Introduction of Wei Ling Xian:Chinese Clematis Root or Radix Clematidis.
✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.
Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.
Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.
✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally  kinds of common TCM herbs,  kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These dispelling wind-damp herbs are briefly introduced separately:
Radix Clematidis(Chinese Clematis Root).
Pin Yin Name: Wēi Línɡ Xiān.
English Name: Chinese Clematis Root.
Latin Name: Radix Clematidis.
Property and flavor: warm, pungent, salty, slight bitter.
Brief introduction: The herb Radix Clematidis is the dried root and rhizome of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, Clematis hexapetala Pall., or Clematic manshurica Rupr.(family Ranunculaceae), used (1).to dispel wind-damp and unblock the collateral meridian for treating wind-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthralgia, and (2).for the dissolution of fishbone stuck in the throat. It is commonly known as Clematis Root, Root of Chinese Clematis, Root of Sixpetal Clematis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Clematidis, Chinese Clematis Root, Wēi Línɡ Xiān.
Botanical source: Official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Clematidis(Chinese Clematis Root) as the dried root and rhizome of (1). Clematis chinensis Osbeck., (2). Clematis hexapetala Pall., (3). Clematis manshurica Rupr. Other common famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Clematidis(Chinese Clematis Root) as the dried root and rhizome of (1). Clematis chinensis Osbeck., (2). Clematis hexapetala Pall., (3). Clematis manshurica Rupr., (4). Clematis meyeniana Walp., (5). Clematis uncinata Champ.ex Benth. They are plants of the Clematis L. genus, Ranunculaceae family, Ranales order. These officially defined species and other usable species are introduced as:
(1).Clematis chinensis Osbeck.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Wēi Línɡ Xiān. Woody vine, 3~10 meters long. When dried, the whole plant turned black. Stem nearly glabrous. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 4.5~6.5 cm; Compound primary feathered, leaflets 5 sometimes 3 or 7; Leaf blade papery, narrowly ovate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate. Or linear-lanceolate, 1.5~10 cm long, 1~7 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, base rounded, broadly cuneate or shallowly cordate, entire, both surfaces subglabrous, or sparsely pubescent below. Inflorescences paniculate, flowery, axillary or terminal; Flowers bisexual, 1~2 cm in diameter; 4 sepals, oblong or obovate, 0.5~1.5 cm long, 1.5~3 mm wide, spreading, white, apex often convex, outer margin densely tomentose, or pubescent in the middle; Petals free; Stamens numerous, unequal, glabrous; Carpels numerous, pilose. Achene oblate, ovate, 3~7 mm long, sparsely appressed pilose, style persistent, feathery, to 2~5 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting from August to November.
Ecological environment: The plant grows at areas with an elevation of 80~150 meters, on the hillside, valley bushes, ditch side roadside grass. The plant distributes in southern Anhui and area of the Huai River, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, the areas of the Hanjiang River, southwest area, and Taiwan of China.
Growth characteristics: The plant Clematis chinensis prefers a warm and humid climate, and is most suitable for cultivation in calcareous soil with humus.
Characters of herbs: Rhizome transverse long, terete, 1.5 minus 10 cm, 0.3~1.5 cm in diameter, most fine roots on both sides and below; The surface is light tan to brown, the skin is often dehiscent and fibrous, the node is raised, the top is often residual xylem base; It is tough and fibrous in section. Roots long cylindrical, slightly twisted, 7~20 cm long, 0.1~0.3 cm in diameter; The surface is brown or dark brown, with fine longitudinal lines, and sometimes the skin is shed and exposed light yellow wood; Qualitative hard and brittle, easy to be broken off, section skin is wider, often have fissure with the wooden part. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.
Pharmacological actions: ①.Analgesic effect: Intraperitoneal injection of 2.5g/kg Radix Clematidis decoction can improve the pain threshold of mice, and the analgesic effect of alcohol prepared Radix Clematidis is strong and lasting. ②.Choleretic effect: 100% Radix Clematidis decoction and 200% alcohol extract can promote bile secretion in rats by intragastric administration of 3~4 ml/kg. Intravenous injection of 200% alcohol extract 0.5~1 ml/kg can rapidly promote bile secretion and relax the sphincter at the end of the common bile duct in anesthetized dogs, which is more conducive to bile secretion.
Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and eliminate dampness, free collaterals, and relieve pain. It is indicated for rheumatic pain, numbness of limbs, the tension of muscles and arteries, bend to stretch disadvantage, bone choking in the throat, beriberi swelling and pain, malaria, phlegm and retained fluid accumulation.
Administration of Radix Clematidis(Wēi Línɡ Xiān):
Administration Guide of Radix Clematidis(Wēi Línɡ Xiān)
Internally:6~9 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 2~3 qian(about 6~9 grams), infusing in wine or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 6~9 grams,or prepared to pill, powder, or infusing in wine.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick, or fumigation wash with water decoction,or prepare to foaming agent(CHMM).
(2).Clematis hexapetala Pall.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Mián Tuán Tiě Xiàn Lián. Herbs erect, 30~100 cm tall. Stem cylindrical, longitudinally furrowed, sparsely pilose, glabrescent. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 0.5~3.5 cm; Leaf blade subleathery, green, often black after dry, 1-dicyclic pinnate deeply lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate, long-elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic or linear, 1.5~10 cm long, 0.1~2 cm wide, apex acute or convex, sometimes obtuse, entire, both surfaces or along veins sparsely villous or subglabrous, reticulate veins protrudent. Cymes terminal or axillary, usually 3-flowered. Sometimes solitary, pedicels pilose; Bracts linear. Flowers bisexual, 2.5~5 cm in diameter; 4~8 sepals, usually 6, oblong or narrowly obovate, 1~2.5 cm long, 0.3~1 cm wide, white, spreading, outer densely white, buds like cotton balls, inner glabrous; Petals free; Stamens numerous, filaments slender, ca. 9 mm long, glabrous, anthers linear; Carpels numerous, white pilose. Achene obovate, flattened, ca. 4 mm long, densely pilose, style persistent, feathery, 1.5~3 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows on a dry hillside, a hillside meadow, or a fixed dune. It distributes in the eastern north, northwest, central, and southern areas of China.
Characters of herbs: Rhizomes short columnar, 1~4 cm long, diameter 0.5~1 cm. Roots small, 4~20 cm long, 0.1~0.2 cm in diameter; Surface is brown to brown-black; Cross-section wood center round small, accounting for root diameter of 1/2 below. Taste salty. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken surface pale is better.
(3).Clematis manshurica Rupr.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Là Liǎo Tiě Xiàn Lián. A climbing vine. Stem and branches glabrous or subglabrous except at nodes with white pilose. Seminiferous compound leaf, leaflet blade entire, subleathery, ovate, long ovate or lanceolate ovate, apex acuminate or acute, rarely obtuse, not concave, glabrous above, reticulate veins conspicuous, subglabrous below. Inflorescences long and erect, up to 25 cm long, peduncle, pedicels subglabrous or slightly pubescent; Sepals outside glabrous or slightly pubescent except at margin tomentose. Achene small, 4~6 mm long. Its is flowering from June to August, fruiting from July to September.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in thickets on hillsides, under mixed timber, or on the edge of woods. It distributes in the north and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: Rhizomes columnar, 1~11 cm long, 0.5~2.5 cm in diameter. Roots numerous, slender and dense as horsetail; The surface is dark brown or brown, with most obvious fine wrinkles; Section leather part white, wood center nearly round, smaller. Spicy taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.
(4).Clematis meyeniana Walp.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Máo Zhù Tiě Xiàn Lián. Wood vine. Old branch cylindrical, with longitudinal stripes, branchlets edge. Leaves opposite; Petiole 4~8 cm; Leaves trifoliate, small leaves subleathery, ovate or ovate-oblong, sometimes broadly ovate, 3~12 cm long, 2~7.5 cm wide, apex acute, acuminate or acute, base rounded, shallowly cordate or broadly cuneate, entire, both surfaces glabrous, veins raised. Inflorescences paniculate axillary or terminal, many-flowered; Usually without persistent bud scales; Bracts small, subulate; Flowers bisexual, 4 sepals, oblong or lanceolate, ca. 10 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide, outer margin tomentose, inner surface glabrous; Petals free; Stamens numerous, glabrous, anthers longer than filaments; Carpels numerous, pilose. Achene sickle narrowly ovate or narrowly obovate, 3~4.5 mm long, pilose, style persistent, feathery, to 2.5 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from August to October.
Ecological environment: The plant grows at areas with an altitude of 250~1,850 meters above sea level, in thin forests on hillsides, roadside bushes or valleys, and streams. The plant distributes in the upper and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, the southwest area, and Taiwan of China.
Characters of herbs: The rhizome and root are similar to the Clematis chinensis Osbeck., and it is difficult to distinguish it from Clematis chinensis Osbeck. Light in taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.
(5).Clematis uncinata Champ.ex Benth.: Botanical description: It is commonly known as Zhù Guǒ Tiě Xiàn Lián. The vine. Stem cylindrical, longitudinally striated, stem and leaves glabrous, often black when dry. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 5~7.5 cm; One to two gyrus pinnate compound leaves, 5~15 leaflets, base 2 pairs often 2-3 lobules; Stem base is single leaf or trifoliate; Leaf blade papery or thinly leathery, broadly ovate, ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3~13 cm long, 1.5~7 cm wide, apex acuminate or acute, occasionally concave, base rounded or broadly cuneate, sometimes shallowly cordate or truncate, entire, two-sided reticulate veins protuberant. Inflorescences paniculate axillary or terminal, many-flowered; Flowers bisexual, 4 sepals, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 1~1.5 cm long, white, spreading, black when dry; Petals free; Stamens numerous, glabrous; Carpels numerous, glabrous. Achene terete subulate, 5~8 mm long, black after drying, glabrous, style persistent, feathery, 1~2 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from July to September.
Ecological environment: The plant grows in mountains, valleys, thickets, and forests at an elevation of 100~1,800 meters. The plant distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, area of the Hanjiang River, the Zhujiang river area, southern Gansu, southwest area, and Taiwan of China.
Characters of herbs: Root surface light brown, longitudinal wrinkles obvious; Cutting section is cutin. Light in taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.
1.Introduction of Wei Ling Xian:Chinese Clematis Root or Radix Clematidis.
2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).