TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Purgatives Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon16 Introduction: Purgatives herbs: an agent or substance herbs that promotes defecation or even causes diarrhea, not only for relieving constipation, but also for driving stagnant matter, excessive heat and retained fluid out of the body.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 17 Introduction: The purgatives herbs are known including:, , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [5] kinds of common TCM herbs, [12] kinds of related plant species, [2] kinds of related insect species, are recorded in this category. These purgatives herbs are briefly introduced separately:


 Honey Brief Introduction: The herb Mel is a saccharine fluid made by the hive-bee, Apis cerana Fabr., or Apis mellifera L.(family Apidae), used as an antitussive for dry cough, and as an aperient for constipation of the aged people. The herb is commonly known as Mel, Honey, Fēnɡ Mì.

 ✵The common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Mel(Honey) as the saccharine fluid made by the hive-bee species (1).Apis cerana Fabr., or (2).Apis mellifera L. They are small insects of Apis genus, the Apidae family of the Hymenoptera order. These 2 commonly origin species are introduced as:

 Apis cerana Fabr. (1).Apis cerana Fabr.: It is commonly known as Zhōng Huá Mì Fēng, or Chinese Honey Bee. The abdomen color of Apis cerana Fabr(Chinese Honey Bee) workers varies with different regions, some are yellow, some are dark; Kiss length averages 5 mm. Queen bee has two body colors: one type is that the abdomen has a distinct brown ring, the whole abdomen is dark brown; In the other, the ventral segment has no distinct yellowish brown ring and the entire abdomen is black. Drones are usually black. The southern bee species are generally smaller than those in the north, with the body length of worker bees ranging from 10~13 mm, male bees ranging from 11~13.5 mm, and queen bees ranging from 13~16 mm.

 Apis cerana Fabr. Habits: Apis cerana Fabr(Chinese Honey Bee) fly quickly and have a keen sense of smell. They leave the nest early and return to the nest late. They spend 2~3 hours more than Italian bees every day to collect honey. New spleen, spleen ability strong, like love chew old spleen, resistance to bee mites and America larva putrid disease is strong, but susceptible to bee larvae cystic disease, susceptible to wax moth, like the journey, in the lack of honey diseases or attack from enemy threat especially easy to abandon nest and moved, prone to natural swarming and stealing bees, no gum, ability to secrete royal jelly not strong, a small group of potential.

 Apis cerana Fabr. Bees are social insects that live in groups of one queen, numerous worker bees (all females), and a few drones. The three types are different in shape, physiological function and productive function. The queen bee specializes in reproduction and egg-laying; The male bee specialized department and the queen bee (female bee) production match, insemination, after mating good dies; The functions of worker bees include nesting, collecting feed, feeding larvae, queen bee, cleaning the nest and adjusting the nest temperature. In terms of cold resistance and heat resistance, dense bees show the power of cluster activities and take nectar and pollen of plants as the staple food.

 Apis cerana Fabr. The Chinese honeybee originally refers to a subspecies of Oriental honeybee(Apis cerana Fabricius), but there may be more than one subspecies of Oriental honeybee are distributed in China. Given the undetermined subspecies classification of Oriental honeybee in China, Oriental honeybee in China is temporarily called Chinese Honey Bee. Chinese honeybee is a native characteristic species of China, which is very adapted to the natural environment in mountainous areas of China.

 Apis cerana Fabr. Ecological environment: In China, the honeybee is distributed in 30 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities from the southeast coast to the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The distribution of Chinese bee is found in the northern line to the lesser Xingan mountains, in the northwest to wuwei of Gansu province, ledu of Qinghai province, and in the deep mountains in Xinjiang. Southwest line to the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung zangbo river motuo, telamu, south to Hainan province, east to Taiwan. The concentrated distribution area is in the southwest and the south of the Yangtze river, with Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hubei, Anhui, Jiangxi and other provinces having the largest number. China has more than 2 million colonies in artificial breeding, accounting for about a third of the country's Honeybee population.

 Apis cerana Fabr. Trait identification: This product is translucent, with luster, thick liquid, white to light yellow or orange to a yellow-brown, long time or cold gradually white granular crystal precipitation. The smell is fragrant and the taste is extremely sweet.

 Apis cerana Fabr. Chemical constituents: Glucose and fructose are the most important sugars in honeycombs. It also contains sucrose, dextrin, organic acid, protein, volatile oil, wax, pollen grain, vitamin B1, B2, B6, C, K, H, amylase, transhuman enzyme, peroxidase, esterase, growth stimulant, acetylcholine, nicotinic acid, pantothenate, beta carotene, inorganic element calcium, sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iodine, etc.

 Apis mellifera L. (2).Apis mellifera L.: It is commonly known as Yì Dà Lì Mì Fēng, or Apis mellifera Ligustica Spinola, Italian Honey Bee. Individuals are slightly smaller than European black bees. Abdomen is slender, web chitin is yellow. The leading edge of the 2nd~4th segment of the backplate of the abdomen of worker bee has a yellow band. The light color of the Italian bee often has a small yellow shield, especially the light color of the Italian bee only in the abdomen end has a brown spot, known as the golden bee. The nap is light yellow. Worker bees have longer beaks, averaging 6.5 mm. The villi on the back of section 4 of the abdomen were medium in width, averaging 0.9 mm. The upper coat on the 5th backplate of the abdomen is short, with an average length of 0.3 mm; The elbow-pulse index is moderate, averaging 2.3.

 Apis mellifera L. After the queen bee starts to lay eggs in early spring, its spawning amount is not affected by climate, honey source, and other natural conditions. Even in the hot summer and the late autumn when the temperature is low, it can maintain a large area of spawning area. Weak bees, easy to maintain large groups. The ability to collect a large amount of nectar is strong, but the ability to use scattered nectar powder is poor. The collection of pollen is large. In summer and autumn, more gum is collected. Good ability to make spleen by wax. The ability to secrete royal jelly is stronger than that of any other bee species. Feed consumption is large when the honey source is poor, easy to appear in the food shortage phenomenon. Gentle temperament, not afraid of light, open the box inspection is very quiet. Strong directional force, not easy to confuse nest, strong theft. Clear nest habit is strong. Overwintering in the form of a strong group, overwintering feed consumption is large, in the cold area overwintering performance is poor. Weak disease resistance, easy to be infected with American larval disease, paralysis, spore disease, and chalky disease; Anti-mite force is weak, easy to suffer mite damage. The ability to resist nestlings is weak. Honeycomb-capping is dry or intermediate.

 Apis mellifera L. Origin and habitat: Italian bee is short. Native to Italy's Apennines peninsula, is a typical Mediterranean climate and ecological environment products. It is believed that the Italian bee was formed by natural interbreeding between the original European black bee on the Apennines peninsula and the imported Cyprus bee. The climate and nectar source conditions of the Apennines peninsula are characterized by short, warm and wet winter; Summer is hot and dry, nectar plant is rich, the flowering period is long. Italian honeybee can show good economic characters under similar natural conditions. But in the long and cold winter, or spring, cold wave often attacks the place, the adaptability is poor.

 Italian bees are a product of the Mediterranean climate. The Mediterranean region has a mild, wet and short winter, and a long and dry summer. It has been proved that the Italian bee is a very good species in similar climate conditions. But it is difficult to adapt to areas with long winters and more variable weather in early spring. For more than a hundred years, it has been introduced to the northern Alps of Europe, but it has not been well established.

 The ability of Italian bee to produce honey and royal jelly is strong, which is an ideal variety for producing both honey pulp and pollen, and can also be used for propolis production. Because of this, the breeding range of Italian bee has already gone far beyond the place of origin and become a popular worldwide species.

 Apis mellifera L. Ecological environment: Italian bees play a very important role in the production of beekeeping in China. They are widely raised in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, north, northwest areas of China. It is also suitable for chasing flowers to capture honey, follow the use of south and north four seasons of the source of honey powder. In the flowering stage of rapeseed, violet, Chinese gooseberry, linden, litchi, tallow, and other major nectar sources, it is common to see a group producing more than 5 kg of honey per day and a group producing more than 50 kg of honey per day. It's pulping performance is the best among all bee varieties. The selected excellent strain can produce 5~7 kg of royal jelly annually. It is also suitable for producing bee pollen, propolis, bee pupa, and bee venom.

 Trait identification: This product is translucent, with luster, thick liquid, white to light yellow or orange to a yellow-brown, long time or cold gradually white granular crystal precipitation. The smell is fragrant and the taste is extremely sweet.

 Chemical constituents: Glucose and fructose produced in the hive, mainly glucose and fructose; It also contains a small amount of sugar, dextrin, organic acid, protein, volatile oils, waxes, vitamin B1, B2, B6, C, K, H, amylase, invertase, peroxidase, esterase, alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase(alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase), acetylcholine, growth stimulant, pantothenic acid, niacin, beta carotene, pollen, and calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iodine and other elements.


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