Introduction of Ma Qian Zi:Nux Vomica or Semen Strychni.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.
Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These dispelling wind-damp herbs are briefly introduced separately:
Semen Strychni(Nux Vomica).
Pin Yin Name: Mǎ Qián Zǐ.
English Name: Nux Vomica.
Latin Name: Semen Strychni.
Property and flavor: cold, bitter, toxic.
Brief introduction: The herb Semen Strychni is the dried ripe seed of Strychnos nux-vomica L. or Strychnos pierriana A.W. Hill(family Loganiaceae), used to promote the flow of Qi and blood in collateral meridians, alleviate pain and reduce swelling in cases of rheumatoid arthritis, sequelae of infantile paralysis, and traumatic injuries with pain. The herb is commonly known as Semen Strychni, Nux Vomica, Mǎ Qián Zǐ.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Semen Strychni(Nux Vomica) as the dried ripe seed of (1).Strychnos nux-vomica L. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Semen Strychni(Nux Vomica) as the dried ripe seed of (1).Strychnos nux-vomica L., or (2).Strychnos pierriana A.W.Hill. They are plants of the Strychnos L. genus, Loganiaceae family, Contortae order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:
(1).Strychnos nux-vomica L.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Mǎ Qián. Trees, 10~13 meters tall. Bark gray, lenticellate, branches smooth. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 5~12 mm; Leaf blade leathery, broadly ovate or suborbicular, 6~15 cm long, 3~9 cm wide, apex acute or concave, base broadly cuneate or rounded, entire, smooth, glabrous, main veins 3~5, abaxially protruding, veinlets irregularly reticulate; Leaf axils have short tendrils. Inflorescence paniculate, axillary, 3~5 cm long, 2.5~5 cm in diameter, pubescent; Involucral bracts and bracteoles all small, triangular, apex, pubescent; Flowers white, sessile; Calyx green, apex 5-lobed, densely pubescent; Corolla tubular, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovate, inner surface densely hairy; 5 stamens, inserted in the throat of corolla tube, filaments extremely short, anthers yellow, elliptic; Pistil 9.5~12 mm long, style cylindrical, 11 mm long, stigma capitate; Atrioovoid. Berry globose, 2~4 cm in diameter, green when young, orange when ripe, smooth. 1~4 seeds, disc-shaped, 1~3 cm in diameter, grayish-yellow, densely silvery tomentose. Its flowering period is spring, summer, fruiting from August to January the following year.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows in the tropical area. It distributes in the Zhujiang river area, Hainan, Yunnan, Taiwan, and other areas of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant Strychnos nux-vomica prefers a warm and humid climate and is not tolerant of cold and drought. It is advisable to plant on sandy soil or clay loam with a loose texture and rich humus in the south slope, slightly acidic to slightly alkaline soil.
Characters of herbs: Seeds oblate, buttonlike, 1~3 cm in diameter, 3~6 mm thick, margin slightly raised, often concave on one side, protruding on the other. Surface is grayish brown or grayish-green, dense prostrate silver-gray hair, filamentous luster, from the center to the surrounding shoot. There is a ridgeline of a ridge, and a small shaped protruding pearl hole, the bottom of the center of a slightly protruding round point of the species umbilicus, between the pearl hole and the species umbilicus can be faintly seen a ridgeline. Hard and hard to break. After macerating, the endosperm was opened longitudinally along the margin, showing a yellowish keratinaceous hypertrophic endosperm with interstitial Spaces in the center, heart-shaped embryo near the micropyle, 2 cotyledons, thin, 5~6 mm long, 5 palmate veins, and radicle about 4 mm long. Slight smell, taste extremely bitter, extremely toxic.
Pharmacological actions: The herb has a central excitation effect, analgesic, antitussive, paralyzing sensory nerve endings and promoting lymphocyte mitosis, and has an inhibitory effect on some dermatophytes or bacteria.
Medicinal efficacy: Free collaterals and relieve pain, strong tendons, dissipate stagnation and eliminate swelling, detoxification. It is indicated for rheumatism and obstinate arthralgia, rheumatism and numbness pain, skin numbness, paralysis of limbs, traumatic injury from falls, fracture and swollen pain, ulcer swelling pain, sequela of poliomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, arthralgia, toothache, leprosy, stubborn dermatitis, malignant tumor.
Administration of Semen Strychni(Mǎ Qián Zǐ):
Administration Guide of Semen Strychni(Mǎ Qián Zǐ)
Internally:0.3~0.6 grams,prepared and prepare to pill,powder for apply(CP),Internally:prepare to pill,powder, 1~2 fen(about 0.3~0.6 grams,dose for one day),Externally:smear with vinegar,grinded into fine powder and blow to the throat,or apply stick(DCTM),Internally:prepare to pill,powder,0.2~0.6 grams each time,big dosage 0.9 grams.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and apply,infusing in water,grind with vinegar,prepare with oil and smear,or prepare to paste and apply stick(CHMM).
(2).Strychnos pierriana A.W.Hill.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Cháng Zǐ Mǎ Qián. Large woody vine, 20 meters long. The bark is grey; Branchlets cylindrical, often metamorphose into solitary or paired spirally curved hooks. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 5~7 mm; Leaf blade leathery, elliptic to obovate, 7~12 cm long, 3~4.5 cm wide, apex acute or shortly acuminate, base cuneate or subrounded, entire, both surfaces smooth and glabrous; Leaf has 3 veins away from the base, abaxially uplifted. Paniculate cymes terminal, ca. 4 cm long; Pedicels and pedicels pubescent; Calyx green, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovate, outer hairy, margin with eyelashes; Corolla tubular, yellow-white, ca. 10 mm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovate, ca. 4 mm long, inner base pilose; 5 stamens, inserted in the throat of the corolla tube, filaments extremely short, anthers slightly dehydrated; Pistil about 8 mm long, style slender, stigma capitate; Ovary narrowly ovate. Berry globose, 4~6 cm in diameter, orange when ripe. Seeds oblong, 2~3 cm long, flattened, covered with light gray silky hair. Its flowering period is from April to June, fruiting from August to January of the following year.
Ecological Environment: The plant grows at areas with an altitude below 600 meters above sea level, on a hot hillside in a hollow, valley or mixed wood forest, bushes. It distributes in the southwest area of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant Strychnos pierriana prefers a warm and humid climate and is not tolerant of cold and drought. It is advisable to plant on sandy soil or clay loam with a loose texture and rich humus in the south slope, slightly acidic to slightly alkaline soil.
Characters of herbs: Seeds oblate, thin margin slightly upward into a disc, 2~3 cm long, diameter 1. 5~2.2 cm, densely gray-yellow or light brown glossy pilose, spreading radially from center to periphery. Cotyledons ovate and thin, 3 veins. Slight smell, taste extremely bitter, extremely toxic.
1.Introduction of Ma Qian Zi:Nux Vomica or Semen Strychni.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).