Rhizoma Ligustici(Chinese Lovage).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon01 Introduction: Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 02 Introduction: The Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs are known including:, , ,, , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are Totally [14] kinds of common TCM herbs, [26] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs are briefly introduced separately:

Rhizoma Ligustici(Chinese Lovage).

 Ligustrum sinense Oliver Brief Introduction: The Rhizoma Ligustici is the dried rhizome and root of Ligustrum sinense Oliver or Ligustrum jeholense Nakai et Kitagawa(family Umbelliferae), used to relieve pain in the vertex of the head in cases of wind-cold affliction, and rheumatic arthralgia. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Ligustici, Chinese Lovage, Gǎo Běn.

 ✵The herb Rhizoma Ligustici(Chinese Lovage) is the dried rhizome and root of the Ligustrum sinense Oliver or Ligustrum jeholense Nakai et Kitagawa, it is a plant of the Ligusticum L. Genus, the Apiaceae(Umbelliferae) family of the Apiales(Umbellales) order. It is also known as Ligusticum sinense Oliv. Chinese Ligusticum, Jehol Ligusticum, Chinese Ligusticum Rhizome Jehol Ligusticum Rhizome.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Asari(Xì Xīn or Asarum Root) as the dried herb of (1). Ligusticum sinense Oliv.,(2). Ligusticum jeholense(Nakai et Kitag.) Nakai et Kitag. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Ligusticum sinense Oliv. (1).Ligusticum sinense Oliv.: It is also known as Gao Ben. Herbs perennial, up to 1 meter. Rhizome well-developed with swollen nodules. Stem erect, cylindrical, hollow, longitudinally furrowed. Basal leaves with long stalk up to 20 cm long; Leaf blade scalloped broadly triangular, 10~15 cm long, 15~18 cm wide, bicyclic trichome fully lobed, first feather contour oblong-ovate, 6~10 cm long, 5~7 cm wide, lower feather sessile, sessile 3~5 cm long, base slightly enlarged. Ultimate lobes ovate, ca. 3 cm long, ca. 2 cm wide, apex acuminate, margin lobed, margin lobed, both surfaces glabrous, pubescent only on veins, apex pinnacles acuminate to caudate; The middle part of the stem has larger leaves; Stem upper leaves subsessile, base swollen into the ovate-clasped sheath. Compound umbel terminal or lateral; 6~10 involucral bracts, linear to pinnate, ca. 6 mm long; 14~30 spokes, up to 5 cm long, tetraphenous, pubescent; Inflorescences with involucre ca. 10, linear or narrowly lanceolate, 3~4 mm long; Flowers small, calyx toothed; Petals white, obovate, apex slightly concave, with inflexed small tip; 5 stamens; Stylopodium raised, style long, inverted outwards. Fruit oblong-ovate, ca. 4 mm long, 2~2.5 mm wide, apex narrow, dorsal rims protuberant, lateral rims enlarged into wings, tubing 1~3 in dorsal rims, tubing 3 in lateral rims, 4~6 commissures, ventral endosperm flat. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from September to October.

 Ecological environment: under forests, in grass along gully and on wet beach at altitude of 1,000-2,700 meters. Born at 1,250-2,500 meters above sea level under forests, meadows, forest margins, wet gravel slopes, and gullies. Resources distribution: It distributed in Hubei, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and other areas. Distributed in Hubei, Shanxi, and other area.

 Trait identification:ligusous rhizome irregular nodular cylindrical, slightly twisted, slightly branched, 3~-10 cm long. Common brown dark brown surface, rough, longitudinal wrinkles, emboli easy to peel, the upper end has one to several round hole shaped stem base, the lower side has most of the point shape protuberant root trace and residual roots. Light, hard, easily broken, cross-section yellow or yellow-white, fibrous. The smell is fragrant, the taste is pungent, bitter, slight hemp. With a rough, strong quality, the aroma is better.

 Ligusticum jeholense. (2).Ligusticum jeholense(Nakai et Kitag.) Nakai et Kitag.: It is also known as Liao Gao Ben. Herbs perennial, 30~80 cm tall. The rhizome is known; Root conical, bifurcated, surface dark brown. Stem erect, cylindrical, hollow, longitudinally striated, often purplish. Leaves stipitate, basal leaf petiole 19 cm long, 2~3 gyrus trichome pinnate, first lobes 4~6 pairs, last pair with longer stipitate, stipitate 2-5 cm long. Second lobes often sessile; Ultimate lobes ovate to rhomboid ovate, 2~3 cm long, 1~2 cm wide, base cordate to cuneate, margin often 3-5 lobed, lobes dentate, the apex of teeth with small apex or lateral inflorescence, 3~7 cm in diameter. 2 involucral bracts, linear, ca. 1 cm long, hispid, margin narrowly membranous, caducous; Umbrella spoke 8~16, 2~3 cm long; 8~10 involucral bracts, subulate, 3~5 mm long, hispid; Inflorescences umbels with 15~20 flowers; Calyx teeth not conspicuous; Petals white, oblong-obovate, with inflexed utricle; Stylopodium raised, hemispherical, style long, fruiting downward reflexed. Fruit elliptic, 3~4 mm long, 2~2.5 mm wide, fruiting meridional dorsal ridge protruding, lateral ribs narrowly pterygiform, 1 furrow, less than 2, confluent surface 2~4, endosperm ventral flat. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from September to October.

 Trait identification:ligusous rhizome is irregular, clumpy or columnar, 2~10 cm long, 0.5~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is tan, the upper end has the tufted leaf base and the protuberant node, the lower end has the most slender curved root.


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