Introduction of Nan Sha Shen:Fourleaf Ladybell Root or Radix Adenophorae.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Expectorants,Herbs for Resolving Heat-Phlegm.
Introduction: Expectorants,herbs for resolving heat-phlegm: an agent or substance herbs warm in property, used in treating disorders of heat-phlegm or phlegm-dampness.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, kind of mineral, are recorded in this category. These expectorants, herbs for resolving heat-phlegm are briefly introduced separately:
Radix Adenophorae(Fourleaf Ladybell Root).
Pin Yin Name: Nán Shā Shēn.
English Name: Fourleaf Ladybell Root.
Latin Name: Radix Adenophorae.
Property and flavor: slight cold, sweet.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Adenophorae is the dried root of Adenophora tetraphylla(Thunb.) Fisch., or Adenophora stricta Miq.(family Campanulaceae), used to nourish Yin, clear the lung, resolve phlegm and replenish Qi for relieving cough in cases of lung Yin deficiency, and deficiency of Qi and fluid in the late stage of a febrile disease. The herb is commonly known as Radix Adenophorae, Fourleaf Ladybell Root, Nán Shā Shēn.
Botanical source: The herb Radix Adenophorae(Fourleaf Ladybell Root) is the dried root of Adenophora tetraphylla(Thunb.) Fisch., or Adenophora stricta Miq., they are plants of the Adenophora Fisch. Genus, the Campanulaceae family of the Asterales order.
(1).Adenophora stricta Miq.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Adenophora stricta Miq., or Sha Shen, perennial herb, stem height is 40~80 cm. Unbranched, often short bristles or villous. Basal leaves heart-shaped, large and with a long handle; stem leaves sessile, or only the lower part of the leaf has a very short stalk winged; leaf blade elliptic, narrowly ovate, base cuneate, long 3~11 cm, width 1.5~5 cm. Apex acute or shortly acuminate, margin irregular jagged, two sparsely haired or hirsute, or close to the hair. Unbranched inflorescence learn from false racemes, or made extremely narrow short branching panicles, rarely with long branches from panicles; pedicels less than 5 mm; calyx pubescent often die granular Mao, a small hairless, tube often obovate, rarely obovate conical, 5 lobes, narrow, mostly diamond-shaped, a few strips lanceolate; corolla broadly campanulate, blue or purple, outside glabrous or hirsute, 5 lobes, triangular-shaped oval; disc short tubular, glabrous; 5 stamens, filaments expanded into the lower part of the sheet, anthers slender; style often slightly longer than corolla, stigma 3-lobed,ovary inferior, 3 rooms. Capsule oval-shaped ball, little oval-shaped, long 6~10 mm. Seeds numerous, brown, slightly flat, there is an edge, about 1.5 cm. Its flowering and fruiting period is from August to October.
Growth characteristics: The plant grows mostly in the grass of the mountain and wild. It mainly distributes in the north, the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang River area, and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: Dry roots, long spindle-shaped or cylindrical, thick at the upper part and thin at the lower part, sometimes slightly curved or twisted, occasionally divergent. The length is 5~25 cm, the upper diameter is 1~3 cm. The apex has a rhizome(reed), 0.5~10 cm long, diameter is 0.3~2 cm, occasionally has 2 collateral rhizomes, the rhizome has remarkable horizontal grain. The surface of the rhizome with cortex is yellow-white to brown, have horizontal grain, the upper part is much more, a bit short segment of fine root or root mark; The surface without the skin is yellow and white, with longitudinal wrinkles. The body is light and loose, easy to break, the cross-section is white, not flat, there are many cracks. It smells light, tastes sweet and bitter. The herb with thick root, full, no skin, yellow and white color is the better.
Pharmacological actions: ①.Expectorant effect: decoction of wheel blade Adenophora on a rabbit is not as strong as the effect of Radix Asteris, but the expectorant effect lasted for more than 4 hours. No hemolysis was observed in the test tube for 1:40 concentration of the saps. ②.Cardiac stimulant effect: In vitro toad heart was significantly enhanced by 1% Radix Adenophorae saps. The amplitude of vibration of the 7/9 in vitro heart was increased (more than 50% higher than the original), and the effect lasted for 5 minutes. ③.Antifungal action: Radix Adenophorae aqueous extract (1:2) had different degree of inhibitory effect on dermatophytes such as Candida oduangi and Candida albicans in vitro.
Medicinal efficacy: Nourish Yin and clear the lung, reduce phlegm, benefit Qi. It is indicated for lung heat and dry cough, Yin deficiency and over-strained cough, dry cough and phlegm sticky, Qi Yin deficiency, dysphoria with smothery sensation and dry mouth.
Administration of Radix Adenophorae(Nán Shā Shēn):
Administration Guide of Radix Adenophorae(Nán Shā Shēn)
Internally:9~15 grams(CP), Internally: water decoction, 3~5 qian(about 9~15 grams)(fresh herb 1~3 liang,about 30~90 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM), or water decoction, 10~15 grams, fresh herbs 15~30 grams; or prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).
(2).Adenophora tetraphylla (Thunb.)Fisch.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Adenophora tetraphylla (Thunb.)Fisch, or Lun Ye Sha Shen(literally it means wheel blade Adenophora), perennial herb. Roots are stout, carrot-shaped, wrinkled. The stem is erect, simple, 60~150 cm high. Leaves are usually 4 whorled, sessile, or short sessile, the leaf blade is elliptic or lanceolate, 4~8 cm long and 1.5~3 cm wide, the margin is serrate, green at the upper surface, light green at the back surface, densely pilose. The panicle is large, pedicels of unequal length, 1 bracteole per pedicel; 5 calyx teeth, slender and straight, green and slightly black; Corolla campanulate, blue-purple, narrow ampulla, 5 lobes, 5 stamens, yellow; Ovary is located at the inferior, style extending outside corolla, bluish-purple, the apex is rounded, stigma is 9-lobed, the disk surrounds the Kieron of the style. The capsule is 3-loculed, ovoid. Its flowering period is from July to August.
Growth characteristics: The plant grows mostly in the tall grass of the mountain and wild. It mainly distributes in the north area, the Yellow River area, the lower reaches of the Yangtze river area, the Zhujiang river area, and other area of China.
1.Introduction of Nan Sha Shen:Fourleaf Ladybell Root or Radix Adenophorae.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).