Introduction of Xi Xian Cao:Siegesbeckia Herb or Herba Siegesbeckiae.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs.

 TCM Herbs Icon06 Introduction: Dispelling Wind-Damp Herbs: an agent or substance herbs that dispels wind and damp, mainly for relieving rheumatism and related conditions.

 
Herba Siegesbeckiae(Siegesbeckia Herb).

Siegesbeckia Herb Pin Yin Name: Xī Xiān Cǎo.
 English Name: Siegesbeckia Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Siegesbeckiae.
 Property and flavor: cold, pungent, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The Herb Herba Siegesbeckiae is the dried aerial part of Siegesbeckia orientalis L., Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino or Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino(family Compositae), used (1).to dispel wind-damp and unblock collateral meridians for treating wind-damp(rheumatic or rheumatoid) arthralgia, and (2).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating boils, sores, abscesses, and ulcers. The herb is commonly known as Herba Siegesbeckiae, Siegesbeckia Herb, Xī Xiān Cǎo.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Siegesbeckiae(Siegesbeckia Herb) as the dried aerial part of (1). Siegesbeckia orientalis L., (2). Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino., (3). Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino. They are plants of the Siegesbeckia L genus, Asteraceae family, Campanulales order. These commonly used species are introduced as:

 Siegesbeckia orientalis L. (1).Siegesbeckia orientalis L.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem erect, ca. 30~100 cm tall, branches obtuse, upper branches often dizygotic; All branches pale pubescent. Basal leaf flowering withered; Central leaf triangular-ovoid or ovate-lanceolate, 4~10 cm long, 1.8~6.5 cm wide, base broadly cuneate, descending into a winged stalk, apex acuminate, margin regularly lobed or coarsely toothed, papery, green above, pale green below, glandular, both surfaces hairy, basal veins triply, lateral veins and reticulate veins conspicuous; Upper leaves becoming smaller, ovate-oblong, margin shallowly undulate or entire, subsessile.

 Inflorescences 15~20 mm in diameter, mostly clustered at branchlets, arranged into leafy panicles; Pedicels 1.5~4 cm long, densely pubescent; Involucre broadly bell-shaped; Involucral bracts 2-layered, leafy, abaxially covered with purplish-brown capitate stipitate-glandular hairs; 5~6 outer bracts, spatulate or spatulate, spreading, 8~11 mm long, ca. 1.2 mm wide; Inner bracts ovoid oblong or ovoid, ca.5 mm long, ca. 1.5~2.2 mm wide. Outer bracket oblong, inwardly curved, inner bracket obovate-oblong. Flowers yellow; Tube length of female corolla 0.7 mm; Hermaphroditic tubular flowers upper campanulate, upper with 4~5 ovoid lobes. Achene obovate-ovoid, 4-ribbed, tip with grayish-brown annular projections, 3~3.5 mm long, 1~1.5 mm wide. Its flowering period is from April to September, fruiting from June to November.

 Siegesbeckia orientalis L. Ecological Environment: the plant widely distributes in China, Southeast Asia, and North America tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, Europe, Armenia(Caucasus); It distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, the Hanjiang river area, and other regions in China. It grows in mountains, grasslands, thickets, forest margins, and undergrowth at an elevation of 110~2,700 meters. It is also commonly found in cultivated land. The plant is adaptable, but it grows well in a warm and humid environment. Its growth is better in soil rich in humus, fertile, loose sandy soil.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Siegesbeckia orientalis grows wild on the hillside, roadside, wasteland, strong adaptability. It prefers a warm and humid environment, grows well in rich humus fertile clay and noisy loam soil, and has a high yield. Soil moisture should not be high, otherwise easy to cause root rot. A low-lying, waterlogging area is not suitable for cultivation.

 Characters of herbs: Stem slightly square, much-branched, 30~110 cm long, 0.3~1 cm in diameter. Surface is grayish-green, yellow-brown or purple-brown, longitudinal groove and fine longitudinal lines, by gray pilose; Section prominent, slightly enlarged; Brittle, easily broken, cross-section yellow-white or greenish, pith broad, like white, hollow. Leaves opposite, wrinkled, curly, ovate, grayish-green, margin obtuse, white pilose on both sides, main veins 3. Some yellow heads, involucre spatulate. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste.

 Pharmacological actions: The herb has an anti-inflammatory effect, antihypertensive effect, and vasodilation effect, has an inhibitory effect on cellular immunity and humoral immunity, has a certain inhibitory effect on non-specific immunity, has an inhibitory effect on thrombosis, has an antibacterial and antimalarial effect, a-tocopherol has an antioxidant effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispel wind and dampness, strengthen muscles and bones, free meridians and channels, lower blood pressure, clear heat and detoxify. It is indicated for the treatment of quadriplegia, rheumatic arthralgia, aching muscles and bones, weakness in waist and knees, malaria, acute hepatitis, jaundice, hypertension, malignant boils, carbuncle, sore, urticaria wet sores, traumatic bleeding, insect and beast bites.

 Administration of Herba Siegesbeckiae(Xī Xiān Cǎo): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Siegesbeckiae(Xī Xiān Cǎo)
TCM Books: Internally:9~12 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction, 3~4 qian(about 9~12 grams),big dosage 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams),extract juice or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick, grinded into fine powder and apply,or fumigation wash with water decoction(DCTM),Internally:water decoction, 9~12 grams, big dosage could be 30~60 grams, extract juice or prepare to pill,powder.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick,or grinded into fine powder and apply,or fumigation wash with water decoction(CHMM).


 Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino (2).Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Xiàn Gěng Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem erect, stout, 30~110 cm tall, upper much-branched, spreading grayish villous and hispid. Basal leaves ovate-lanceolate, flowering withered; Middle leaf ovoid or ovate, spreading, 3.5~12 cm long, 1.8~6 cm wide, base broadly cuneate, descending into a winged stalk 1~3 cm long, apex acuminate, margin with pointed regular or irregular coarse teeth; Upper leaves becoming smaller, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate; All leaves dark green above, pale green below, 3-veined basal, lateral veins and reticulate veins conspicuous, both surfaces flattened pubescent, villous along veins.

 Inflorescences ca. 18~22 mm in diameter, mostly branched, arranged in loose panicles; Pedicels longer, dense purple-brown head with stipitate-glandular hair and villous; Involucre campanulate; Involucral bracts 2 layers, leaflike, abaxially densely purplish-brown head with stipitate-glandular hairs, outer layer linear spatulate or broadly linear, 7~14 mm long, inner layer ovoid oblong, 3.5 mm long. Ligulate flower corolla tube 1~1.2 mm long, ligulate apex 2-3 lobed, sometimes 5 lobed; Bisexual tubular flowers ca. 2.5 mm long, coronal campanulate, apex 4~5 lobed. Achene obovate-ovoid, 4-ribbed, tip with grayish-brown annular projections. Its flowering period is from May to August, fruiting from June to October.

 Siegesbeckia pubescens Makino Ecological Environment: The plant grows on the slope, the edge of the valley forest, the lawn under the thickets forest, the wet place of the valley, the streamside, the river channel, the wilderness, the farmland side and so on are also common, the altitude is 160~3,400 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, the Hanjiang river area, and other areas of China.

 Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino. (3).Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino.:
 Botanical description: It is commonly known as Máo Gěng Xī Xiān Cǎo. Annual herbs. Stem erect, slender, 30~80 cm tall, usually upper branched, appressed pubescent, sometimes upper densely hairy.

 Basal leaf flowering withered; Middle leaves ovoid, triangular-ovoid or ovoid-lanceolate, 2.5~11 cm long, 1.5~7 cm wide, base broadly cuneate or obtuse, sometimes descending into winged stalks 0.5~6 cm long, apex acuminate, margin regularly toothed; Upper leaves gradually smaller, ovate-lanceolate, 1 cm long, 0.5 cm wide, margin sparsely toothed or entire, sessile or sessile; Both surfaces of all leaves pilose, 3-veined, veins slightly protuberant below.

 Siegesbeckia glabrescens Makino. Inflorescence 10~18 mm in diameter, most of the inflorescence arranged in branches into an evacuated panicle; Pedicels slender, sparsely pubescent. Involucre campanulate; Involucral bracts 2-layered, leafy, abaxially densely covered with purplish-brown capitate stipitate-glandular hairs; Outer bracts 5, linear spatulate, 6-9 mm long, inner bracts obovate-oblong, 3 mm long. Stipules obovate-oblong, abaxially sparsely capitate with stipitate-glandular hairs. Tube of female corolla ca. 0.8 mm long, bisexual corolla upper campanulate, apex 4~5 dentate lobed. Achene obovate, 4-arrowed, ca. 2.5 mm long, grayish-brown ringed. Its flowering period is from April to September, fruiting from June to November.

 Ecological Environment: The plant grows on the roadside, wilderness, grassland, and hillside thickets, at an elevation of 300~1,000 meters above sea level. It distributes in the lower reaches area of the Yangtze River, the Zhujiang river area, southwest area, and other areas of China. It also distributes in some other areas of East Asia.
 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xi Xian Cao:Siegesbeckia Herb or Herba Siegesbeckiae.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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