcuma zedoaria, or Zedoary, or E Shu, was defined by common herbal classics as the dried rhizome of the species Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, or Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., or Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., etc.

 Thus, the herb Rhizoma Curcumae Longae is not the same as the herb Curcuma aromatica, and the herb Curcuma aromatica is also different from the herb Curcuma zedoaria.

 Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling. Main varietas: The Curcuma aromatica Salisb., has 2 main varietas in China, and known as (2.1). Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling, (2.2). Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., (2.3). Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb.etc.

 (2.1).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling.: The Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling., is a varietas of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., it is commonly known as "Wen Yu Jin", the root is long oval, oval or spindle-shaped, length 4~8 cm, diameter 2.5~4.5 cm. The tip is long and the base is sharp or rounded. The surface is gray-brown to dark brown, rough, the upper part is convex, the base has depressed root marks, and the bud marks and lateral root marks are not obvious. There are knife marks. Heavily smashed, broken yellow-brown or yellow-gray, horny, spotted or striped vascular bundles.

 Ecosystem:The Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling., grows wild or cultivated n a sunny or humid field or ditch. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed and cultivated in the Ruian, Zhejiang province of China.

 Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang. (2.2).Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang.: The Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., is a varietas of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., it is commonly known as "Guangxi E Shu", Rhizome ovoid, 4~5 cm long, 2.5~3.5 cm in diam., with more or less striated nodes, with brownish, membranous leaf sheaths on the nodes, fresh white or light yellow. Scallops are slender and rooted, and the ends often swell into nearly spindle-shaped roots; the root diameter is 1.4~1.8 cm and the inside is milky white. Leaves pumped in spring, leaves basal, 2~5-foliolate, erect; leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, 14~39 cm long, 4.5~7~9.5 cm wide, apex shortly acuminate to acuminate, tip pointed to ventral surface, base attenuate, decurrent, pubescent on both surfaces; ligule ca. 1.5 mm high, margin villous; petiole 2~11 cm long, pubescent; leaf sheath ca. 11~33 cm, pubescent . Spikes are extracted from the rhizomes and separated from the vegetative stems with leaves; pedicels long 7~14 cm, inflorescences ca. 15 cm, diameter ca. 7 m thick; bracts broadly ovate below inflorescence, ca. 4 cm, apex Flat, light green, upper sepal oblong, oblique, pale red; peanuts in the lower and central sepals; calyx white, ca. 1 cm, one side split to middle, apex with 3 blunt teeth; Corolla tube 2 cm long, trumpet-shaped, throat densely villous, corolla lobes 3, ovate, ca. 1 cm, posterior one wide, ca. 9 mm wide, apex pointed, slightly pocketed, bilateral Slightly narrowed; lateral staminodes oblong, nearly as long as corolla lobes; lip suborbicular, yellowish, apex 3 shallowly fissured, middle lobe slightly longer, apex 2-lobed; filaments broadly flattened, anthers narrow Round, ca. 4 mm, pharmacy close, base spaced; style filiform, glabrous, stigma capitate, ciliate; ovary villous. Flowering period: May to July.

 Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang. Ecosystem: The Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., grows in sunny, moist, thick soil ditch, forest edge, hillside ground, grasslands and shrubs at an altitude of 700 meters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed and cultivated in China provinces Guangxi, Yunnan, and other provinces. The Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang., prefer to high temperature and high humidity environment, drought tolerance, fertility optimum temperature 23~30 Deg C, the leaves dry in winter when the low temperature, germinate new leaf growth in spring.

 Trait identification: Tuberous root oblong conical or circular, 2~6.5 cm long, 1~1.8 cm in diameter. Surface dark brown or khaki, with thin light longitudinal and rough mesh texture. Qualitative hard. Cross-section cutin, gray-brown to brown, more obvious endodermis. Light smell, taste slight pungent and bitter.

 Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb. (2.3).Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb.: The Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., is a varietas of Curcuma aromatica Salisb., it is commonly known as "é Zhú", perennial, smooth and glabrous throughout. Leaves elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 25~60 cm long, 10~15 cm wide, often purple class in the middle; petiole is longer than the leaves. The stems are emitted from the rhizomes alone, often with leaves first; spikes ca. 15 cm; sepals numerous, green below, purple at hips; calyx white, apical 3-lobed; corolla yellow, 3 lobes, unequal; lateral degeneration stamens small; yellow lobes, apical at apex; divergent bases with divergent moments. A wolf-shaped triangle. Its flowering perios is from March to May.

 Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb. The rhizome is conical, with a pointed upper end and a rounded bottom, 2~6 cm long and 2~3 cm in diameter. The surface is light yellow, slightly crumpled, and there are obvious links. There are scale-like petiole residues on the section and dot-like root marks. Solid quality, yellow-green cross-section, round endothelia ring, the majority of the column. The odour is slightly fragrant and bitter and spicy. Dry rhizomes, oval or spindle-shaped, are solid and heavy, extremely difficult to break, open-faceted brown-to-yellowish green, keratinous, shiny, with a yellow-white ring and white veins. Slightly scented, applauding slightly bitter and pungent. It is better to use a uniform, solid, gray-brown cross-section.

 Ecosystem:The Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb., grows in the shade of valleys, streams, forests, etc. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed and cultivated in Guangxi and Sichuan provinces of China.

 Trait identification: Tuberous roots oblong, stout, 1.5~3.5 cm long, 1~1.2 cm in diameter, gray or gray, wrinkled. Qualitative hard, cross-section horn debt, slightly show grayish brown, the inner cortex is more obvious. Slight smell, mild taste.

 
 
Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa(Wenyujin Concise Rhizome).

 Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa Brief Introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa is the dried rhizome of Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling(family Zingiberaceae), used to resolve blood stasis and relieve pain in cases of dysmenorrhea, rheumatalgia, shoulder pain, and traumatic injuries. It is commonly known as Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa, Wenyujin Concise Rhizome, Piàn Jiāng Huáng.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Wenyujin concisa(Wenyujin Concise Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of the species (1).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling. It is a plant of the Curcuma L genus, the Zingiberaceae family of the Zingiberales order. This commonly used species was introduced in the entry "Radix Curcumae(Turmeric Root Tuber)".

 Trait identification:This herb is oblong or irregular sheet, different sizes, 3~6 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, 0.1~0.4 cm thick. The cortex or root skin grayish-yellow, rough wrinkled, sometimes visible links and fibrous root mark. Cut-section surface is yellow-white to brown-yellow, with a ring and most veins small. The quality is crisp and firm. The cross-section pale to tan, slightly powder. The smell fragrance is peculiar, the taste is slightly bitter but the pungent and cool.

 
 
Rhizoma Curcumae(Zedoary Rhizome).

 Zedoary Rhizome Brief Introduction: The Herb Rhizoma Curcumae is the steamed and dried rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc., Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton, or Curcuma kwangsiensis S.G.Lee et C.F.Liang or curcuma wenyujin Y.H.Chen et C.Ling(family Zingiberaceae), used to relieve pain caused by retention of food and activate blood circulation and remove blood stasis for the treatment of abdominal mass and amenorrhea, also used as an anticancer agent, especially for cervical cancer of the uterus. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Curcumae, Zedoary Rhizome, é Shù.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae(Zedoary Rhizome) as the dried rhizome of the species (1).Curcuma phaeocaulis Val., or (2).Curcuma Kwangsiensis S. G.Lee et C. F. Liang., or (3).Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Curcumae(Zedoary Rhizome) as the rhizome of the species (4).Curcuma aerugionosa Roxb. They are plants of the Curcuma L genus, the Zingiberaceae family of the Zingiberales order. These commonly used species were introduced in the entry "Radix Curcumae(Turmeric Root Tuber)" and the entry "Rhizoma Curcumae Longae(Turmeric)".

 Trait identification:This herb rhizomes is round, ovoid, oblong, apex obtuse, base obtuse, 2~5 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish to grayish-yellow, the upper part is obvious, and there is one row of bud marks and round lateral root marks on each side. Weight, qualitative and firm, cross-section dark green yellow arrives brown, often with palm yellow color powder. The cortex is easily separated from the core part. Slightly fragrant, slightly bitter and pungent taste.

 
 

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