Introduction of Qin Jiao:Large-leaf Gentian Root or Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.
Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These dispelling wind-damp herbs are briefly introduced separately:
Pin Yin Name: Qín Jiāo.
English Name: Large-leaf Gentian Root.
Latin Name: Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae.
Property and flavor: neutral, pungent, bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae is the dried root of Gentiana macrophylla Pall.Gentiana straminea Maxim., Gentiana dahurica Fisch.(family Gentianaceae), used (1).to dispel wind-damp, relieve arthralgia and clear consumptive heat for the treatment of wind-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) pain, and also for fever in phthisis, and (2).to remove damp-heat for treating jaundice. The herb is commonly known as Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae, Large-leaf Gentian Root, Qín Jiāo.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics and famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae(Large-leaf Gentian Root) as the dried root of (1).Gentiana macrophylla Pall., (2).Gentiana straminea Maxim., (3).Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk., (4).Gentiana dahurica Fisch. They are plants of the Gentiana. Genus, Gentianaceae family, Gentianales order. These officially defined species and usable species are introduced as:
(1).Gentiana macrophylla Pall.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 20-60 cm tall. Taproots coarsely long, cylindrical, subtersely slender, not straight, with a few branches, middle much ribbed; The rhizome has many fibrous remnant leaf bases. Stems erect or oblique, cylindrical, glabrous. Basal leaves clustered, sessile, leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, up to 40 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, apex apical, entire, 5 main veins; Stem leaves 3-4 pairs, opposite, smaller, base connate. Inflorescence of many integrated terminals and upper axillary stems; Calyx tube one side dehiscent half, calyx teeth shallow; Corolla tubular, deep blue-purple, ca. 2 cm long, apex 5-lobed, 5 short folds between lobes; 5 stamens, inserted in the middle of corolla tube; Ovary oblong, sessile. Capsule oblong or elliptic. Seed elliptic, wingless, brown, lustrous. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from August to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in mountain grasslands, on both sides of streams, on roadside slopes, and in thickets with an altitude of 400~2,400 meters above sea level. The plant distributes in the north, northwest, and southwest of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant Gentiana macrophylla prefers a cool, humid climate, cold resistance. It is suitable to cultivate in loam soil with deep, fertile and rich humus.
Characters of herbs: Root slightly conical, coarsely subserous, 7~30 cm long, 1~3 cm in diameter. The surface is grayish-yellow or brownish yellow, with longitudinal or twisted longitudinal grooves. Root head often bulged, mostly by several rhizomes together, residual stem base has short fibrous leaves basal vascular bundle, the quality is firm, easy to break, section skin yellow or brown-yellow, wood yellow. The smell is special, taste bitter and astringent. The herb with qualitative solid, color brown, thick smell one is better.
Pharmacological actions: ①.Anti-inflammatory effect. ②.Effect on central system:small dose of Gentianine A has a sedative effect. ③.Effect on cardiovascular system, ④.Effect on blood glucose:Gentianine A has the effect of increasing blood glucose in rats and mice, ⑤.Anti-anaphylactic shock and antihistamine effects:Gentianine A can significantly reduce asthma and convulsions caused by histamine spray in guinea pigs, also has a significant protective effect on egg-white anaphylactic shock in rabbits, and can also significantly reduce the capillary permeability in rats. ⑥.Effect on smooth muscle: Gentianine A antagonizes intestinal contraction induced by histamine and acetylcholine. ⑦.Other effects:gentiopicrin has inhibitory effect on plasmodium.
Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dampness, clear dampness and heat, harmonize the blood and free tendons, relieve tendons and channels, clear deficiency heat, clear heat and diuretic, relieve dampness and removing jaundice, stop arthralgia. It is indicated for rheumatism pain, pain of numbness, muscular constricture, jaundice, dampness-heat jaundice, joint ache pain, hemiplegia, afternoon hot flash, infantile malnutrition fever, hemafecia(blood in stool), bone steaming and hot flash, dysuria(difficulty in micturition), etc.
Administration of Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae(Qín Jiāo):
Administration Guide of Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae(Qín Jiāo)
Internally:3~9 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),infusing in wine or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:grinded into powder and apply(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams,or infusing in wine,or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,grinded into fine powder and apply(CHMM).
(2).Gentiana straminea Maxim.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Má Huā Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 10~20 cm tall. The taproots are stout and conical. Basal leaves clustered, sessile, leaves larger, lanceolate, apex acute, entire, 5 main veins, main veins broad, raised abaxially; Stem leaves opposite, smaller. Flowers less into cymes, long peduncle; Calyx tube yellow-green, membranous, dehiscent on one side, calyx teeth 2-5, equal length; Corolla tubular, yellow, funnelform, larynx with most green spots, apex 5-lobed, lobes ovoid; 5 stamens, inserted in lower part of corolla tube; Ovary superior, 1 loculus, with 2 lateral membranous placentas. Capsule, 2 dehiscent petals, ellipsoid lanceolate, stalk 7~12 mm. Seeds brown, shiny, narrow oblong. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting from August to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in high mountains, grasslands, and streams at altitudes of 2,000~5,000 meters above sea level. It distributes in northwest, southwest, middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The root is conical, 8~18 cm long and 1~3 cm in diameter. The lower part of the taprogeny is divided into many branches or most of them are joined together after they are separated from each other. The quality is crisp, easy to break, the section is more decayed. The herb with qualitative solid, color brown, strong smell is better.
(3).Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Cū Jīng Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 20-40 cm tall. The stems are large, most or all of them divided into small roots, twisted together in a right-handed twist. Rhizome with many fibrous remnant leaf bases, stem erect or oblique, cylindrical, glabrous. Basal leaves are clustered, leaves are larger, narrowly elliptic or ellipsoid lanceolate, up to 40 cm long, 4~5 cm wide, apex slightly acute, entire, main veins 5 longitudinal leaves; Stem leaves opposite, smaller. Flower stem stout and short, slightly inclined, flower majority, without peduncle, in the stem top cluster, is a head shape, thin axillary as a wheel shape; Calyx tube dehiscent only on top side, calyx teeth extremely shallow or absent; Floral tube ampulla, 2~2.2 cm long, yellow or blue-purple, ca. 3 cm long, lobes apex slightly pointed, interior spotted; 5 stamens; Ovary oblong, sessile. Capsule, oblong, sessile. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting from September to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in alpine meadows, hillside grasslands, thickets, and forest margins with an elevation of 2,100-4,500 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the northwest, southwest area of China.
Characters of herbs: Roots slightly cylindrical, stout, much branched, rarely twisted, 12~20 cm long, 1~3.5 cm in diameter. Surface yellowish-brown or dark brown, with longitudinal twisting wrinkles; The root has yellowish petiole residue and fibrous basal vascular bundles. Bitter taste, astringent. The herb with qualitative solid, color brown, thick smell one is better.
(4).Gentiana dahurica Fisch.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xiǎo Qín Jiāo. Perennial herbs, 10~25 cm tall. Roots simple or slightly branched, twisted to the left, slender cylindrical, less than 1 cm in diameter. Basal leaves clustered, with many fibrous remnant basal leaves at base; Leaf blade long, narrowly lanceolate, sessile; Cauline leaves smaller, opposite, sessile, linear-lanceolate to linear, 2~5 cm long, 2~4 mm wide, entire. Flowers often numerous or 1~3, terminal, inflorescence in gyrates; Calyx tube usually not dehiscent, thinly lobed on one side; 5 lobes, untidy, linear, apex acuminate; Corolla dark blue; 5 stamens, filaments linear subulate; Ovary oblong, sessile, style linear, stigma 2-lobed. Capsule elliptic, several corolla lengths. The seeds are light brown and shiny. Flowering period: July to August. Fruiting period: September to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in the ridge of fields, roadside, sandy land, sunny slope, and dry grassland with an altitude of 800-500 meters above sea level. The plant distributes in the north, northwest, southwest, and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The root is long spindle-shaped or cylindrical, 8~20 cm long, 2~9 mm in diameter. The surface is yellowish-brown or brown, with longitudinal or twisted grooves, the outer surface is yellow. Root head fine, simple, occasionally bifurcated, surface transversely textured, apex residual stem base and short fibrous leaf sheath. Taproots are usually 1 or divided into several branches. Crisp, easy to break, cross-section yellow and white. Slight smell, taste bitter, astringent. The herb with qualitative solid, color brown, thick smell one is better.
1.Introduction of Qin Jiao:Large-leaf Gentian Root or Radix Gentianne Macrophyllae.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).