Sulfur.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Herbs for External Use.

 TCM Herbs Icon19 Introduction: Herbs for External Use: an agent or substance herbs that used externally for external disease.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 19 Introduction: The Herbs for External Use are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date March 19th, 2020, there are totally [16] kinds of common TCM herbs, [4] kinds of related plant species, [5] kinds of related insect species, [9] kind of minerals, are recorded in this category. These herbs for external Use are briefly introduced separately:

 
Sulfur.

 Sulfur Brief Introduction: The herb Sulfur is obtained from natural sources after purification, used (1).externally as an antiparasitic for treating scabies, and (2).internally to reinforce Yang for the treatment of impotence and chronic asthma. The herb is commonly known as Sulfur, Liú Huánɡ.

 ✵Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Sulfur as from the natural sulfur mineral with purification. The natural sulfur is a natural mineral, it is introduced as:

 Natural sulfur: It is commonly known as sulfur mineral, or Zì Rán Liú. Natural sulfur is the heavy sulfur in the rhombic system. Molecular formula S8. Natural sulfur is often mixed with mud, organic matter, etc. They are usually soil-like aggregates. Pure sulfur is yellow, but it has different shades of yellow when it contains impurities. Crystal translucent, Mohs hardness of 1~2, specific gravity 2.05~2.08, brittle, diamond luster (crystal surface) and grease luster (section).

 Sulfur has a large amount of arsenic, easy to cause renal insufficiency and failure, multiple neuritides, liver function damage, oral administration is prohibited.

 Natural sulfur Natural sulfur name comes from the Latin sulphurium sulvere = "sulfur, component S. Volcanic sulfur, often containing a small amount of selenium, tellurium, arsenic, etc., sulfur formed by sedimentation, often mixed with mud, organic matter, etc. They are usually soil-like aggregates. Pure sulfur is yellow, but it has different shades of yellow when it contains impurities. Crystal translucent, hardness is 1~2, specific gravity is 2.05~2.08, brittle, diamond luster (crystal surface) and grease luster(section). Sulfur is mainly used to make sulfuric acid and sulfur yellow.

 Three variants: There are three kinds of homogenous polymorphic variants, namely, si -S of rhombic system, si-S and si-S of monoclinic system. The natural stability is minus PI sub-S. The transition temperature of eg-s and sys-s was 95.6℃. -s is extremely unstable at room temperature and easily converts to 1-s (also known as rhomboid sulfur). Rhombic system, the crystal often rhombic double - cone or plate-like. It is often produced as an irregular block. The crystal form is rare, usually dense block, granular, banded, globular, bell-like aggregation. Natural sulfur for light yellow, brown color, impurities with red, green, gray and black color. Mohs hardness is 1~2, specific gravity is 2.05~2.08; Brittle, incomplete cleavage, fracture shell, with weak conductivity, heat transfer. Streaks for white-yellow-white, transparent-translucent, resin-diamond luster; Burning when hair bluish blue flame, and a pungent smell of sulfur. Corrosion resistance. Sulfur and oxygen react strongly at 360 ℃ and higher temperatures to produce sulfur dioxide. Hydrogen sulfide is formed by the action of sulfur and hydrogen at about 400 ℃, dissociates when the temperature continues to rise, and completely decomposes into water and sulfur at 1690 ℃. Sulfur is heated with caustic soda solution and ammonia solution to form polysulfide or thiosulfuric acid. Sulfur is insoluble in water but more soluble in organic solvents and carbon disulfide. Sulfur appears as an oxidant and a reducing agent and is a chemically active element. Produced in volcanic rock, sedimentary rock, and sulfide deposit weathering zone, often with calcite, dolomite, quartz and other combinations. Its double conic crystal shape, diamond luster, together with bright yellow sulfur yellow, and the bedrock form a sharp contrast, a better appreciation. Hold the sulfur crystal with your hand and put it in your ear, you can hear the sound of its cracking. This is because the heat from the palm reaches the surface of the sulfur, causing the crystal on the surface to expand. The internal heat conduction is slow and not affected.

 Natural sulfur About half of the world's sulfur is produced as the natural element known as natural sulfur, which occurs in the uppermost and outer parts of the earth's crust. There are different ways of doing this. The most important are natural deposits formed by biochemical and volcanic processes. Sedimentary sulfur deposits formed by biochemical processes are formed by the reduction of sulphates by bacteria in closed lagoons and are often interstratified with limestone or gypsum layers. Besides, in the lower oxidation zone of the sulfide deposit, the metal sulfide, main pyrite, is oxidized and decomposed. First, pyrite is oxidized to form Fe2(SO4)3, which in turn ACTS on pyrite to form natural sulfur: FeS2+Fe2(SO4)3→3FeSO4+2S. In some deposits, such as those on the tops of salt mounds, gypsum is broken down by sulfur bacteria to form natural sulfur. Sulfur may also be produced directly by condensation (sublimation) of gases or by the incomplete oxidation of hydrogen sulfide gases, such as by the transformation of gases emitted by sulfur blowhole near the edge of active or dormant volcanic vents; It can also be formed by the vulcanization of sulfide by bacteria.

 Natural Environment: Sulfur is most commonly found in tertiary sedimentary rocks, coexisting with limestone, anhydrite, gypsum, and usually also in clay layers, coexisting with bituminous ore bodies. The world-famous sulfur crystals are found in Girgenti, Sicily, and are associated with lapis lazuli, gypsum, calcite, and aragonite. The main source of natural sulfur in China is the datun volcanic area in northern Taiwan. Sulfur is also produced in Mexico, Hawaii, Argentina and oyaguy, Chile, as well as in Texas and Louisiana.

 Trait identification: The character is irregular block, size is different. Yellow, or light green or light brown-yellow. The surface is not flat, often hemp grain and fine sand hole; Shiny, translucent. Lightweight, fragile and fragile. The cross-section is usually a coarse acicular crystal. There is a peculiar smell, light taste. Yellow color, bright, crisp, no impurities for the better. Easy to melt, blue flame, and give off irritating sulfur dioxide odor. Insoluble in water and hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid; Oxidized to sulfuric acid by nitric acid or aqua regia; Dissolve in carbon disulfide, coal sleeve, and turpentine.

 
 

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