Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon01 Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 02 Introduction: The pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs are known including:, , ,, , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [14] kinds of common TCM herbs, [26] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These pungent-warm exterior-releasing Herbs are briefly introduced separately:

Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit).

 Siberian Cocklebur Fruit Brief Introduction: The herb Fructus Xanthii is the dried ripe fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.(family Compositae), used to disperse wind, eliminate damp, relieve nasal congestion and alleviate pain for the treatment of wind-cold affliction of a stuffy nose, rhinitis, nasosinusitis, urticaria with pruritus, and rheumatism.

 ✵The herb Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit) is the dried ripe fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patrin, it is a plant of the Xanthium L. genus, the Compositae family of the Campanulales order. It is also known as Siberian Cocklour Fruit, Fruit of Siberian Cocklebur, Fructus Xanthii, or Cānɡ ěr Zǐ.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Xanthii(Siberian Cocklebur Fruit, or Cānɡ ěr Zǐ) as the dried ripe fruit of:(1). Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder, (2). Xanthium mongolicum Kitag. They are plants of the Xanthium L. genus, the Compositae family of the Campanulales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder. (1).Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder.: Annual herbs, 20~90 cm high. Roots are spindle-shaped, branched or unbranched. Stem erect unbranched or rarely branched, lower cylindric, upper longitudinally furrowed, gray with strigose hairs. Leaves alternate; It has a long stalk, 3~11 cm long; Leaf blade triangular-ovate or epicardial, 4~9 cm long, 5~10 cm wide, entire, or 3~5 inconspicuously lobed, first acute or obtuse, base 3-veined, above the green, below pale, scabrous or short white pubescent. Inflorescence nearly sessile, aggregated, unisexual; Male inflorescence globose, involucral bracts, involucral bracts small, 1 row, densely puberulent, receptacle columnar, receptacle inverted, florets tubular, apex 5-dentate, 5 stamens, anthers oblong-linear; Female inflorescence ovate, involucral bracts 2-3 rows, outer bracts small, inner bracts large, saccate ovate, 2-loculate hard, outside with barbed hairs, apex with 2 conical tips, florets 2, ovary within involucre, each loculus with 1 flower, style linear, protruding outside involucre. Involucral bracts with mature achene become firm, ovate or elliptic, margin with beak 12~15 mm long, 4~7 mm wide, green, yellowish or reddish-brown, beak 1.5~2.5 mm long, 2 achenes, obovate, achene containing 1 seed. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from September to October.

 Xanthium sibiricum Patrin.ex Widder. Ecological environment: the plant grow in plains, hills, low mountains, wilderness, roadside, ditches, fields, grasslands, villages, etc. It is distributed throughout areas of China.

 Trait identification: Fruit enveloped in involucre, fusiform or ovoid, 1~1.5 cm long, 0.4~0.7 cm in diameter. Surface yellowish-brown or yellowish-green, all with hooked spines, apex with 2 coarser spines, detached or connate, base bearing sessile marks. Hard and tough, cross-section with a septum, 2 cells, 1 achene each. Achene slightly fusiform, one side flatter, apex with a raised stylopodium, pericarp thin, grayish-black, longitudinally striated. Seed coat membranous, light gray, longitudinally striated; 2 cotyledons, oily. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste. With grain big, full, color yellow-brown is preferred.

 Xanthium mongolicum Kitag. (2).Xanthium mongolicum Kitag.: This species is distinguished from xanthium by an isolated achene involucre elliptic, with a beak 18~20 mm long, 8~10 mm wide, with a relatively sparse involucre spine outside, a hard involucre spine 2~5.5 mm (usually 5 mm) long, thickened at the base.

 Ecological environment: It grows on arid hillsides or sandy wasteland. It is distributed in north area of China.


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