Radix Clematidis(Chinese Clematis Root).

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon06 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.

 
Classifications of Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon 05 Introduction: The Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs are known including:, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

 ✵Till the date Oct 10th,2019, there are totally [22] kinds of common TCM herbs, [47] kinds of related plant species, are recorded in this category. These dispelling wind-damp herbs are briefly introduced separately:

 
Radix Clematidis(Chinese Clematis Root).

 Chinese Clematis Root Brief Introduction: The herb Radix Clematidis is the dried root and rhizome of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, Clematis hexapetala Pall., or Clematic manshurica Rupr.(family Ranunculaceae), used (1).to dispel wind-damp and unblock the collateral meridian for treating wind-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthralgia, and (2).for the dissolution of fishbone stuck in the throat. It is commonly known as Clematis Root, Root of Chinese Clematis, Root of Sixpetal Clematis. The herb is commonly known as Radix Clematidis, Chinese Clematis Root, Wēi Línɡ Xiān.

 ✵Official herbal classics defined the herb Radix Clematidis(Chinese Clematis Root) as the dried root and rhizome of (1). Clematis chinensis Osbeck., (2). Clematis hexapetala Pall., (3). Clematis manshurica Rupr. Other common famous herbal classics defined the herb Radix Clematidis(Chinese Clematis Root) as the dried root and rhizome of (1). Clematis chinensis Osbeck., (2). Clematis hexapetala Pall., (3). Clematis manshurica Rupr., (4). Clematis meyeniana Walp., (5). Clematis uncinata Champ.ex Benth. They are plants of the Clematis L. genus, Ranunculaceae family, Ranales order. These officially defined species and other usable species are introduced as:

 Clematis chinensis Osbeck. (1).Clematis chinensis Osbeck.:  It is commonly known as Wēi Línɡ Xiān. Woody vine, 3~10 meters long. When dried, the whole plant turned black. Stem nearly glabrous. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 4.5~6.5 cm; Compound primary feathered, leaflets 5 sometimes 3 or 7; Leaf blade papery, narrowly ovate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate. Or linear-lanceolate, 1.5~10 cm long, 1~7 cm wide, apex acute or acuminate, base rounded, broadly cuneate or shallowly cordate, entire, both surfaces subglabrous, or sparsely pubescent below. Inflorescences paniculate, flowery, axillary or terminal; Flowers bisexual, 1~2 cm in diameter; 4 sepals, oblong or obovate, 0.5~1.5 cm long, 1.5~3 mm wide, spreading, white, apex often convex, outer margin densely tomentose, or pubescent in the middle; Petals free; Stamens numerous, unequal, glabrous; Carpels numerous, pilose. Achene oblate, ovate, 3~7 mm long, sparsely appressed pilose, style persistent, feathery, to 2~5 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to September, fruiting from August to November.

 Clematis chinensis Osbeck. Ecological environment: the plant grows at area with elevation of 80~150 meters, on hillside, valley bushes, ditch side roadside grass. The plant is distributed in southern Anhui and area of the Huai river, the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, middle reaches area of the Yellow River, areas of the Hanjiang river, southwest area, and Taiwan of China.

 Clematis chinensis Osbeck. Trait identification:Rhizome transverse long, terete, 1.5 minus 10 cm, 0.3~1.5 cm in diameter, most fine roots on both sides and below; The surface is light tan to brown, the skin is often dehiscent and fibrous, the node is raised, the top is often residual xylem base; It is tough and fibrous in section. Roots long cylindrical, slightly twisted, 7~20 cm long, 0.1~0.3 cm in diameter; The surface is brown or dark brown, with fine longitudinal lines, and sometimes the skin is shed and exposed light yellow wood; Qualitative hard and brittle, easy to be broken off, section skin is wider, often have fissure with the wooden part. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.

 Clematis hexapetala Pall. (2).Clematis hexapetala Pall.:  It is commonly known as Mián Tuán Tiě Xiàn Lián. Herbs erect, 30~100 cm tall. Stem cylindrical, longitudinally furrowed, sparsely pilose, glabrescent. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 0.5~3.5 cm; Leaf blade subleathery, green, often black after dry, 1-dicyclic pinnate deeply lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate, long-elliptic-lanceolate, elliptic or linear, 1.5~10 cm long, 0.1~2 cm wide, apex acute or convex, sometimes obtuse, entire, both surfaces or along veins sparsely villous or subglabrous, reticulate veins protrudent. Cymes terminal or axillary, usually 3-flowered. Sometimes solitary, pedicels pilose; Bracts linear. Flowers bisexual, 2.5~5 cm in diameter; 4~8 sepals, usually 6, oblong or narrowly obovate, 1~2.5 cm long, 0.3~1 cm wide, white, spreading, outer densely white, buds like cotton balls, inner glabrous; Petals free; Stamens numerous, filaments slender, ca. 9 mm long, glabrous, anthers linear; Carpels numerous, white pilose. Achene obovate, flattened, ca. 4 mm long, densely pilose, style persistent, feathery, 1.5~3 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from July to October.

 Clematis hexapetala Pall. Ecological environment: the plant grows on a dry hillside, a hillside meadow, or a fixed dune. It is distributed in eastern north, northwest, central and southern, northeast of China.

 Trait identification:Rhizomes short columnar, 1~4 cm long, diameter 0.5~1 cm. Roots small, 4~20 cm long, 0.1~0.2 cm in diameter; Surface is brown to brown-black; Cross-section wood center round small, accounting for root diameter of 1/2 below. Taste salty. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken surface pale is better.

 Clematis manshurica Rupr. (3).Clematis manshurica Rupr.:  It is commonly known as Là Liǎo Tiě Xiàn Lián. A climbing vine. Stem and branches glabrous or subglabrous except at nodes with white pilose. Seminiferous compound leaf, leaflet blade entire, subleathery, ovate, long ovate or lanceolate ovate, apex acuminate or acute, rarely obtuse, not concave, glabrous above, reticulate veins conspicuous, subglabrous below. Inflorescences long and erect, up to 25 cm long, peduncle, pedicels subglabrous or slightly pubescent; Sepals outside glabrous or slightly pubescent except at margin tomentose. Achene small, 4~6 mm long. Its is flowering from June to August, fruiting from July to September.

 Clematis manshurica Rupr. Ecological environment: It grows in thickets on hillsides, under mixed timber or on the edge of woods. It is distributed in China provinces Shanxi, northeast, and other places.

 Trait identification: Rhizomes columnar, 1~11 cm long, 0.5~2.5 cm in diameter. Roots numerous, slender and dense as horsetail; The surface is dark brown or brown, with most obvious fine wrinkles; Section leather part white, wood center nearly round, smaller. Spicy taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.

 Clematis meyeniana Walp. (4).Clematis meyeniana Walp.:  It is commonly known as Máo Zhù Tiě Xiàn Lián. Wood vine. Old branch cylindrical, with longitudinal stripes, branchlets edge. Leaves opposite; Petiole 4~8 cm; Leaves trifoliate, small leaves subleathery, ovate or ovate-oblong, sometimes broadly ovate, 3~12 cm long, 2~7.5 cm wide, apex acute, acuminate or acute, base rounded, shallowly cordate or broadly cuneate, entire, both surfaces glabrous, veins raised. Inflorescences paniculate axillary or terminal, many-flowered; Usually without persistent bud scales; Bracts small, subulate; Flowers bisexual, 4 sepals, oblong or lanceolate, ca. 10 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide, outer margin tomentose, inner surface glabrous; Petals free; Stamens numerous, glabrous, anthers longer than filaments; Carpels numerous, pilose. Achene sickle narrowly ovate or narrowly obovate, 3~4.5 mm long, pilose, style persistent, feathery, to 2.5 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to August, fruiting from August to October.

 Clematis meyeniana Walp. Ecological environment: the plant grows at area with altitude of 250~1,850 meters above sea level in thin forests on hillsides, roadside bushes or valleys and streams. The plant is distributed in the upper and lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and Taiwan of China.

 Trait identification: The rhizome and root are similar to the Clematis chinensis Osbeck., and it is difficult to distinguish it from Clematis chinensis Osbeck. Light in taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.

 Clematis uncinata Champ.ex Benth. (5).Clematis uncinata Champ.ex Benth.:  It is commonly known as Zhù Guǒ Tiě Xiàn Lián. The vine. Stem cylindrical, longitudinally striated, stem and leaves glabrous, often black when dry. Leaves opposite; Petiole length 5~7.5 cm; One to two gyrus pinnate compound leaves, 5~15 leaflets, base 2 pairs often 2-3 lobules; Stem base is single leaf or trifoliate; Leaf blade papery or thinly leathery, broadly ovate, ovate, oblong-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 3~13 cm long, 1.5~7 cm wide, apex acuminate or acute, occasionally concave, base rounded or broadly cuneate, sometimes shallowly cordate or truncate, entire, two-sided reticulate veins protuberant. Inflorescences paniculate axillary or terminal, many-flowered; Flowers bisexual, 4 sepals, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, 1~1.5 cm long, white, spreading, black when dry; Petals free; Stamens numerous, glabrous; Carpels numerous, glabrous. Achene terete subulate, 5~8 mm long, black after drying, glabrous, style persistent, feathery, 1~2 cm long. Its flowering period is from June to July, fruiting from July to September.

 Clematis uncinata Champ.ex Benth. Ecological environment: the plant grows in mountains, valleys, thickets and forests at an elevation of 100~1,800 meters. It is distributed in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, area of the Hanjiang river, Zhujiang river area, southern Gansu, southwest area, and Taiwan of China.

 Trait identification: Root surface light brown, longitudinal wrinkles obvious; Cutting section is cutin. Light in taste. The herb with a uniform, hard, broken complexion pale is better.

 
 

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