Faeces Trogopterorum(Trogopterus Dung).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 10 Introduction: The Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [30] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, [5] kinds of related animal species, [6] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are briefly introduced separately:

Faeces Trogopterorum(Trogopterus Dung).

 Faeces Trogopterorum Brief Introduction: The Herb Faeces Trogopterorum is the dried feces of Trogopterus xanthipes Milne-Edwards(family Petauristidae), used to relieve pain by eliminating blood stasis mainly for the treatment of gastric and abdominal pain, and dysmenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Faeces Trogopterorum, Trogopterus Dung, Wǔ Línɡ Zhī.

 ✵Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Faeces Trogopterorum(Trogopterus Dung) as the dried feces of the animal (1).Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards., or (2).Pteromys volans L. The Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards. is an animal of the Trogopterus genus, the Sciuridae family of the Rodentia order. The Pteromys volans L. is an animal of the Pteromys genus, the Sciuridae family of the Rodentia order. These 2 commonly used animal origin is introduced as:

 Trogopterus Xanthipes (1).Trogopterus Xanthipes Milne-Edwards.:  It is commonly known as Trogopterus xanthipes, or Chén Zú Wú Shǔ(Literally it means orange foot flying squirrel) or Fù Chǐ Wú Shǔ. The total length is about 54 cm, the tail is long and thick, almost equal to the length of the body. Kiss short, eyes round and large, auricle developed, no bundle of hair. Hind limb is longer than forelimb, has hook claw; There are flying membranes between the limbs. Orange spots on the front of the head and ears; Base grayish-black, upper yellowish, tip black; Neck back yellow is more obvious than the back. Abdominal hair grayish-white with a pale orange tip. The color of the apomembrane is the same as that of the ventral surface, but the margin is pale. The back of the tail is similar to the back of the body, but lighter, the tail is black, connected into a longitudinal pattern until the end. The back of the fore and hind feet are orange, but the hind feet are black.

  Trogopterus Xanthipes Medium size, slightly larger than the red belly squirrel, weight 300~400 grams, body length 300~340 mm, tail slightly flat, with the body as long as, hind feet 40~48 mm long, ears 30~35 mm long. The head is round and the eyes are large, the snout is short and the ears are large and round.

 The ear base of the Trogopterus xanthipes has a long and soft distinct tuft of hair, the base of the back hair is grayish-black, the upper part is yellowish, and the tip is black. Cervical back yellow is more apparent than back, abdomen hair shows gray-white, have light orange hair tip, fly film color and ventral same, the only edge is gray-white, the division that can see carry abdomen. Tail back color and body back close, but shallow, the end of the black, the tail ventral in addition to the tail base of the hair is slightly pale yellow, the rest of the hair tip is black, forming a longitudinal until the end of the end. His eyes were ringed with black.

 Trogopterus Xanthipes Short kiss, narrow nose bone. The center of the orbit, the anterior part of the frontal bone are sunken, and the posterior part is slightly raised. The orbital burst reaches an acute Angle. The center of the orbit, the anterior part of the frontal bone are sunken, and the posterior part is slightly raised. The zygomatic arch is well-developed and low, almost in the same plane as the tooth. The superior orbital process is nearly healed from the posterior temporal crest to the posterior parietal tip. The palatal foramen is elongated and lies before the suture between the maxilla and the premaxilla. Auditory bubbles are round and obvious. The zygomatic process of the maxilla has a protuberance around the foramen of the nerve.

 The incisors are weak and yellowish. Two upper premolars, the first is very small, hidden in the inner side of the second upper premolar, the three upper premolars are almost equal, but all are smaller than the second upper premolar. Except for the first upper premolar, the crown mask of the second upper premolar and the three upper molars are complex enamel fold and transverse ridge.

 Trogopterus Xanthipes Ecological Environment: It perches in hills with cypress trees. To build a nest in a chasm or fissure in a rocky escarpment; Black and gray feces are common near caves. Prefer to be active in the morning or evening, can glide and climb trees. Food is mainly cypress seeds and young leaves. The Trogopterus xanthipes is a forest animal, which lives in the mixed forest of needle and broad at an altitude of about 1,200 meters. It nests on tall trees or in the crevices of steep rock walls. It is distributed in Hebei, Shanxi, Qinghai, Gansu, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Xizang, and other areas.

 Pteromys volans L. (2).Pteromys volans L.:  It is commonly known as Xiǎo Fēi Shǔ(Literally it means small flying squirrel), or Siberian Flying Squirrel. Shaped like a squirrel and small, 135~160 mm long. The tail length is about 2/3 of the body length. Eyes large with narrow rings of black hair. The anterior and posterior legs are covered with hairy membranes. Tail flat, densely covered with long soft hair. All dark grey-black, summer back hair for brown-gray, with gray ripples; A yellowish-gray or yellowish-gray in winter. Abdomen hair white. Tail two side orange-yellow. The color of the hair on the lower part of the membrane is the same as that on the back and ventral surface.

 Pteromys volans L. The Pteromys volans(small flying squirrel) is small, with a body length of less than 200 mm. The kiss is blunt. Eyes large, ears normal, limbs stubby. Bare forefoot, with metacarpal and finger pads, posterior metacarpal hairy, without metacarpal, with only 4 toe pads. The tail is flat and feathered. Female nipples are 4 pairs, i.e. 2 pairs on the chest and 2 pairs on the abdomen.

 Pteromys volans L. The Pteromys volans(small flying squirrel) hair switch in two colors in winter and summer, summer hair back brown-gray, gray hair base, hair tip brown-gray; In the back hair is miscellaneous have base black, upper paragraph gray, tip black needle hair, make whole backside presents gray-black ripple. The flying membrane is consistent with the body's back color. Ventral for gray, needle hair base light gray, tip white. Black and brown circles around the eyes. Ears covered with light brown short hair. Back of feet brown, metatarsus covered with light tan hair. Tail back, the abdomen center has a dark brown slightly dyed gray stripe, orange-yellow on both sides. Winter's hair is lighter than summer hair, yellow or yellowish gray.

 The whole length of the skull of the Pteromys volans(small flying squirrel) is no more than 41 mm. The kiss was short, reaching only a quarter of the length of the skull. Cranial region convex circle, supraorbital process with 1 notch, supraorbital process along the orbit protruding backward. The zygomatic arch is relatively flat. The nasal bone is shorter, with ends smaller than the width of the ends of the premaxilla. Auditory vesicles are larger and longer than the upper teeth. The foramen magnum is subrounded.

 Pteromys volans L. The smooth front surface of the front teeth of the Pteromys volans(small flying squirrel) protrudes slightly. The first upper premolar is small, and the second upper premolar is large, with a slightly larger crown than the subsequent molars. Lower crown molars with very distinct chewing surfaces, very similar to the molars of the squirrel family. Tooth = 22.

 Ecological Environment: It habitats in deep mountain dense forest, build a nest in the tree hole. Nocturnal foraging, often gliding between trees. Food is mainly pine seeds, acorns, young branches, berries and so on. It distributed in Hebei, Shanxi, Xinjiang and other areas. It distributed in China, Estonia, Finland, Latvia.

 Trait identification:(1).Faeces Trogopterorum block, is also known as sugar Faeces Trogopterorum. It is an irregular block of various sizes. Surface black-brown, red-brown or grayish brown, uneven, oil 9 embellish glosses, adhere to the particle is a long oval, the surface often broken, show fiber. The qualitative hard, the cross-section is yellow-brown or tan, uneven, some visible grain, occasionally have yellow-brown resinous material. Smells foul.

 (2).Faeces Trogopterorum rice, also known as separate Faeces Trogopterorum, is a long oval grain, 5~15 mm long and 3~6 mm in diameter. Surface black-brown, reddish-brown or gray-brown, relatively smooth or slightly rough, often visible flaxen fiber residue, some slightly burnish. Light, loose, easily broken, cross-section yellowish-green or medium-yellow-brown, uneven, fibrous. Light smell.


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