Introduction of Qian Hu:Hogfennel Root or Radix Peucedani.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Expectorants,Herbs for Resolving Heat-Phlegm.

 TCM Herbs Icon03 Introduction: Expectorants,herbs for resolving heat-phlegm: an agent or substance herbs warm in property, used in treating disorders of heat-phlegm or phlegm-dampness.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 03 Introduction: The expectorants, herbs for resolving heat-phlegm are known including:, , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [11] kinds of common TCM herbs, [18] kinds of related plant species,[1] kind of mineral, are recorded in this category. These expectorants, herbs for resolving heat-phlegm are briefly introduced separately:

 
Radix Peucedani(Hogfennel Root).

Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn Pin Yin Name: Qián Hú.
 English Name: Hogfennel Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Peucedani.
 Property and flavor: light cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Peucedani is the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, or Peucedanum decursivum Maxim.(family Umbelliferae), used to check the adverse up-flow of Qi, and resolve phlegm for relieving cough and dyspnea with copious or yellow sticky expectoration.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Peucedani(Hogfennel Root) is the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn, or Peucedanum decursivum Maxim., they are plants of the Peucedanum L. genus, the Umbelliferae family of the Umbelliflorae order. It is also known as Root of Whiteflower Hogfennel, Root of Common Hogfennel, or Qián Hú.

 Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Common official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Peucedani(Hogfennel Root) as the dried root of:(1). Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., (2). Peucedanum decursivum Maxim. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

 (1).Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn.:
 Botanical description: It is also known as whiteflower hogfennel. Perennial herbs, 60~100 cm tall. Roots are conical, with a few lateral roots, surface is yellowish-brown to brownish-black, root tip residual most brown leaf sheath fibers. Stem is erect, cylindrical, upper branched, pubescent, lower glabrous. Basal leaves sessile, base enlarged into the sheath, clasping; Leaf blade broadly triangular-ovate, trifoliate or 2-3-gyrus pinnately divided, 15~20 cm long, 12 cm wide, first primary feather 2~3 pairs, bottom 1 pair with a long stalk, stalk 3.5~6 cm long, others with short or sessile. Final lobes rhomboid obovate, apex acuminate, base cuneate to truncate, margin irregularly 3-4 coarsely or roundly serrate, sometimes lower serrated lobed or deeply lobed, lower surface veins conspicuously protuberant, both surfaces are glabrous, or sometimes lower surface veins with sparse short hairs on top and margin. Cauline and basal leaves similar, smaller; Upper leaf sessile, leaf blade trifurcate, lobes narrow, base cuneate, middle one base decurrent. Inflorescences terminal or lateral, 6~18 corymboses, unequal, 1.5~4.5 cm long, pilose; Involucral bracts 1 to several, glabrous, linear-lanceolate, 0.7~1 cm long, margin membranous, pilose; 15~20 inflorescences, pedicels unequal, pilose; 7~12 involucral bracts, ovate-lanceolate, apex long acuminate, 3~5 mm long, 0.6~1 mm wide, equal to or longer than pedicels, pilose; Calyx teeth not conspicuous; 5 petals, white, broadly ovate to suborbicular; 5 stamens; Style is short, curved, stylopodium conical. Fruit ovoid, dorsal compressed, about 4 mm long, about 3 mm wide, brown, sparsely short-hairy, dorsal edges slightly protruding, lateral edges shaped like wings, narrower than the fruit body, slightly thicker, inside the ridge 3-5 tubing, connate surface 6-10 tubing, endosperm ventral straight. It is flowering from July to September, fruiting from October to November.

 Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Ecological environment: The plant grows on hillsides with forest margins, roadsides, or in the grass on hillsides where the unit is negative. It mainly distributes in the middle and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the south middle reaches area of the Yellow River, northwest and southwest, the Zhujiang river area, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows on hillsides, in forest margins or bushes, meadows. It prefers a cold wet climate, drought resistance, cold resistance. Strong adaptability, it can grow in mountains and plain. It grows best in rich, deep, rotten loam, it is not suitable for clay and in low humidity areas.

 Characters of herbs: Roots are subcylindrical, conical, or spindle-shaped, slightly twisted, branched at the lower part, 3~15 cm long, 1~2 cm in diameter. There are stem trace and fibrous sheath residue in the root head. The surface is gray-brown to black-brown, with irregular longitudinal furrows and longitudinal wrinkles, and transverse lenticels; The upper part is densely ringed. The quality is soft, the dry herb is hard, can be broken, the fracture surface is irregular, loose, under a magnifying glass can see many small yellowish-brown oil points scattered; the cortex is thick, pale yellow-white, the cambium ring is obvious, the wood part is pale yellow. It is aromatic, slightly bitter and spicy.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antiphlegm effect: The method of collecting tracheal mucus secretion by anesthetized cats proved that oral administration of purpleflower hogfennel decoction could significantly increase the secretion of mucus in the respiratory tract. ②.Antitussive effect: Injecting 1% iodine solution into the pleural cavity of the cat can cause cough. Taking decoction can relieve cough.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipates the wind to clear the heat, downbear Qi(sending down abnormally ascending) and reduce phlegm.

 Administration of Radix Peucedani(Qián Hú): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Peucedani(Qián Hú)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP), Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams,grinded to fine powder and prepared to pill,powder(CHMM).


 Peucedanum decursivum Maxim. (2).Peucedanum decursivum Maxim.:
 Botanical description: It is also known as Purpleflower Hogfennel. Perennial herbs, 1~2 meters high. Roots conical, constant branched roots, surfaces tawny to tan. Stem erect, cylindrical, with shallow longitudinal grooves, smooth, purple, upper branches pilose. Rhizome leaves and cauline leaves have long stalks, stalk 13~36 cm long, base swollen into a round purple sheath, clasping outside, face glabrous; Leaf blade triangular to oval, hard paper, 10~25 cm long, primary trifid or slice has a basal junction with the tip leaf, extending along the leaf axis in a pterygoid shape, lateral lobes have a basal junction with the tip leaf, extending along the leaf axis in a pterygoid shape, lateral lobes have a basal junction with the tip blade in a pterygoid shape, extending along the leaf axis in a pterygoid shape, wing margin serrate. Ultimate lobes ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 5~15 cm long, 2~5 cm wide, apex acute, margin white cartilaginous serrate, apex pointed, upper dark green, veins pubescent on veins, lower green-white, main veins often purplish, glabrous; The upper leaves of the stem are simplified into a saclike swollen purple sheath. Compound umbel terminal and lateral, peduncle 3~8 cm long, pilose; 10~22 umbrella spokes, 2~4 cm long; 1~3 involucral bracts, ovoid, broadly sheathed, persistent, reflexed, purple; 3~8 involucral bracts, linear to lanceolate, glabrous; Umbrella spokes and flower handles hairy; Flowers deep purple; Calyx teeth distinct, linear or triangular; Petals obovate or ellipsoid lanceolate, apex usually not indented into concave head; Anthers dark purple. Round fruit oblong to ovoid, 4~7 mm long, 3~5 mm wide, glabrous, dorsal ridge uplift, sharp, chamfered edge have a thicker narrow wings, and the wide nearly edge slot in the tubing 1-3, hopson surface have tubing 4~7 mm, 3~5 mm wide, glabrous, dorsal ridge shape uplift, sharp, chamfered edge have a thicker narrow wings, and the wide nearly edge slot in the tubing 1-3, hopson surface has 4~6 tubings, endosperm venter has 4~6 tubings, endosperm in front indentations. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to November.

 Peucedanum decursivum Maxim. Ecological environment: The plant grows in the edge of hillside forest, gully side, or miscellaneous wood forest thicket. It mainly distributes in the middle and lower reaches areas of the Yangtze River, the Hanjiang river area, the Zhujiang river area, the north area, Taiwan, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: The head of the rhizome of anhydrous is relatively short, and there is little fibrous leaf sheath residue in the root. The broken dough is easy to be separated from the wood. Smells are fragrant, taste slightly bitter, pungent.

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Qian Hu:Hogfennel Root or Radix Peucedani.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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