Introduction of Qiang Huo:Notopterygium Rhizome or Root or Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon06 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [22] kinds of common TCM herbs, [47] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These dispelling wind-damp herbs are briefly introduced separately:

 
Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii(Notopterygium Rhizome or Root).

Notopterygium Rhizome Pin Yin Name: Qiānɡ Huó.
 English Name: Notopterygium Rhizome or Root.
 Latin Name: Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii.
 Property and flavor: warm, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii is the dried rhizome or root of Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H.T.Chang or Notopterygium forbesii Boiss.(family Umbelliferae), used to dispel wind, cold and damp for the treatment of wind-cold affliction, and wind-cold-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthralgia, especially that of the upper part of the body. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii, Notopterygium Rhizome or Root, Qiānɡ Huó.

 Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii(Notopterygium Rhizome or Root) is the dried rhizome or root of Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H.T.Chang or Notopterygium forbesii Boiss., they are plants of the Notopterygium Genus, the Apiaceae(Umbelliferae) family of the Apiales order.

 Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang.01 (1).Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang.:
 Botanical description: The Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Notopterygium genus, it is commonly known as "Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang", "Notopterygium incisum", or "Qiang Huo", "Can Qiang", "Lie Ye Qiang Huo(Cleft leaf Notopterygium)". Perennial herbs, up to 1 meter high. Rhizome tuberous or terete. Stem erect, pale purple surface, longitudinally furrowed, hollow, glabrous. Leaves alternate, the lower part of the stem leaves for 2~3 single feathery compound leaves; Petiole 10~20 cm long, base embracing stem, both sides sheathed; Lobules 3~4 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, 2-fold pinnate division of lobules, final lobules with varying blunt serrate, the lowest pair petiole, uppermost pair nearly sessile; Stem upper leaves subsessile. The base expands into a long ovate sheath and holds the stem; Leaves thin, dark green above, pale green below, glabrous. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, total umbrellas 10~15, length varying, rough surface; Without involucre.

 Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H. T. Chang.02 Small umbellate inflorescences with 20~30 flowers; 5 sepals, lobes triangular; Petals white, 5, obovate, apex pointed, looped inward; 5 stamens; Filaments thin, curved, anther elliptic, 2-compartment; 2 styles, short and reflexed, stigma base flat compressed conical, ovary ovoid, lower, 2 chambers.

 Double overhanging fruit ovoid, smooth and glabrous, with wings on the dorsal edge and middle edge, and no wings on the side edge. There are usually 3 to 4 tubing between the grooves and 5 to 6 tubing on the mating surface. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting period is from September to October.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows at areas with an altitude of 2,000~4,200 meters above sea level, in forest margins, underbrush, and gully grass. Resource distribution: The plant distributes in the northwest, southwest, and other areas of China.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Notopterygium incisum prefers a cool humid climate, cold resistance, slightly shade tolerance. It is suitable for planting in sandy loam with a deep soil layer, loose soil, good drainage, and rich humus, and is not suitable for planting in low humidity areas.

 Characters of herbs: Rhizome slightly curved, cylindrical, 4~13 cm long, 0.6~2.5 cm in diameter. Apex with stem marks. The surface is brown to black-brown, the peeling part is yellow. Internode shortened, a tight ridge ring, shaped like silkworm; Or section is extended, shaped like a bamboo. Nodes with many punctate or tuberculate protuberant rhizomes and discolored scales. It is light, brittle and easily broken. Cross-section is not level off, there are many cracks, skin yellow-brown to dark brown, oily, brown oil point, wood yellow-white, the ray is obvious, pulp yellow to yellow-brown. Fragrant, slightly bitter and pungent taste. With rhizome thick, have a horizontal section to be like silkworm shape, the surface is brown, section quality is close, many cinnabar dots, the aroma is full-bodied one is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.Antipyretic effect: 2 ml/kg intraperitoneal injection of 2%  volatile oil of Notopterygium Rhizome has an obvious antipyretic effect on rabbits with fever caused by intramuscular yeast injection. ②.Analgesic effect; Intraperitoneal injection of 2% of the volatile oil of Notopterygium Rhizome 10 ml/kg in mice by hot plate method can significantly increase the pain threshold.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel cold, dispel the wind, eliminate dampness, free joints, and relieve pain. It is indicated for wind-cold induced cold with headache, exogenous wind-cold affection, headache without sweat, rheumatism pain, shoulder and back pain, arthritis with fixed pain caused by dampness, edema, sore and ulcer, pyogenic infections, etc.

 Administration of Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii(Qiānɡ Huó): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii(Qiānɡ Huó)
TCM Books: Internally:3~9 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 2~5 qian(about 6~15 grams), or prepare to pill,powder(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams, prepared to pill, powder(CHMM).


 Notopterygium forbesii Boiss.01 (2).Notopterygium forbesii Boiss.:
 Botanical description: The Notopterygium forbesii Boiss., is a plant of the Umbelliferae family and Notopterygium genus, it is commonly known as "Notopterygium forbesii Boiss.", "Notopterygium forbesii", or "Da Tou Qiang Huo", "Fu Shi Qiang Huo", "E Qiang Huo" "Kuan Ye Qiang Huo(Wide leaf Notopterygium)". Perennial herbs, 80~100 cm tall. Have roots. Stem base fuchsia, surface longitudinal groove, glabrous. Hollow, pinnate compound leaf with large lower part of stem, 2-fold or nearly 3-fold, petiole 7~9 cm long, base sheathed, clasping stem; Lobules terminal lobules ovate-lanceolate, 2~4 cm long, 1~2 cm wide, apex acuminate, margin irregular pinnate deep fissures; The leaves on the upper part of the stem are gradually simplified into broad, swollen purple leaf sheaths. Both surfaces glabrous, only slightly hairy on lower veins.

 Notopterygium forbesii Boiss.02 Inflorescences densely covered with numerous flowers, pedicle 1 cm long, involucral bracts numerous, linear, as long or slightly shorter than pedicle; Calyx 5-piece, narrowly triangular; 5 petals, yellow, ovate-lanceolate, 2 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, tapering, inwards; 5 stamens, alternate with petals, anthers elliptic, filaments soft inward bending; Ovary lower, 2 chambers, 2 styles, very short.

 Double overhanging fruit with 6 wings, having wings on the back and middle branches of the fruit, but no wings on the side branches. The joint faces inward. The flowering period and the fruiting period is from July to August.

 Ecological environment: The plant grows in forest margins and thickets with an altitude between 1,700 and 4,500 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the northwest, the upper and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.

 Characters of herbs: Rhizomes cylindrical, apex with stem and leaf sheath residue, roots conical, with longitudinal wrinkles and lenticels; The surface is brown, with a dense ring grain near the root, 8~15 cm long, 1~3 cm in diameter. Some rhizomes thick, irregular nodular shape, the top with many stems base, the root is thin. It is brittle and easily broken. The section is relatively flat, skin ministry is shallow brown, the wood ministry is yellow-white. The smell is lighter.

 
 
References:
  • 1.Introduction of Qiang Huo:Notopterygium Rhizome or Root or Rhizoma seu Radix Notopterygii.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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