Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis: also known as blood-activating and stasis-resolving herbs, an agent or substance herbs that promotes blood flow and removes stagnant blood, also known as blood-activating and stasis-dispelling herbs, or blood-activating herbs and stasis-resolving herbs.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 10 Introduction: The Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [30] kinds of common TCM herbs, [53] kinds of related plant species, [5] kinds of related animal species, [6] kinds of related insect species, [1] kind of related mineral, are recorded in this category. These Herbs Regulating blood conditions,Herbs Activating Blood and Resolving Stasis are briefly introduced separately:

Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem).

 Caulis Spatholobi Brief Introduction: The Herb Caulis Spatholobi is the dried lianoid stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn(family Leguminosae), used to move and tonify the blood, regulate menstruation and unblock collateral meridians for the treatment of menstrual disorders due to blood deficiency together with blood stasis, inflammation of peripheral vessels or thrombosis, numbness of the body and limbs, and also effective for leucopenia. The herb is commonly known as Caulis Spatholobi, Suberect Spatholobus Stem, Jī Xuè Ténɡ(literally it means chicken-blood vine).

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem) as the dried lianoid stem of the species (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. It is a plant of the Spatholobus Hassk genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Caulis Spatholobi(Suberect Spatholobus Stem) as the dried lianoid stem of the species (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn., (2). Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.(Mucuna Adans genus), (3). Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.(Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus), (4). Millettia nitida Bent.(Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus). They are plants of the Mucuna Adans or Millettia Wight et Arn genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Thus, in a strict sense, only the dried lianoid stem of (1). Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. is the officially identified botanical origin. These 1 officially defined species and other 3 usable species in certain areas are introduced as:

 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. (1).Spatholobus suberectus Dunn.:  It is commonly known as Mì Huā Dòu. It is a plant of the Spatholobus Hassk genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Climbing vine, shrubby when young. Leaflets papery or nearly leathery, abnormity, the bilateral symmetry, elliptic, obovate to suborbicular, wide 9~19 cm long, 5~14 cm wide, apex short caudate snap-back, tip obtuse, base broadly cuneate, lateral asymmetry of both sides, and the apical lobule, such as big or slightly narrower, base broadly cuneate or rounded, both sides nearly glabrous or slightly hairy, often have beard between vein axils below; Lateral veins 6~8 pairs, slightly curved; Petiole 5~8 mm long, puberulent or glabrous; Stipules small, subulate, 3~6 mm long.

 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. Inflorescences axillary or apical to branchlets, up to 50 cm long, inflorescence axis, pedicels yellow-brown pubescent, bracts and bracteoles linear, persistent; Calyx short, 3.5~4 mm long, calyx teeth 2~3 times shorter than calyx tube, lower 3 teeth apex rounded or slightly obtuse, less than 1 mm long, upper 2 teeth slightly longer, somewhat connate, densely russet pubescent outside, inner hairs silver-gray, longer; Petals white, flag oblate, 4~4.5 mm long, 5~5.5 mm wide, apex slightly concave, base broadly cuneate, petiole 2~2.5 mm long; Wings wedge oblong, 3.5~4 mm long, base one side with a short pointed earlobe, flap stalk 3~3.5 mm long; Keel valves obovate, ca. 3 mm long, base one side with a short pointed earlobe, pedicle 3~3.5 mm long; Stamens concealed, anthers globose, uniform or nearly uniform in size; Ovary subsessile, below hispid. Pod subsickle, 8~11 cm long, densely brown with short tomentose, base with a fruit neck 4~9 mm long; Seeds oblong, about 2 cm long, about 1 cm wide, seed coat purple-brown, thin and crisp, bright. Its flowering period is in June, fruiting from November to December.

 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. Ecological Environment: It grows in the sparse forest or dense forest gully or thicket in the mountains with an altitude of 800~1,700 meters. As a Chinese specialties, it is distributed in Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong provinces.

 Spatholobus suberectus Dunn. Trait identification: Stem flat cylindrical, slightly curved, 2~7 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish brown, the emboli are reddish-brown, there are obvious longitudinal furrows and small punctate lenticels. In the cross-section, the pith is small, laterally sloping, the xylem is reddish, the ducts are irregular, and the phloem has resinous secretions that are reddish-brown or black-brown. The two are arranged in an eccentric semicircle ring. The quality is solid, hard to break, the broken surface is an irregular crack sheet. Light smell, taste astringent.

 Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch. (2).Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch.(Mucuna Adans genus):  It is commonly known as Bái Huā Yóu Má Téng, or Hé Qiǎo Huā. It is a plant of the Mucuna Adans genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Evergreen, large wood vine. The outer skin of the old stem is grayish brown, with reddish-brown cross-section, and there are 3-4 eccentric concentric circles. Young stems longitudinally grooved, lenticels brown, raised, glabrous or internode velveteen. Pinnately compound leaves with 3 lobules, leaves 17~30 cm long; Stipules caducous; Petiole 8~20 cm long; Leaf axis 2~4 cm long; Lobular nearly leathery, apical lobule elliptic, ovate or obovate, slightly is usually long and narrow, 9~16 cm long, 2~6 cm wide, apex gradually point of 1.3~2 cm long, base rounded or slightly cuneate, lateral lobule deflection, 9~16 cm long, glabrous on both sides or scattered hair, lateral veins 3~5, midrib and lateral veins, net vein in two convex; Stipules absent; Petiole 4~8 mm long, with sparse short hairs.

  Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch. Raceme is growing on old branch or in leaf axil, long 20~38 centimeters, have 20~30 flowers, often show fasciculate; Bracts ovate, ca. 2 mm long, caducous; Pedicels 1~1.5 cm long, with sparse or dense dark brown inflorescence; Bracteoles caducous; Calyx inner surface and outer surface densely covered with light brown fuzheng hair, outside by reddish brown off coarse bristles, calyx tube wide cup shape, 1~1.5 cm long, 1.5~2.5 cm wide, 2 side teeth triangular, 5-8 mm long, the lower teeth narrow triangle, 5~15 mm long, upper lip wide triangle, often as long as side teeth; Corolla white or greenish white, flag 3.5~4.5 cm long, apex round, base ear 4 mm, wing lobe 6.2~7.1 cm long, apex round, valve stalk 8 mm long, densely with light brown short hair, ear 5 mm long, keel flap 7.5~8.7 cm long, base flap stalk 7~8 mm long, ear less than 1 mm long, densely with brown short hair; Stamen tube length 5.5~6.5 cm; Ovary densely covered with erect dark brown short hairs.

 Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch. Fruit woody, zone like, 30~45 cm long, 3.5~4.5 cm wide, 1~1.5 cm thick, nearly moniliform, densely covered with reddish-brown short villi, young fruit often covered with reddish-brown exfoliated setae, along the dorsal and abdominal suture with 3~5 mm wide woody narrow wings, longitudinal groove, internal between the seeds with a woody septum, up to 4 mm thick; 5~13 seeds, deep purple-black, nearly kidney-shaped, about 2.8 cm long, about 2 cm wide, 8~10 mm thick, often lustrous, seed umbilicus for the seed circumference of 1/2~3/4. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruiting from June to November.

 Mucuna birdwoodiana Tutch. Ecological Environment: It grows in 800~2,500 meters above sea level in the mountain sun side, roadside, streamside, often climbing trees, shrubs. Produced in Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan and other provinces. It prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to shade and drought, fear of cold.

 Trait identification: Stem dry, cylindrical, slightly curved, ca. 40 cm long, ca. 4.5 cm long, ca. 3 cm short. The surface is grayish brown, the cork flaking is reddish-brown, there are obvious longitudinal groove and transverse lenticels, the node is slightly protruding, sometimes with branch mark. The xylem is reddish-brown, the phloem is a russet to brownish ring, and the phloem is a concentric semicircle of alternate layers of xylem and phloem. When fresh, the ring is also brown with bright red juice outflow, shaped like chicken blood. The juice dried and condensed into bright black colloidal filaments. The quality is firm when broken, the slice splits shape. Light smell, taste astringent. It is better to have a uniform strip, auburn bed in section and exudate.

 Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels. (3).Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels.: It is commonly known as Xiāng Huā Yá Dòu Téng. It is a plant of the Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Woody vine, 2~5 m long; Branchlets hairy or nearly bald. Leaflets 5, leathery, shortly stalked, ovate, rectangular to lanceolate, 4~15 cm long. Apex shortly acuminate and obtuse, base obtuse or rounded, upper bald, back slightly shortly hairy; Stipules small, conical. Panicles terminal, densely covered with brownish yellow fuzz, up to 15 cm. Bracts small, ovate, flowers shortly stipitate, pink, calyx campanulate, ca. 5 mm long. Densely rust-colored fuzz, below-lobed teeth ovate-lanceolate, other ovate. Corolla 12~15 mm long. Flag densely rusted fuzz, it is flowering in August. The pod is circular, 7~12 cm long. 1. 4~2.5 cm. Near a wood, covered with rust-colored fuzz.

 Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels. Seeds flat, round or slightly triangular, ca. 1 cm long. Soil retention for germination. Hypocotyl ca. 4~4.5 cm long, 1~2 mm in diameter, green, pubescent. With 4~5 primary undeveloped leaves, scaly. Leaves odd-pinnate compound with 3 small leaves, middle leaflets larger, ovate, ca. 2 cm long, 1 cm wide, apex acuminate, base rounded, entire, stipitate, hairy glands; Left and right lobules slightly smaller, with short stipitate, pinnately veined, veins protruding on the back. Hypocotyl extremely short, taproots ca. 7~8 cm long, 2 mm in diameter, light brown, lateral roots fine, oblique.

 Millettia dielsiana Harms ex Diels. Ecological Environment: It grows in stone gap, rock edge, forest edge, hillside, shrub and hilly mountain. It is harvested annually. It is native to China, distributed in the central area, Southwest and southeast of China.

 Trait identification: Stem cylindrical, grayish brown, rough, scaly, lenticels elliptic, longitudinally dehiscent. Qualitative hard. The skin of cross-section is light yellow on the outside and the secretion on the inside is dark brown. Light yellow wood, tube hole shape, radial arrangement of the wheel shape; The marrow is small. Light smell, taste light astringent. The herb with rattan stem thick, have palm black resinous content is better.

 Millettia nitida Bent. (4).Millettia nitida Bent.:  It is commonly known as Guāng Yè Yá Dòu Téng. It is a plant of the Millettia Wight et Arn. Genus, the Leguminosae family of the Rosales order. Climbing shrubs. The morphology is similar to that of the above species. The young branches have fine hair, smooth later. Lobules lanceolate or ovate, 5~8 cm long, shiny on both sides. Panicles terminal, 6~10 cm long; Flowers ca. 2 cm long; Calyx campanulate, densely sericulate; Corolla purple, flag outer white, sericulate, base with 2 corpus callosum appendages. The pod is circular, 10~14 cm long, tomentose. 4~5 seeds.

 Millettia nitida Bent. Ecological Environment:It grows at streamside, valley thin forest. It is distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi province of China.

 Trait identification: Dry stem is similar to the above species.


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