Introduction of Zi Si Ye:Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-Warm Exterior-releasing Herbs.
Introduction: Pungent-warm exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and warm in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-cold exterior syndrome.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These pungent-warm exterior-releasing Herbs are briefly introduced separately:
Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf).
Pin Yin Name: Zǐ Sū Yè.
English Name: Perilla Leaf.
Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent.
Brief introduction: The herb Folium Perillae is the dried leaf of Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt.(family Labiatae), used (1).to induce sweating for treating wind-cold affliction, (2).to arrest vomiting, and (3) as an antidote for fish and crab poisoning. The herb is commonly known as Perilla Leaf, Purple Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè.
Botanical source: The herb Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf) is the dry leaf of the Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., it is a plant of the Perilla L. genus, the Lamiaceae or Labiatae(the mint or deadnettle family) family of the Lamiales order.
Common official herbal classics defined the herb Folium Perillae(Perilla Leaf, Zǐ Sū Yè) as the dry leaf of (1).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dry leaf of species of the same family:(1).Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt., (2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.: Botanical description: The plant is also known as Perilla frutescens(L.) Britt. Var.crispa (Thumb.) Hand.-Mand.-Mazz. Annual herbs, 30~200 cm tall. It has a special fragrance. Stem erect, much-branched, purple, greenish-purple or green, obtuse tetraphenous, densely villous. Leaves opposite; Petiole 3~5 cm long, purplish-red or green, covered with long serrate hairs; Leaf blade broadly ovate, round or oval, triangle, oval 4~13 cm long, 2.5~10 cm wide, apex acuminate or acuminate, sometimes in short caudate, base is rounded or broadly cuneate, margin coarsely serrate, sometimes serrate deep or shallow crack, purple or purple at lower part, only both sides are sparse hairs, along the veins of relatively dense, the leaf has a fine point oil glands; Lateral veins 7-8 pairs, lower slightly proximate, obliquely ascending. Inflorescences rosette, 2-flowered to one side into pseudo-racemes, terminal and axillary, inflorescence densely villous; Bracts ovate, ovate-triangular or lanceolate, entire, ciliate, glandular, margin membranous; Pedicels 1~1.5 mm long, densely pilose; Calyx campanulate, ca. 3 mm long, 10 veined, outer densely pilose and with yellow glandular points, apical 5 teeth, 2 lips, upper lip broad, 3 teeth, lower lip has 2 teeth, sometimes is enlarged, base saccate; Corolla lip, 3~4 mm long, white or purplish red, corolla tube with hair rings, outside pilose, upper lip slightly concave, lower lip 3-lobed, lobes are nearly round, middle lobes are larger; 4 stamens, 2-strong, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, scarcely extending out of the corolla, anthers 2-locule; Disk distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary 4-lobed, style subbasal, stigma 2-locule; Disk distended anterior; 1 pistil, ovary 4-lobed, style basal, stigma 2-lobed. Nutlets subglobose, grayish-brown or brown, 1~1.3 mm in diameter, reticulated, calyx ca. 10 mm. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.
Ecological environment and distribution: this species grows in the mountain, roadside, village edge, or wasteland, also cultivated. Resource distribution: The plant distributes in east, south, northwest, north, southwest, Taiwan, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant likes warm, humid climate, it grows vigorously in the sunny environment, high yield. The loose, fertile, irrigation, and drainage convenient soil is appropriate for cultivation.
Characters of herbs: the leaves of purple perilla are wrinkled, curly and broken. The whole leaves are oval when flattened, 4~11 cm long and 2.5~9 cm wide. Apex long or acute, base is rounded or broadly cuneate, margin is rounded serrate. Both surfaces are purplish or green on the upper surface, purplish on the lower surface, sparsely grayish hairy, with mostly concave punctate glandular scales on the lower surface. Petiole 2~5 cm long, purple or purplish green. Very brittle. Stagnant twigs, 2~5 mm in diameter, purple-green, midsection pith. It is fresh and slightly pungent. The herb with leaves intact, the color purple, the aroma is good.
Pharmacological actions: ①.Antimicrobial activity: Aqueous extracts, water extracts and ethanol extracts of Perilla leaves have inhibitory effects on Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus hominis, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. ②.Effect on the gastrointestinal tract: Perilla leaf water decoction by gavage can ameliorate the injury of the small intestinal mucosa of rats. Perilla ketone can promote small intestine peristalsis. ③.Effects on the coagulation system: Perilla leaf injection shrank the caliber of the mesenteric arteriole in toads. Both tannic Perilla and cationic Perilla induced microvasoconstriction in mice, which was not blocked by alpha-receptor blockers. However, Perilla injection can prolong the clotting time of rats and rabbits in vitro, and its mechanism may be related to inhibition of platelet function.
Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate cold and relieve the exterior syndrome, promoting the circulation of QI, reduce phlegm, miscarriage prevention, detoxification poison of fish and crab, indicated for exterior syndrome of wind-cold, cough with much phlegm, fullness in the chest and gastral cavity, nausea and vomit, abdominal pain and throw up or diarrhea, unharmonized of fetus Qi(nausea, vomiting, and edema of legs during pregnancy), hyperemesis gravidarum, food poisoning of fish and crab.
Administration of Folium Perillae(Zǐ Sū Yè):
Administration Guide of Folium Perillae(Zǐ Sū Yè)
Internally:5~9 grams(CP), or 2~3 qian(about 6~9 grams), water decoction,Externally:mashed and apply stick or wash with water decoction(DCTM), or water decoction, 5~10 grams, Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply stick, grinded into fine powder and smear, or wash with water decoction(CHMM), or 5~10 grams, water decoction(do not be over-boiled), up to 30~60 grams for poison of fish and crab;Externally:mashed and apply, grinded into fine powder and apply, or wash with water decoction.
Pin Yin Name: Yě Zǐ Sū Yè.
English Name: Wild Perilla Leaf.
Latin Name: Folium Perillae.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent.
(2).Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt.var.acuta(Thunb.) Kudo.: Botanical description: The plant is also known as wild Perilla. This variety is distinguished from perilla by the fact that the calyx is small, 4~5.5 mm long, sparsely pilose at lower part, glandular; Stem pubescent; Leaves smaller, ovate, 4.5~7.5 cm long, 2.8~5 cm wide, sparsely pilose on both sides. Nuts small, khaki, 1~1.5 mm in diameter. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to September.
Characters of herbs: the whole leaves of the wild purple perilla were oval after flattening, 4~7 cm long and 2.5~5 cm wide. Leaves are green, dark green or purplish on both surfaces, margin rounded serrate. The herb with leaves intact, color purple, smell aromatic is good.
1.Introduction of Zi Si Ye:Folium Perillae or Perilla Leaf.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).