Introduction of Gui Zhi:Ramulus Cinnamoni or Cassia Twig.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.
Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These pungent-warm exterior-releasing Herbs are briefly introduced separately:
Ramulus Cinnamoni(Cassia Twig).
Pin Yin Name: Guì Zhī.
English Name: Cassia Twig.
Latin Name: Ramulus Cinnamoni.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Ramulus Cinnamoni is the dried young stems of Cinnamomum cassia Presl.(family Lauraceae), used (1).to induce sweating for releasing the muscles in cases of wind-cold affliction, (2).to warm and unblock the meridians to relieve various pains due to cold and congealing blood, and (3).to stimulate menstrual discharge for treating amenorrhea. The herb is commonly known as Ramulus Cinnamoni, Cassia Twig, Guì Zhī.
Botanical source: The Cinnamomum cassia Presl or Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum, is a plant of the Cinnamomum Genus, Lauraceae(laurel family) family of the Laurales order. The species commonly used as Cinnamon herb are known comes from the botanical source of 2 species, include Cinnamomum Cassia Presl., and one of its varieties Cinnamomum cassia Presl var.macrophyllum Chu, the second one is also known as Large Leaf Cassia, or Large Leaf Qinghua Cassia, they are trees of the Lauraceae family and Cinnamomum genus.
(1).Cinnamomum cassia Presl.: Botanical description: The Cinnamomum cassia Presl., is a kind of evergreen tree, grow up to 12~17 meters high. Bark colored gray-brown, fragrant, young branches slightly quadrilateral. Leaves are alternate, leathery; oblong to nearly lanceolate, 8~17 cm long, 3.5~6 cm wide, apex acute, base obtuse, entire, green above, shiny, grayish-green at lower part, pilose; Basal 3 veins, apparently elevated at lower part, veins lateral parallel; petiole stout, length 1~2 cm. Panicle axillary or nearly terminal, 10~19 cm long, pubescent; flowers small, ca. 3 cm in diameter; pedicel ca. 5 mm; floral tube ca. 2 mm, 6 lobes, yellowish green, elliptic, ca. 3 mm, internal and external dense is pubescent; development of 9 stamens, 3 round anthers are oblong, 4 rooms, valve cracking, the outer 2 filaments without glands, anthers inward, the third round of the stamens outward, the base of the filament has 2 glands, there is still a round of staminode, anther heart-shaped; pistil slightly shorter than the stamens, ovary oval, 1 room, 1 ovule, styles are fine, with the ovary several equal lengths, stigma slightly disc-shaped. Berry oval or obovate, apex slightly truncate, dark purple, about 12~13 mm, with persistent perianth outside. Seeds are long oval, purple. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from October to December, or till Feb to March of the next year.
Growth characteristics: The tree is suitable for tropical and south Asian tropical areas with high temperature and high humidity, not bear with cold, it is vulnerable to freeze damage where the temperature is below 0 degrees C in winter. It distributes in southern coastal areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The dry shoots are cylindrical, 15 ~ 100 cm long, 0.8 ~ 1 cm in diameter, brownish-red or purplish brown, with branch marks, leaf marks, bud marks on the surface, and longitudinal ridge, longitudinal grain, and transverse striation. The texture is hard and brittle, easy to break, the cross-section is not flat, but has a brownish-red edge, the center color is darker. The thick branches are yellow-white in the cross-section. The smell is fresh and aromatic, the taste is sweet and light pungent. The young, brownish-red, and fragrant herb is better.
Pharmacological actions: The decoction of cassia twig has an antipyretic effect, and has an inhibitory effect on staphylococcus aureus, typhoid bacillus, dermatophytes, influenza virus, and orphan virus. Cinnamaldehyde has sedative, analgesic, anti-convulsion, anti-tumor effects. Cinnamon oil has cough relieving, diuretic, cardio tonic effect, strengthening the stomach, and inhibit tubercle bacillus.
Medicinal efficacy: Expelling pathogenic factors from muscles and skin by perspiration, warming and activating meridian, activating Yang and activate Qi, indicated for exterior syndrome due to wind-cold, aching pain in shoulder back and artus, thoracic obstruction, phlegm and retained fluid, amenia(menischesis), abdominal mass, etc.
Administration of Cassia Twig(Guì Zhī):
Administration Guide of Cassia Twig(Gui Zhi)
Internally:3~9 grams(CP), or water decoction, 0.5~2 qian(about 1.5~6 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM), or water decoction, 1.5~6 grams, big dosage could be 15~30 grams; grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).
(2).Cinnamomum cassia BL．var．macrophyllum Chu．var．nov.: Botanical description: The Cinnamomum cassia BL．var．macrophyllum Chu．var．nov. is also known as Large Leaf Cassia, or Large Leaf Qinghua Cassia, it is a species of the lauraceae family, and a varieties of the Cinnamomum cassia Presl., a kind of evergreen trees, 12~17 meters high, the whole plant has an aroma. Bark colored gray-brown, young branches slightly quadrangular; leaves are alternate, shiny, tender leaves are purple, dark green on the back of old leaves; panicle axillary or terminal, flowers are small, yellow-green; berry oval, green when it is not mature, turns black purple when ripe. Its flowering period is from June to July, the fruiting period is from February to March of the next year.
Growth characteristics: It is cultivated in hilly or sloping mountains, and has a large area of cultivation in Guangdong, Guangxi and other places in China, with the largest yield in Guangxi.
Characters of herbs: The herb is similar to the twig of Cinnamomum cassia Presl in character.
1.Introduction of Gui Zhi:Ramulus Cinnamoni or Cassia Twig.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).