Rhizoma Polygonati(Solomonseal Rhizome).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Qi Tonics,herbs for replenishing Qi: also known as Qi-tonifying herbs, an agent or substance that tonifies Qi, used in treating Qi deficiency.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Qi Tonics, herbs for replenishing Qi are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [14] kinds of common TCM herbs, [27] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi are briefly introduced separately:

Rhizoma Polygonati(Solomonseal Rhizome).

 Rhizoma Polygonati Brief Introduction: The herb Rhizoma Polygonati is the steamed and dried rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum Red., Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl., or Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua(family Liliaceae), used (1).to replenish spleen Qi for the treatment of general debility and poor appetite, and (2).to nourish lung Yin for the treatment of chronic dry cough in cases of phthisis. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Polygonati, Solomonseal Rhizome, Huánɡ Jīnɡ.

 ✵Common official herbal classics defined the herb Solomonseal Root(Huánɡ Jīnɡ) as the dry rhizome of the Liliaceae family plant species (1). Polygonatum sibiricum Red., or (2). Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl., or (3). Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Other famous herbal classics also noted several other species of the same family could be used too, including (4). Polygonatum macropodiumTurcz., and (5). Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle. They are plants of the Polygonatum Mill. Genus, the Liliaceae family of the Liliflorae order. These 3 commonly used species and other 2 usable species are introduced as:

 Polygonatum sibiricum Red. (1).Polygonatum sibiricum Red.: The Polygonatum sibiricum Red., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum sibiricum", or "Huáng Jīng". Perennial herbs, 50~90 cm in height, over 1 meter occasionally. Rhizomes traversed, terete, nodules swollen. Impeller produced, no handle, 4~6 pieces per wheel; Leaf blade linear-lanceolate, 8~15 cm long, 4~16 mm wide, apex acuminate and punched.

 Polygonatum sibiricum Red. Flowers are axillary, pendulous, 2~4 flower clusters umbrella, total pedicel length is 1~2 cm, pedicel length is 4~10 mm, base with membranous bracteoles, subulate or lanceolate, with 1 vein. Perianth tubular, white to yellowish, full-length is 9~13 mm, 6 lobes, lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long; Stamens inserted at more than 1/2 of tepals tube, filaments short, 0.5~1 mm long; Ovary length 3 mm, style length 5~7 mm.

 Berry globose, 7~10 mm in diameter, purple and black when ripe. Its flowering period is from May to June, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological environment: The Polygonatum sibiricum Red., grows in the semi-shade of mountain forests, thickets or slopes. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, northwest area, and other provinces of China.

 Polygonatum sibiricum Red. Other names: Chicken-shape ginseng(or JiZhuang Cen, folk names from Gansu, Shaanxi), Ji Tou Qi, Wu Ya Qi(literally it means Chicken-Head Seven, or Crow Seven, folk names from ShaanXi), Huang Ji Cai, Bi Guan Cai(folk names from North-East China), Lao Hu Jiang(literally it means tiger ginger, folk names from Ningxia), Chicken-Head Huangjing(general name).

 Collection: fresh rhizomes will be washed to remove fibrous roots and shoots, laundry 1 or 2 days to the surface slightly dry, yet internal soft, smooth basket with a special cage lightly hit again, remove the outer thin skin and fibrous roots, and soft, knead again while drying side, and so was repeated without hard foam degrees at heart. To be drying to the whole stem, and then rammed the side to bright smoothing top.

 Growth Habit: Huang Jing prefers wet weather conditions, like overcast, cold, fear of drought, poor growth in the dry areas, in the moist environment with shade good growth. In a deep, loose fertile soil, drainage and water better performance the growth good, unsuitable for plant growth in the barren and arid land.

 Trait identification: Rhizome is nodular. One end is thick, disc-like, one end tapering, terete, whole horn slightly like a chicken head, 2.5~11 cm, coarse tip 1~2 cm in diameter, often with short branches, marked stem marks above, round, slightly concave, 2~3 mm in diameter, with dimly visible links around. The thin end is 2.5~4 cm, 5~10 mm in diameter, obvious links, 5~15 mm internode distance, more fibrous roots or fibrous root marks, about 1 mm in diameter. Surface is yellowish-brown, some translucent, with wrinkles; The cylinder has a longitudinal texture. The quality is hard and brittle or slightly flexible, easy to break, cross-section is yellow-white, granular, there is more yellow-brown to bundle small points. Smells slightly, taste slightly sweet.

 Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl. (2).Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl.: The Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum kingianum", or "Diān Huáng Jīng". Perennial herb, up to 1 meter high. Rhizome across, node. Stem erect simple. Leaves 4~6 whorled, linear, 8~13 cm long, 1.5~2 cm wide, apex acuminate and curly, base narrower; Sessile.

 Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl. Flowers 1~3 axillary; Perianth tubular, pale green, 6-lobed. The berries are spherical and ripe orange-red. The flowering period is from April to May.

 Polygonatum kingianum Coll.et Hemsl. Character Identifications: The dried rhizomes are irregularly conical, shaped like the head of a chicken(commonly referred to as "Chicken Head Polygonatum" or "Ji Tou Huang Jing"), or nodular like ginger(commonly referred to as "Ginger Shape Polygonatum" or "Jiang Xing Huang Jing"). Branches are short and thick, 3~10 cm long, 1~3 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-white to yellowish-brown, translucent, all have fine furrowed and slightly uplift the link that shows waveform, on the ground stem mark is disk-shaped, the center is often sunken, root mark show more point-like protuberance, distribute whole or many collect to grow in bulking part. The drier is hard, brittle and flexible. Cross-section is light brown, show semitransparent cutin like or waxy shape and have many yellow and white dots. Odorless, slightly sweet and sticky. It is better to use big lump, yellow color, transparent cross-section, moist quality.

 Ecological environment:The Polygonatum sibiricum Red., grows under damp hillsides or bushes. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in southwest, north, northwest area of China.

 Trait identification: Rhizome hypertrophy, ginger fast shape or beaded shape, straight to 2~4 cm or more, each nodule has obvious stem mark, disc shape, slightly concave, appropriate to 5~8 mm. Fibrous root mark, often prominent, diameter is about 2 mm. The surface is yellow-white to yellow-brown, with obvious links and irregular wrinkles. Solid, more flexible, not easy to break, cross-section yellow-white, flat, granular, many dark vascular bundle small point. Slight smell, sweet taste, sticky.

 Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. (3).Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua.: The Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum cyrtonema", or "Duō Huā Huáng Jīng". Rhizome thickened, often continuous, or agglomerate, thin cylindrical, 1~2 cm in diameter. Stem height: 50~100 cm. Leaves alternate, elliptic/ovate-lanceolate to rectangular, slightly sickle curved, 10~18 cm long, apical.

 Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Inflorescences are axillary, umbrella-shaped, with 2~7 flowers, total pedicels 1~4 cm long, flowers 0.5~1.5 cm, pale flakes small or not present; Perianth yellow-green, connate tubular, 18~25 mm long, 6 lobes, ca. 3 mm long; 6 stamens, filaments inserted nearly one-third of the middle or upper portion of perianth tube, papillate to pubescent, slightly swollen to cystic. Ovary 3~6 mm long, style 12~15 mm long.

 Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. Berries are about 1 cm in diameter and black when ripe.

 Ecological environment:The Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua., grows in the dank and fertile soil beside forests, thickets, and ravines, or cultivated artificially. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China south-central area and the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other provinces.

 Trait identification:Rhizome beaded or massive, slightly cylindrical, 2~3 cm in diameter. Stem marks on each nodule are prominent, disc-shaped, and about 1 cm in diameter. Cylindrical link is obvious, there are many fibrous root mark, diameter is about 1 mm. The surface is yellowish brown with fine wrinkles. Solid, slightly flexible, cross-section surface is granular, with many small points of yellow and brown vascular bundle hash. Smells slightly, taste slightly sweet.

 Polygonatum macropodium Turcz. (4).Polygonatum macropodium Turcz.: The Polygonatum macropodium Turcz., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum macropodium", or "Rè Hé Huáng Jīng". Perennial herb, 30~70 cm high. Rhizome transverse, cylindrical, knotted. Stem erect simple. Leaves alternate, sessile or very short stems above the middle of the stem; Leaf blade broadly elliptic or ovate, 3~8 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, apex obtuse, base is rounded, entire, lower mask dust. Flowers are axillary, total pedicels long 3~6 cm, bearing 4~10 flowers, into cymes.

 Polygonatum macropodium Turcz. Perianth tubular, milky white, apex 6-lobed, lobes obtusely triangular; 6 stamens, inserted in the center of the tepals; Ovary ovoid, with slender white style. Berry globose, black when ripe.

 Its flowering period is May, fruiting period is from June to July.

 Ecological environment:The Polygonatum macropodium Turcz., grows under the forest, hillside grass, trees or on slopes between 400 and 1,500 meters above the sea level. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in north area, and other areas of China.

 Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. Royle. (5).Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle.: The Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle., is a plant of the Liliaceae family and Polygonatum genus, it is commonly known as "Polygonatum cirrhifolium", or "Juǎn Yè Huang Jing". Perennial herb, rhizomes thickened, terete, 1~1.5 cm in diameter, or rhizomes beaded, nodules 1~2 cm in diameter. Stem height: 30~90 cm.

 Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. Royle. The leaves are usually 3~6 per whorl, rarely lower and sparsely lanceolate, thin to striate lanceolate, rarely rectangular and round lanceolate, 4~9 cm long, 2~8 mm wide, apex is punch-shaped or curved into a hook, a side often outer roll.

 Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall. Royle. Inflorescence whorled, usually with 2 flowers, peduncle 3~10 mm long, peduncle 3~8 mm long, overhanging; Bracts hyaline membranous, unveined, 1~2 mm long, located on or at base of pedicel, or absent from bracts; Perianth mauve, 8~11 mm in length, perianth tube middle slightly constricted, splice about 2 mm long; Filament length about 0.8 mm, anther length 2~2.5 mm; Ovary ca. 2.5 mm, style ca. 2 mm. Berry red or fuchsia, 8~9 mm in diameter, with 4~9 seeds.

 Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle., grows in the dank mountain bushes and bushes beside the forest, hillside or grassland, at altitude 2,000~4,000 meters. Geographical distribution: This species is mainly distributed in northwest and southwest areas of China. This species is also distributed in Nepal and northern Pakistan.


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