Introduction of Sheng Ma:Rhizoma Cimicifuga or Largetrifoliolious Bugbane Rhizome.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Pungent-cool Exterior-releasing Herbs.
Introduction: Pungent-cool exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and cool in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-heat exterior syndrome.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species,  kind of insect species, are recorded in this category. These pungent-cool exterior-releasing herbs are briefly introduced separately:
Pin Yin Name: Shēng Má.
English Name: Skunk Bugbane Rhizome.
Latin Name: Rhizoma Cimicifugae.
Property and flavor: light cold, light sweer, pungent.
Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Cimicifuga is the dried rhizome of Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom., Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.)Maxim., or Cimicifuga foetida L.(family Ranunculaceae), used (1).to promote eruption in the treatment of measles, (2).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating sore throat and stomatitis, and (3).to restore the normal position of the viscera in cases of splanchnoptosis. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Cimicifuga, Largetrifoliolious Bugbane Rhizome, Shēnɡ Má.
Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Cimicifuga is the dried rhizome of the species (1). Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom., (2). Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.)Maxim., or (3). Cimicifuga foetida L., they are plants of the Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family of the Ranunculales order.
(1).Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom.: Botanical description: The Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom., is commonly known as "Da San Ye Sheng Ma", or "Big Triple Leaves Cimicifuga", is a plant of the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family and Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, perennial herb, 1 meter high or higher. Rhizome is rough, the surface is black, there are many cave-shaped cave old stem remnants. Stems erect, glabrous, lower stem leaves ca. 2 × 3 × compound leaves, glabrous; petiole up to 20 cm, glabrous; terminal leaflets obovate or obovate-elliptic, 6~12 cm long, 4~9 cm wide, apex 3-lobed, base rounded, rounded wedge-shaped or slightly heart-shaped, margin coarsely articulate, lateral leaflets obliquely ovate, smaller than terminal leaflets, glabrous or sparsely white pilose along veins below; For a back three out of the leaves. Complex racemes with 2-9 branches; inflorescences and pedicels grayish trichomes and pilose; bracts subulate, ca. 1 mm; pedicels 2~4 mm long; bisexual; 5 sepals, petaloid, yellowish white, Obovate or broadly elliptic, 3-4 mm long, caducous; petals are free; staminode elliptic, 2.5-4 mm long, 1.6-2 mm wide, apex entire; stamens numerous, filamentous, long 3~6 mm; 3~5 carpels, with short stalk, glabrous. Fruit oblong, 5~6 mm long, 3~4 mm wide, fruit stalk length of about 1 mm. Seeds oval, about 3 mm, surrounded by membranous lepidoptera. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to October.
Growth characteristics: The plant grows in the mountains and wild grass and gully, bushes. It mainly distributes in the north area of China.
Characters of herbs: The shape is similar to that of Bei Sheng Ma(Dahurian Bugbane Rhizome) but slightly larger with few differences, 1.5~2 cm in diameter. The rhizome has several deep circular cavities up to 2 cm in diameter. It is hard and light, the fracture surface is with yellowish-white flaky sections, large cavities, and radial grooves spread in the fracture sections of the cave walls. No smell, slightly bitter taste. The herb which size is large, neat, black cortex, without thin fiber roots, fracture surface is gray is preferred.
(2).Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.)Maxim.: Botanical description: The Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.) Maxim., is also known as Actaea dahurica Turcz.ex Fisch.et Mey., it is commonly known as "Xing An Sheng Ma", or "Dahurian Bugbane Rhizome", it is a plant of the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family and Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, perennial herb, up to 1 meter high. Rhizome stout, more curved, black surface, there are many cave-shaped cave old stem remnants. Stem erect, glabrous or slightly hairy. Lower cauline leaves of two to three back to the leaves; petiole up to 17 cm; terminal leaflets wide rhombus, 5~10 cm long, 3.5~9 cm wide, 3-lobed, basal tiny heart-shaped or round, irregular edges serrate, lateral leaflets oblong-ovate, slightly oblique, margin irregularly serrate, glabrous at above part, veined along pubescent; pubescent upper leaves resembling lower leaves, but smaller, with short-stalked. Complex racemes; flowers unisexual, dioecious, male inflorescence large, up to 30 cm, 7~20 branches, female inflorescence slightly smaller, less branched; inflorescences and pedicel gray glandular hairy and 5 pubescent sepals, petaloid, white, broadly elliptic or broadly obovate, 3~3.5 mm long, caducous; petals absent; degenerated stamen forked 2-lobed, with 1 empty anther at each end; stamens major, filamentous, 4~5 mm long, anther ca. 1 mm; 4~7 carpels, sparsely gray pilose or subglabrous, sessile or shortly stalked. fruit, length 7~8 mm, width 4 mm, apex with appressed white pilose, stalk length 1~2 mm. Seeds oval, about 3 mm, brown, membranous lepidoptera around, the central horizontal lepwing. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from August to September.
Growth characteristics: The plant grows in the hillside and shady place, in the mountain forest margin, forest, or mountain slope grassland at an altitude of 300-1200 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the north, southwest, middle reaches area of the Yangtze river, etc.
Characters of herbs: The herb is irregular lumps, much divided into nodules, 9~18 cm long and 1~1.5 cm in diameter. The surface is dark brown, rough, and uneven, with dense round hollow stem base mark on the surface, the inner wall of the hole shows a reticulated pattern, around the residual fine roots, the quality is hard and needle-holding hand, uneven at the lower side, with fine root mark. The body is light and hard, not easy to break, fracture surface is uneven, fiber, light green. Smell slightly, taste slightly bitter and astringent. The herb which is hypertrophy, skin black-brown, no fine roots, fracture surface is slight green is preferred.
(3).Cimicifuga foetida L.: Botanical description: The Cimicifuga foetida L., is also known as Actaea cimicifuga L., it is commonly known as "Sheng Ma", a plant of the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family and Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, perennial herb, 1~2 meters high. Rhizome sturdy, solid, black surface, there are many invaginated cave facade old stalk remnants. Stem is erect, branches branched, pubescent. Leaves two to three times three pinnately compound leaves; petiole up to 15 cm; stems of the top leaflets of the lower leaves with long handle, rhombus, length 7~10 cm, width 4~7 cm, often 3-lobed, margin serrate, side leaflets are short-stemmed or sessile, obliquely ovate, slightly smaller than the terminal leaflets, serrate margin, glabrous above, sparsely white pilose along veins at below part. Complex racemes with 3~20 branches, up to 45 cm, the lower branch is up to 15 cm; inflorescence axis densely gray or rusty glandular hairy and pubescent; bracts subulate, shorter than pedicels; flowers bisexual; 5 sepals, petaloid, obovate-orbicular, white or greenish white, 3-4 mm long, caducous; petals are free; staminode broadly elliptic, ca. 3 mm, apex dimpled or 2-lobed; 4~7 mm; 2~5 carpels, densely gray pilose, sessile or stalked. Fruit shape is oblong ball, long 8~14 mm, width 2.5~5 mm, densely appressed pilose, stalk length is 2~3 mm, short beak. Seeds are oval, brown, long 2.5~3 mm, surrounded by membranous lepidoptera. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting in October.
Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and humid climate and often grows under the forest, in the grass on the hillside, at the edge of the forest, in the forest, or the grass along the road at the altitude of 1700~2300 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the southwest, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, north, northwest, the middle reaches of the Yellow River, and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The rhizome is irregular long square, branching and curved, nodular, unequal and thickness. The surface is dark brown or tan brown, coarse and uneven, several ball-point pen shape cavity spread on the surface, the inner wall around the cavity has a reticulated pattern, there is no clean fine fiber root around, quality is firm and needle-holding hand. The lower side looks like fresh ginger, uneven, there are many fibrous root marks. It is light, the texture is hard, and not easily broken. The fracture surface is uneven, fissures, fibrous, yellowish-green, or yellowish-white. Smells slightly, taste slightly bitter and astringent.
Pharmacological actions: The extract of Cimicifuga foetida rhizome has antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolysis effect, its water decoction has analgesic, sedative, anti-convulsive, and other effects. Its crude herb and charcoal herb can shorten the coagulation time and inhibit some bacteria and fungi.
Medicinal efficacy: Inducing perspiration and prompt eruption, clear heat and detoxification, elevating Yang, it is mainly indicated for the treatment of wind-heat headache, toothache, oral ulcer, sore throat, measles without adequate eruption, Yang toxic maculae, rectocele, uterine prolapse, etc.
Administration of Rhizoma Cimicifugae(Shēng Má):
Administration Guide of Rhizoma Cimicifugae(Shēng Má)
Internally:3~9 grams(CP), or water decoction,0.5~3 qian(about 1.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: grinded into powder and apply stick, mouthwash with water decoction or drip washing(DCTM), or water decoction, for elevating Yang,3~6 grams, better prepare with honey, fried with wine, for clearing heat and detoxification, could be up to 15 grams, better use raw herb; or prepare into pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, grinded into fine power and apply stick, mouthwash with water decoction, or drip washing(CHMM). To prompt eruption, detoxification better use prepared herb, to elevate Yang and reinforce Yang better use the raw herb.
1.Introduction of Sheng Ma:Rhizoma Cimicifuga or Largetrifoliolious Bugbane Rhizome.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).