Radix Astragali(Milkvetch Root).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi.

 TCM Herbs Icon14 Introduction: Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi: also known as Qi-tonifying herbs, an agent or substance that tonifies Qi, used in treating Qi deficiency.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 14 Introduction: The Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [14] kinds of common TCM herbs, [27] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Qi Tonics,Herbs for Replenishing Qi are briefly introduced separately:

 
Radix Astragali(Milkvetch Root).

 Radix Astragali Brief Introduction: The Herb Radix Astragali is the dried root of Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.)Bge., or Astrgalus membranaceus var.mongholicus(Bge.)Hsiao(family Legumonisae), used (1).to replenish Qi for the treatment of general weakness, anorexia and loose stools, prolapse of the uterus or anus, spontaneous sweating, and chronic nephritis with edema and proteinuria, and (2).to dispel pus and accelerate the healing of chronic ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Radix Astragali, Milkvetch Root, Huánɡ Qí.

 ✵Common herbal classics defined the herb Astragalus Root, or the Radix Astragali(Huang Qi) as the dry root of the plant species (1).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. , or (2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.The first one is normally identified as one varietas of the Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. They are plant species of the Astragalus Linn. Genus, the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family of the Rosales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Astragalus membranaceus Fisch.Bge.(1).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.: The Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. , is a plant of the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family and Astragalus L genus, perennial herb, 50~100 cm tall. Main root hypertrophy, woody, often branched, off-white. Stems erect, much-branched at upper, with fine ribs, white pilose. Pinnate with 13~27 leaflets, 5~10 cm long; petiole 0.5~1 cm; stipules free, ovate, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 4~10 mm long, below the white soft Glabrous or glabrous; leaflets elliptic or oblong-ovate, 7~30 mm long, 3~12 mm wide, apex obtuse or slightly concave, with small pointed or inconspicuous, base rounded, upper green, proximal Glabrous, below the vaginal discharge white pilose. Racemes slightly dense, with 10~20 flowers; total pedicels and leaves nearly as long or long, to fruit significantly elongated; bracts linear-lanceolate, 2~5 mm long, abaxially white pilose ; Pedicels 3~4 mm long, slightly brown or black pilose with inflorescences bracteate; 2 bracteoles; calyx campanulate, 5~7 mm long, outside white or black pilose, sometimes calyx tube subglabrous , Calyx teeth hairy, calyx teeth short, triangular to subulate, longer than only 1 / 4-1 / 5 of calyx tube; corolla yellow or yellowish, flag flap obovate, 12~20 mm long, The base has a short handle, the flap is slightly shorter than the flap, the valve oblong, the base with short ears, valve handle about 1.5 times longer than the flap, the keel flap and wing flap nearly equal length, flap semi-oval, Pedicel slightly longer than valves; ovary shank, pilose. Pods thinly membranous, slightly swollen, semi-elliptic, 20~30 mm long, 8~12 mm wide, spiny apical, both sides white or black pubescent, fruit neck beyond the calyx; 3~8 seeds. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological environment:The Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. , grows in the forest edge, thickets or sparse forest, also found in the hillside meadow or meadow, bushwood, sandy land. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China north-central and northwest to southwest provinces Hebei, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, northeast provinces; and cultivated in other provinces too.

 Trait identification:Roots cylindrical, some branched, upper thick, slightly twisted, 30~90 cm long, 0.7~3.5 cm in diameter. The surface is pale-tan to pale-tan, have irregular longitudinal wrinkles and transverse skin holes, emboli are easy to peel off and reveal the yellow and white skin, some visible mesh fiber bundle. Tough, cross-sectional fiber. Smells slightly, taste slightly sweet, there is a bean-fishy taste.

 Astragalus membranaceus Fisch.Bge.var. mongholicus Bge.Hsiao.(2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao.: The Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. is a plant of the Fabaceae(Leguminosae) family and Astragalus L genus, it is normally identified as one varietas of the Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge., and has small differences from it. Perennial herb, 50~100 cm tall. Main root hypertrophy, woody, often branched, off-white. Stems erect, much-branched at upper, with fine ribs, white pilose. Pinnate with 13~27 leaflets, 5~10 cm long; petiole 0.5~1 cm; stipules free, ovate, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 4~10 mm long, below the white soft Glabrous or glabrous; leaflets elliptic or oblong-ovate, 7~30 mm long, 3~12 mm wide, apex obtuse or slightly concave, with small pointed or inconspicuous, base rounded, upper green, proximal Glabrous, below the vaginal discharge white pilose. Racemes slightly dense, with 10~20 flowers; total pedicels and leaves nearly as long or long, to fruit significantly elongated; bracts linear-lanceolate, 2~5 mm long, abaxially white pilose ; Pedicels 3~4 mm long, slightly brown or black pilose with inflorescences bracteate; 2 bracteoles; calyx campanulate, 5~7 mm long, outside white or black pilose, sometimes with calyx tube nearly glabrous , Calyx teeth hairy, calyx teeth short, triangular to subulate, longer than only 1 / 4-1 / 5 of calyx tube; corolla yellow or yellowish, flag flap obovate, 12~20 mm long, The base has a short handle, the flap is slightly shorter than the flap, the valve oblong, the base with short ears, valve handle about 1.5 times longer than the flap, the keel flap and wing flap nearly equal length, flap semi-oval, Pedicel slightly longer than valves; ovary shank, pilose. Pods thinly membranous, slightly swollen, semi-elliptic, 20~30 mm long, 8~12 mm wide, spiny apical, both sides white or black pubescent, fruit neck beyond the calyx; 3~8 seeds. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Ecological environment:The Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. , grows in the sunny grass and wild sunny hillside. Geographical distribution: This species mainly distributed in China provinces of north-west including Hebei and Shanxi, northeast provinces , southwest provinces Xizang, etc.

 Difference between the (1).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. ,and (2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao.: (1).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. ,and (2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. have similar botanical characteristics, the vegetative organs anatomical structure is basically the same, but there are significant differences in seed and seedling morphology, pollen morphology and chromosome karyotype.

 1.Differences in plant morphology: The seedlings of (1).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. is taller and thicker than the (2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao., dense villi surface, under the electron microscope to see epidermal hair surface dense papillae; first to fourth true leaves for the three pinnate, the first 5 True leaves began to appear with 5 leaflets pinnate and gradually increased, mature leaflets up to 13 to 27; leaflets larger, length 7~30 mm, width 3~10 mm; and the (2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. sparse pubescent hair The surface is smooth, the second true leaf is a 5-leaflet pinnate, leaflets as many as 25~37 pieces, leaflet length 5~10 mm, width 3~5 mm.

 2.Pod and seed differences: The pod surface of (1).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge. was attached with black pubescence. The surface of the seed coat was reticulated. The pod of (2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. was glabrous and the ornamentation of the seed coat was crumpled. The seeds of the 2 kinds of Astragalus were observed under the naked eye and light microscope, the morphological differences of the seeds were not obvious. However, under the electron microscope, the morphology of the germinating holes and the microstructure of the umbilical cord and the seed coat of the two kinds of Astragalus were significantly different. The seed of (2).Astragalus membranaceus(Fisch.) Bge.var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao. show a higher rate of hard solid rate, irregular germination, germination peak lag.

 
 

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