Introduction of Tian Nan Xing:Jack-in-the-Pulpit Tuber or Rhizoma Arisaematis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:expectorants,herbs for resolving cold-phlegm.

 TCM Herbs Icon03 Introduction: Expectorants,herbs for resolving cold-phlegm: an agent or substance herbs warm in property, used in treating disorders of cold-phlegm or phlegm-dampness.

Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 03 Introduction: The expectorants, herbs for resolving cold-phlegm are known including:, , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [7] kinds of common TCM herbs, [11] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These expectorants, herbs for resolving cold-phlegm are briefly introduced separately:

Rhizoma Arisaematis(Jack-in-the-Pulpit Tuber).

Arisaema erubescens Pin Yin Name: Tiān Nán Xīnɡ.
 English Name: Jack-in-the-Pulpit Tuber.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma Arisaematis.
 Property and flavor: warm, bitter, pungent, toxic.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Arisaematis is the dried tuber of Arisaema erubescens(Wall.) Schott., Arisaema heterophyllum Bl. or Arisaema amurense Maxim.(family Araceae), used as (1).an expectorant for a cough with profuse phlegm, and (2).an anticonvulsive for epilepsy or tetanus.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Arisaematis(Jack-in-the-Pulpit Tuber) is the dried tuber of Arisaema heterophyllum, it is a plant of Pinellia Ten. Genus, the Araceae Juss family of the Alismatales order. It is also known as Pedate Pinallia, Jack-in-the-Pulpit Tuber or Tiān Nán Xīnɡ.

 Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Rhizoma Arisaematis(Jack-in-the-Pulpit Tuber) as the dried tuber of:(1). Arisaema erubescens(Wall.) Schott., (2). Arisaema heterophyllum Blume., (3). Arisaema amurense Maxim., (4). Pinellia pedatisecta Schott., These 4 commonly used species are introduced as:

 Arisaema erubescens Wall.Schott. (1).Arisaema erubescens(Wall.)Schott.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as umbrella arisaema, or Tian Nan Xing. Perennial herbs. Tubers suborbicular, up to 6 cm in diameter. Scaly leaves purplish-red or greenish-white, interspersed with brown patches. Leaves a single; Stalk 70 cm long, with leaf sheath below middle; Leaf blade radially divided, 7~20 lobes, pyramidal or oblong, 7~24 cm long, 1~4 cm wide, long acuminate or elongated to linear caudate. Inflorescence stem from middle part of leaf, shorter than petiole; Buddha flame bud color diversity, green ask have white stripe or lilac to deep purple interspersed with green, white stripe; Larynx extended, margin rolled outwards, eaves wide, triangular-ovate to oblong ovate, light ray extended to 15 cm long line tail; Inflorescence of flesh; The female inflorescence is lower, the axis of the neutral inflorescence is in the middle, immediately following the axis of the male inflorescence, and above it are rod appendages about 5 cm long. Young bare when ripe, berry red. 1~2 seeds, globose, light brown. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruiting from August to September.

 Ecological environment: the plant grows in the wasteland, grassy slopes, thickets, and forests. It distributes in most provinces of China, except the northeast area and Xinjiang.

 Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a cold wet climate and dank environment, afraid of strong light, should be planted in shade or with high stalk crops or forest intercropping. Better to choose moist, loose, fertile humus-rich soil or sandy loam for cultivation, avoid planting in clay and laeuna(marsh land). In mountain areas, it can be planted in mountain valleys, streams on either side of stream or river, or in damp areas under open forests. Avoid continuous cropping.

 Characters of herbs: the tuber is oblate and spherical, with a diameter of 2~5.5 cm. The surface is light yellow to light brown, the top is relatively flat, and the central stem mark is slightly concave. There are ring lines formed by leaf marks around, big pitted root marks around, but not obvious, and no small lateral buds around. Hard, cross-section white powder. Same with the smell.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Anticonvulsant effect; ②.Sedative and analgesic effect: the herb has an obvious analgesic effect. ③.Expectorant effect: water decoction of Rhizoma Arisaematis has an expectorant effect. ④.Anti-tumor effect: The aqueous extract of fresh Arisaema treated with alcohol has an inhibitory effect on Hela cells in vitro, and has a certain inhibitory effect on experimental tumors in mice, such as sarcoma S180, HCA solid type, and U14, etc., D-mannitol has been identified as its effective anticancer component. ⑤.Antioxidant effect: The two alkaloids contained in Arisaema can scavenge superoxide anion free radicals to different degrees and inhibiting liver mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and other activities. ⑥.Other effects: The two alkaloids in Arisaema have inhibitory effects on atrial and papillary muscle contractility and sinus node frequency in isolated dogs, and can antagonize the effect of isoproterenol on the heart. The water extraction and alcohol precipitation preparation of Fresh Arisaema had an inhibitory effect on Hela cells in vitro. It is effective for the experimental tumor in mice and has a certain inhibitory effect on S180, HCA solid type, U14, etc.

 Medicinal efficacy: Drying dampness and reduce phlegm, dispel wind and relieve spasmolysis, removing stasis, and reduce swelling. Indicated for stubborn phlegm cough, wind syndrome and dizziness, apoplexia and phlegm blocking, facial paralysis of mouth and eyes, hemiplegia, epilepsy, infantile convulsions, tetanus, externally for treating abscess and swelling, snake bite.

 Administration of Rhizoma Arisaematis(Tiān Nán Xīnɡ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Arisaematis(Tiān Nán Xīnɡ)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP), or 0.8~1.5 qian(about 2.4~4.5 grams,DCTM), or 3~9 grams(CHMM), water decoction, prepared; grinded to fine powder and prepared to pills, powder.Externally:grinded into fine powder and apply or stick.

 Arisaema heterophyllum Blume. (2).Arisaema heterophyllum Blume.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Arisaema heterophyllum, or Yi Ye Tian Nan Xing. Perennial herb. Tubers suborbicular, 2~5 cm in diameter. Leaves often simple; Petiole scabbard, lower with 2~3 membranous scaly leaves; Leaf blade birdlike, 11~19 lobes, linear-oblong or inverted, middle lobe shorter than on both sides. The stem of the inflorescence divides from the middle of the petiole; Buddha flame bud tube length 3-6 cm, green and white, throat truncate, outside the back winding, eaves oval-shaped lanceolate, sometimes curved helmet shape, pale green all pale yellow; The sleeve of the inflorescence is completely separated from the bud of flame. Inflorescences bisexual or male unisexual; Lower female inflorescence of bisexual inflorescence ca. 2 cm long, densely flowered, upper male inflorescence ca. 3 cm long, sparsely flowered. Unisexual male inflorescence 3~5 cm long, 3~5 mm thick. The base of the appendage is 0.5~1 cm in diameter, up to 20 cm long, extending from the throat of Buddha flame bud in a zigzag shape. Fruit inflorescence is nearly conical, berry red when ripe, buddha bud withered and fruit exfoliated. The seeds are yellow and red. Its flowering period is from April to May, fruiting from June to September.

 Arisaema heterophyllum Blume. Ecological environment: the plant grows in the wasteland, grassy slopes, thickets, and forests. It distributes in most provinces of China, except the northeast and Xinjiang.

 Characters of herbs: tubers are slightly flat and round, with a diameter of 1.5~4 cm. The surface is white or light brown, relatively smooth, with concave stem marks at the top, 1 circle 1-3 rows of prominent root marks around, occasionally with a few small protruding side buds, sometimes smooth, smell as above.

 Arisaema amurense Maxim. (3).Arisaema amurense Maxim.:
 Botanical description: This leaf; Petiole 17~30 cm long, lower 1/3 sheathed, purple; Leaf blade bird foot divided, 5 lobes, obovate-needle-shaped or elliptic, apex shortly acuminate or acute, base cuneate, middle lobes with stipitate ca. 2 cm long, 7~12 cm long, 4~7 cm wide, lobes ca. 1 cm long. Common handle, entire margin. Inflorescence stalk shorter than petiole, fovea green or purple with white streaks; Inflorescence single; Male inflorescence about 2 cm, flowering sparsely; Female inflorescence ca. 1 cm; Each accessory has a short handle and a rod shape. Berry red; Four seeds, red. The inflorescence axis of flesh spike often increases at the fruiting stage, fruiting lag amaranth.

 Arisaema amurense Maxim. Ecological environment: the plant grows in forests and beside ditches at an altitude of 50~1,200 meters above sea level. It distributes in the north, northwest, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: tuber is oblate, with a diameter of 1.5~4 cm. The central stem mark was large and slightly flat, with a shallow dish shape, few ring lines, and fine pitch-like root mark, with an irregular arrangement and small protruding lateral buds around. Same smell.

 Pinellia pedatisecta Schott. (4).Pinellia pedatisecta Schott.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as tiger palm. Perennial herb. Tubers 1 to 2 years old is nearly round and spherical. Tubers over 3 years old are flat persimmon with 2 to 5 papillary tubers on the side, up to 6 cm in diameter. Leaves from the eye out, 2~6 clusters; Leaf blade birdlike, 5~13 lobes, ovate-lanceolate or ellipsoid-lanceolate, medium lobes larger than lobes, 15~18 cm long, ca. 3 cm wide. 2~4 inflorescences, also from the eye, 15~30 cm long; The spout is spatulate and lanceolate, gradually tapering, and the color is like leaves. The female inflorescence of the inflorescence sticks to the spout, 1~3 cm long, with flowers on the outside. Male inflorescence axis partially free, 5~7 mm long. Florets dense, yellow; The appendage is shaped like a rat's tail and 15 cm long. Berry oval, green and white when ripe, easy to fall off the cloth, the year germinated new plant. Its flowering period is from May to July, fruiting from June to October.

 Pinellia pedatisecta Schott. Ecological environment: the plant grows in valleys, riverbanks, grasslands, grass, and bamboo forests. It distributes in the north and east, central south, southwest area of China.

 Characters of herbs: tubers are flattened and irregularly round, with main tubers and most tubers. Small tubers attached, resembling the paw of a tiger, 1.5~5 cm in diameter. The surface is light yellow or light brown, with a stem mark in the center of each tuber and a dotted fibrous root mark around it. Quality solid and heavy, cross-section uneven, white, pink. Slight smell, spicy, numbness of the tongue.

  • 1.Introduction of Tian Nan Xing:Jack-in-the-Pulpit Tuber or Rhizoma Arisaematis.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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