Introduction of Cao Guo:Tsaoko or Fructus Tsaoko.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Fragrant Odor for Resolving Dampness Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon08 Introduction: Fragrant Odor for Resolving Dampness Herbs: a fragrant agent or substance herbs effective for resolving damp, often used in the treatment of damp syndrome marked by anorexia, lassitude, nausea and vomiting, distension in the chest and abdomen, greasy tongue coating and slippery pulse either in cases of febrile diseases or in other miscellaneous diseases.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 08 Introduction: The Fragrant Odor for Resolving Dampness Herbs are known including:, , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [9] kinds of common TCM herbs, [12] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These fragrant odor herbs for resolving dampness are briefly introduced separately:

 
Fructus Tsaoko(Tsaoko,Caoguo).

Fructus Tsaoko Pin Yin Name: Cǎo Guǒ.
 English Name: Tsaoko,Caoguo.
 Latin Name: Fructus Tsaoko.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Tsaoko is the dried ripe fruit of Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire(family Zingiberaceae), used (1).to remove dampness and warm the stomach in cases of epigastric distension, vomiting and abdominal pain, and (2).for treating malaria. The herb is commonly known as Tsaoko Amomum Fruit, Fructus Tsaoko, Caoguo, Cǎo Guǒ.

 Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire. Botanical source: Common famous herbal classics and official herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Tsaoko(Tsaoko, Caoguo) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1). Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire, it is a plant of the Amomum Genus, the Zingiberaceae family, the Zingiberales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

 Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire. (1).Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire.:
 Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Amomum hongtsaoko C.F.Liang et D.Fang, Amomum guixiense D.Fang, or Cǎo Guǒ. Perennial herbs, 2~2.5 meters tall. The whole plant has a pungent smell. Stem base swelled, up to 6 cm in diameter. Leaves 2 rows, 11~14, petiolate, or upper leaves short; Leaf tongue purplish, 1~2 cm long, membranous, sparsely pilose; Leaf-sheath striate, leaf tongue and leaf sheath margin subleathery; Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate to ovate, 20~83 cm long, 5~19 cm wide, apex long acuminate, base cuneate, entire, glabrous on both surfaces. Scape arising from stem base, long acuminate, base cuneate, entire, glabrous on both sides. Scape from stem base, 13~28 cm long; Pedicels 4~13 cm long; Scales broadly ovate, 1~8 cm long; Spikes 9~15 cm long; Bracts reddish, oblong, 3.3~4 cm long, 7~9 mm wide, sparsely pubescent; Bracteoles tubular, 1.7~2 cm long, 2-lobed; Externally sparsely pubescent; Flowers pale orange, 5.5~7 cm long; Florets no longer than 5 mm; Calyx 2.3~3 cm long, 3-dentate, lobed on one side, subglabrous or sparsely pubescent; Corolla tube 2.5~2.8 cm long, pubescent, lobes oblong, ca. 2.3 cm long, ca. 6 mm wide, posterior pocket, ca. 2.5 cm long, ca. 1.5 cm wide. Labellum oblong-obovate, 3~3.5 cm long, 1.6 cm wide, margin wrinkled, with a red stripe on each side of midrib; Stamens 2~2.5 cm long, filaments 1 cm long, anthers 1.3~1.5 cm long, septum appendages 5 mm long, with gnarled teeth. Style sparsely pubescent, stigma funnelform; Ovary glabrous. Capsule dark purple at maturity, subglobose, 2.5~4.5 cm long, 2~2.5 cm in diameter, olive-shaped when dry, dark brown, apex with remnant perianth tube, base with a short stalk. Most seeds. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting period is from August to September.

 Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire. Ecological environment: the plant grows in the forest at the edge of the ravine. Resource distribution: It distributes in the Zhujiang river area, mainly in Guangxi and southern Yunnan of China.

 Cultivation biological characteristics: the plant prefers a warm and humid climate, afraid of heat, drought and frost. At an altitude of 1,000~2,000 meters, with an annual average temperature of 18~20 °C and a shade degree of 50%-60% or so, it is a humid valley slope with loose and fertile soil. It is advisable to cultivate sandy loam rich in humus.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Amomum hongtsaoko prefers a warm and humid climate, afraid of heat, drought, frost. In the elevation of 1000~2000 meters, the annual average temperature of 18~20℃, shading degree is about 50%-60%, forest or river and valley slope, loose and fertile. The sandy loam rich in humus is suitable for cultivation.

 Amomum tsao-ko Crevost et Lemaire. Characters of herbs: fruit elliptic, 2~4.5 cm long, 1~2.5 cm in diameter, brown or reddish-brown on surface, with 3 obtuse edges and prominent longitudinal furrows and edges, with round protuberant plinths at the apex, stalk or stalk trace at the base, tough pericarp, 3-loculus, each compartment containing 7-24 seeds, seeds grouped into groups. Seeds polyhedral, 5~7 mm in diameter, yellowish-brown or reddish-brown, with grayish membranous aril, central depression junction, more narrowly ventral round fossa navel, ridge depression into a longitudinal groove. Aromatic, pungent and spicy. The herb which is big, full, red-brown, the strong smell is better.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb Fructus Tsaoko can increase the tension of duodenal spontaneous activity in isolated rabbits, increase the amplitude, and antagonize the inhibitory effect of adrenaline on ileum activity. It contains alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, which have antitussive and expectorant effects. Beta-pinene has strong anti-inflammatory and anti-fungal effects. 1,8-eudesmin has analgesic, antipyretic and antiasthmatic effects. Geraniol has the effect of anti-bacteria, fungi and kills guinea pig ascarid.

 Medicinal efficacy: Drying dampness and warm the middle, dispel cold, remove phlegm and relieve malaria. It is indicated for internal stagnation of cold and dampness, epigastric distension pain, cold pain in the abdomen, stuffiness in chest and abdomen, vomiting, phlegm and retained fluid, diaphragm, malaria of cold and fever, malaria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dysentery, dyspepsia(indigestion), etc.

 Administration of Fructus Tsaoko(Cǎo Guǒ): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Tsaoko(Cǎo Guǒ)
TCM Books: Internally:3~6 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 0.8~1.5 qian(about 2.4~4.5 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 3~6 grams, or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).


 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Cao Guo:Tsaoko or Fructus Tsaoko.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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