Herba Leonuri(Motherwort Herb).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 10 Introduction: The Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [30] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, [5] kinds of related animal species, [6] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are briefly introduced separately:

Herba Leonuri(Motherwort Herb).

 Herba Leonuri Brief Introduction: The Herb Herba Leonuri is the dried aerial part of Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet(family Labiatae), used (1).to activate blood flow and regulate the menstrual discharge in cases of menstrual disorders, and (2).as a diuretic in cases of nephritic edema. The herb is commonly known as Herba Leonuri, Motherwort Herb, Yì Mǔ Cǎo.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Motherwort as the whole herb of the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(mint or deadnettle family) family plant species (1).Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Motherwort as the whole herb of the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(mint or deadnettle family) family plant species (1). Leonurus japonicus Houtt., or (2). Leonurus sibiricus L., or (3). Leonurus cardiaca L. They are plants of the Leonurus genus, Labiatae family of the Tubiflorae order. These 3 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Leonurus japonicus Houtt. (1).Leonurus japonicus Houtt.: The Leonurus japonicus Houtt., is a plant of the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(mint or deadnettle family) family and Leonurus genus, it is commonly known as "Oriental motherwort", or "Chinese motherwort", or "Yì Mǔ Cǎo", annual or biennial herbs, high 60~100 cm. Stem erect, tetragonal, hairy. Leaves opposite; a variety of leaves; petiole 0.5~8 cm long. Basal leaves of annual plants with long stems, leaves slightly rounded, 4~8 cm in diam., 5-9-lobed, lobes 2-3 cuspidate, base cordate; stems middle leaves with short handle, 3-cleavage, lobes Nearly lanceolate, the central lobes often 3 crack, 1-2 lobes on both sides of the lobes, the final piece width usually 3 mm or more, apex acuminate, margin sparsely serrate or nearly entire; the uppermost part of the leaf is not divided, linear, Nearly sessile, green above, strigose, greenish below, pubescent and glandular. Umbrella inflorescences axillary, with flowers 8-15; bracteoles acinar, pedicellate; calyx bell-shaped, outside adaxially puberulent, apex 5-toothed, spiny, lower 2 teeth above 2 teeth length , Persistent; corolla lip, reddish or purple, 9-12 mm long, pilose outside, upper lip and lower lip several equal length, upper lip oblong, entire, margin ciliate, lower lip 3 crack, central Lobes larger, inverted heart-shaped; stamens 4, two strong, was born in the inner corolla near the middle of the filaments sparsely squamous, anther 2 rooms; pistil 1, ovary 4 crack, style filiform, slightly longer than stamens, stigma 2 crack. Nutlets brown, triangular, apex wide and truncate, base wedge, length 2~2.5 mm, the diameter of about 1.5 mm. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting from July to October.

 Ecological Environment: The Leonurus japonicus Houtt. grows in farmland, roadside, stream or grassland hillsides, especially in the sunny zone, growth up to 3000 meters above sea level. Geographical distribution: This species distributed in many China provinces, other areas of Asia including Cambodia, and also distributed to South and North America, Europe, and africa.

 Trait identification:Fresh herb: stemless at seedling stage, basal leaves cordate, margin 5~9 lobed, each lobe has 2~3 obtuse teeth. The stems in the early stage of the flower were square column-shaped, the upper part was much branched, the four sides were concave and formed a longitudinal groove, the length was 30~60 cm, the diameter was 0.2~0.5 cm. The surface is turquoise; The quality is fresh and tender, section middle has the marrow. Leaves opposite, stalks; Leaf bluish-green, quality is tender, knead have juice; Lower cauline leaves palmately 3-lobed, upper leaves feathery deeply lobed or lobed into 3 segments, lobes entire or a few serrate. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste.

 Dry herb: stem surface gray-green or yellow-green; The body is light, tough, midsection medullated. Leaf gray-green, more wrinkled, broken, easy to fall off. Inflorescence axillary, florets mauve, calyx tubular, corolla 2-lipped. The segment length is about 2 cm.

 Leonurus sibiricus L. (2).Leonurus sibiricus L.: The Leonurus sibiricus L., is a plant of the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(mint or deadnettle family) family and Leonurus genus, it is commonly known as Xì Yè Yì Mǔ Cǎo, or Thin-Leaf Motherwort, or "Siberian motherwort", annual or biennial herbs, plants up to 80 cm. Stems erect, tetragonal, strigose, leaves opposite. Petiole length 0.5~5 cm; stem the lower part of the leaves early fall, the central leaf oval, palmately 3 cracked, about 5 cm, width 4 cm, lobes oblong whip, then pinnately split into 3-line linear Small lobes, usually 1-3 mm in width; uppermost lobe distinctly 3-lobed, lobes linear, subsessile, upper green, dioecious, many-flowered; pedicels absent; bracteoles aculeate, shorter than calyx tube, Spiky, calyx bell-shaped, pilose outside, apex 5-toothed, spiked, upper 3 teeth shorter than 2 below teeth, persistent. Corolla lip-shaped, pink or purplish red, 15~20 mm long, outer densely villous, upper lip longer than lower lip about 1/4, lip oblong, entire, lower lip 3-lobed, central lobe shaped; 4 stamens, two strong, grows in the inner corolla near the middle of the filaments sparsely squamous hair, flowers 2 rooms; 1 pistil, 4 ovary crack, style filiform, slightly longer than the stamens, 2 stigma crack. Nutlets is brown, triangular, apex wide and truncate, base cuneate, about 2.5 mm. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting from July to October.

 Ecological Environment: The Leonurus sibiricus L., grows in the stone hillside, sandy grassland or a pine forest, elevation up to 1,500 meters. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces northern Hebei, Gansu, Shanxi, northwestern Shaanxi, and other areas. This species also distributed to other areas of Asia including Siberia, and nowadays distribute to other parts of the world, including South, Central and North Americas.

 Trait identification:Stem middle leaves ovate, base broadly cuneate, palmately trifid, lobes pinnately divided into linear lobules. Bracts on inflorescence distinctly tri-lobed, lobules linear. The herb quality of tender, many leaves, color gray-green is better.

 Leonurus cardiaca L. (3).Leonurus cardiaca L.: The Leonurus cardiaca L. is a plant of the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(mint or deadnettle family) family and Leonurus genus, it is commonly known as "Greyish-white Motherwort", and other names "throw-wort, lion's ear, and lion's tail", has a squarish stem which is clad in short hairs and is often purplish, especially near the nodes. The opposite leaves have serrated margins and are palmately lobed with long petioles; basal leaves are wedge-shaped with three points while the upper leaves have five. They are slightly hairy above and greyish beneath. Flowers appear in leaf axils on the upper part of the plant and have three-lobed bracts. The calyx of each flower is bell-shaped and has five lobes. The corolla is irregular, 8~12 mm (0.3 to 0.5 inches) long, fused, long-tubed with two lips. The upper lip is convex and covered with white hairs and the lower lip is three-lobed and downward-curving and spotted with red. The flowers are pink to lilac often with furry lower lips. There are four stamens, two short and two longer, and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp. The plant grows to about 60~100 cm (24~39 inches) in height and blooms during July to August.

 Leonurus cardiaca L. Ecological Environment: The Leonurus sibiricus L. grows beside roadsides, in vacant fields, waste ground, rubbish dumps, and other disturbed areas. Geographical distribution: This species was originally from Central Asia and southeastern Europe, native to the southeastern part of Europe and Central Asia where it has been cultivated since ancient times, it is now found worldwide, spread largely due to its use as a herbal remedy.

 It is distinguished from all other British labiates by the leaves, which are deeply and palmately cut into five lobes or three-pointed segments, and by the prickly calyx-teeth of its flowers. When not in flower, it resembles Mugwort in habit.

 From the perennial root-stock rise the square, stout stems, 2 to 3 feet (60.92~91.44 cm) high, erect and branched, principally below, the angles prominent. The leaves are very closely set, the radical ones on slender, long petioles, ovate, lobed and toothed, those on the stem, 2 to 3 inches (5.08~7.62 cm) long, petioled, wedge-shaped; the lower roundish, palmately five-lobed, the lobes trifid at the apex, the upper three-fid, coarsely serrate, reticulated veined, the veinlets prominent beneath, with slender, curved hairs. The uppermost leaves and bracts are very narrow and entire, or only with a tooth on each side, and bear in their axils numerous whorls of pinkish, or nearly white, sessile flowers, six to fifteen in a whorl. The corollas, though whitish on the outside, are stained with paler or darker purple within. They have rather short tubes and nearly flat upper lips, very hairy above, with long, woolly hairs. The two front stamens are the longest and the anthers are sprinkled with hard, shining dots.

 The plant blossoms in August. It has rather a pungent odor and a very bitter taste. It is a dull green, the leaves paler below, pubescent, especially on the angles of the stem and the underside of the leaves, the hairs varying much in length and abundance.

 The name of the genus, Leonurus, in Greek signifies a Lion's tail, from some fancied resemblance in the plant. Motherwort is also known by the name Lion's Ear. Motherwort originally came from central Eurasia, but has now spread to all temperate areas of the world, primarily as a garden plant, but also as an escaped weed. The leaves and flowers of this mint family plant are used medicinally. In Chinese herbal medicine, the seeds are also employed. The use of Motherwort is practically the same in European folk medicine and traditional Chinese herbal medicine - to regulate menses and to treat associated conditions. The genus name Leonurus is derived from a Latin word "Leo", meaning "lions", and a Greek word "oura", meaning "tail", about the leaf's shaggy shape (like a lion's tail). The species name cardiaca is from the Greek word "kardiaca", meaning "heart". A similar plant, Leonurus heterophyllus, is used in China. The Chinese name for this plant is "Yi Mu Cao", meaning benefit mother herb".


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